The Unadisutras in Various Recensions: The Unadisutras With The Vrtti of Svetavanavasin (Part I) - An Old and Rare Book
The text of the Unadisutras in various recensions has been published in four parts. The Unadisutras from one of the Supplements to the study of Sanskrit Grammar in all its systems. Every systems of Sanskrit Grammar has its Unadisutras of many of these systems have got authoritative commentaries by eminent writers
The most popular of the several sets of the several sets of Unadisutras is the one that has been commented upon by Ujjvaladatta, Bhattoji Diksita and others. This is the most favoured Unadi as it belongs to the system of Panini.
The Department of Sanskrit in the University of Nadras has very great pleasure in issuing the Unadi-sutras in their various recensions, and with various commentaries, as No. 7 in the Series. Aufrecht's critical edition of the Unadis with the commentary of Ujjvaladatta is out of print and not available. The edition by Jivanandavidyasagar, Calcutta, of the Unadis with the commentary of Ujjvaladatta is very defective, and does not serve the purpose of scholars, there being no index and other supplementary matter in the edition; the edition is, further, full of mistakes and very badly got up. The Unadiswith Vrtti of Bhattoji Diksita has been printed in all the editions of the Siddhantakaumudi, but without any index. Now, for the first time, the Sanskrit Department of the Madras University has undertaken to bring out the Unadisutras in the various recension in a critical edition. Mr. T. R. Chintamani, the Senior Lecturer of the Department, who is editing the work, has spared no pains to make the edition as comprehensive and thorough as possible. He has collected manuscripts from all possible sources and he has utilised the material so collected with great care and attention. The book now issued is the first part of the edition of the Unadis. The work when finished, will run into seven parts; but considering the importance of the Unadis in the History of Sanskrit Language and Literature, no apology is needed for undertaking such a voluminous work.
This edition of the Unadisutras with the commentary of Svelavanasin is based on the following manuscripts:-
A. This is a manuscript copy of the work in paper, extending from the beginning to the end of IV-110. Library, Madras, and bears No, T-4-245.
B. This is also in paper, and is complete. This too belongs to the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, and is numbered T-3-142. This manuscript shows after IV-146 several variations as compared with C.
C. This copy in paper belongs to the Office of the Curator for the Publication of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Trivandrum. This agrees with A and is complete.
In editing this work I have had the valuable advice of my Professor, Mahamahopadhyaya Vidyavacaspati Darsanakalanidhi S. Kuppuswami Sastri, M.A., I.E.S. Professor of Sanskritand Comparative Philology, Presidency College, Madras and Curator Government Oriental Mss. Library, Madras, to whom I always look forward for the solution of the many difficult problems that arise in the course of any work that is undertaken by me. Brahmasri S.K. Padmanabha Sanstrigal of the Presidency College, Madras, read through the work carefully and corrected the proof in spite of many inconveniences. But for his scholarly help several errors would have been left uncorrected, and I cannot adequately thank him. Dr. C. Kunhan Rja, M.A., D. Phil (Oxon.) and Brahmasri S. K. Ra,anatha Sastri, my colleagues in office, have been offering me valuable suggestions and helping me at every stage during the printing of this work. Brahmasri S. K. Ramanatha Sastri read through the proofs in addition. I take this opportunity to express my grateful thanks for the help rendered. I should be failing in my duty id I were to omit to record my obligations to the Curator of the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, The Director of the Adyar Library, Madras, and the Curator for the Publication of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Trivandrum for placing at my disposal the manuscripts in their possession and enabling me to proceed with the work. I should also thank the Hindi Prachar Press for having done the printing to my satisfaction.
The text of the Unadisutraas with the commentary of svetavanavasin, now issued for the first time, forms the first of a series of publications on the Unadisutras in their various recensions. The Unadisutras, we all know, form one of the supplements to the study of Sanskrit Grammar in all its systems. Every system of Sanskrit Grammar has its Unadistras, and many of them remain unpublished. And the Unadisutras of many of these systems have got authoritative commentaries by eminent writers. A number of such sets of Unadisutras are being edited, with such commentaries are available.
The most popular of the several sets of Unadisutras is the one that has been commented upon by Ujjvaladatta, Bhatoji Diksita, and others. This is the most favoured Unadi, as it belongs to the system of Panini. The commentary of Svetavanasin, now issued, is on this text.
The authorship of this text is a question o dispute and scholars disagree. The question will be discussed in entirety when we deal with Unadi literature in general in the last part of this series. Suffice it to say now that the author of the present commentary regards Sakatayana as the author of the Unadisutras of the Paniniyan School. He says:-
The recension which Svetavana comments consists of 750 sutras distributed into five padas as follows:-
Ujjvaladatta has the same number of sutras but they are distributed in a different ,manner with the following differences:-
These and other particulars regarding the test of the sutras will be made clear in the general introduction.
One point regarding the text has to be mentioned here. Pages 235-237 of this work consist of 14 sutras, intended to explain the origin of the Sanskrit alphabet. Who is responsible for these is clear. Ujjvaladatta has not noticed the sutras. Bhattoji Diksita and his followers do not seem to be aware of them. On the other hand there is clear evidence showing that they are much older than Bhattoji, for Narayana, the author of the Prakritasarva, comments on these sutras, in the same manner as his predecessor Svetavanavasin does.
The author of the commentary that is now published calls himself Gargya Svetavanavasin , son of Aryabhatta, who was well versed in Dharma Sastra. He tells us that he was born in the village of Uttarameru and that he lived in an agrahara very near Indugram. The Uttarameru is very probably identical with the village of the same name in the Chingleput District of the Madras Presidency. Indugrama cannot be identified at present. It is not known in which part of India the Indugrama is situated. It is not unlikely that this village lies some where in the vicinity of Utaramerur. From the fact that the commentary was found only in Malabar, it may not be unreasonable to seek for it in Malabar also. Except Narayana Bhatta, the author of the Prakritasar-vasva, no other writer seems to have used the commentary of Svetavana.
Regarding the date of the author, all that we know is that he is earlier than the author of the Prakriyasarvasva. Narayana refers to a vritti on the Unadisutras in several places and all the references are traceable to the Vritti of Svetavana. The date of Narayana is known definitely to be the latter half of the 16th century. The lower limit of the date of Svetavanavasin is therefore the middle of that century.
The earlier limit is hard to fix. Among the writers referred to by the author, Halayudha and Kaiyata are the latest. Halayudha belonged to the end of the 10th century and Kaiyata belonged to the ssame period or was slightly later. Thus we find Svetavana should have flourished after the 10th and before the 16th century. Ujjvaladatta's is one of the well-known commentaries on the Unadi and Svetavana does not refer to him; nor does Ujjvaladatta seem to notice Svetavana. Svetavana refers to other commentaries in a number of places and among them we are able to trace the views of Ujjvaladatta. But this does not warrant the conclusion that Ujjvaladatta is older, for other commentators also held similar views. All that may be safely said here is that certain writers who preceded Svetavana held views from which both he and Ujjvaladatta differed and which at a later stage were upheld other commentators. It is therefore difficult to say whether Svatavana preceded Ujjvaladatta or otherwise.
A word has to be said regarding the commentary itself. It has come so to say in two difference recensions. Up to IV-147, no important difference is noticeable but from there we find an almost different text. The difference was so great that both texts had to be printed, one below the other, On page 181 we find in the text printed above in the commentary IV.156, etc, and nearly the same is found in the text printed below. Again in the commentary on IV-177 find the statement etc, and the same views is found stated in the commentary printed below. Similarly, the commentary on IV-191 forms another instance. Thus the text as printed below gives room for much suspicion.
On Page 212 we find seven sutras with commentary printed below and missing in the portion printed above. In the Prakriyasarvasva these sutras are cited but not commented upon and the author remarks that these sutras are not met with in any commentary and hence they have not been commented upon by him. On the other hand we find them commented upon in the text as printed below on pages 212-213. It was already said that the author of the Prakriyasarvasva used the work of Svetavana. It stands to reason therefore to suppose that some one has perhaps incorporated these sutras at some later stage with notes of his own, the Commentary of Svetana.
|Unadisutras with the vrtti of Svetavanasin||1-236|
|Index of works and authors referred to||1|
|Index of quotations||2-8|
|Note on some quotations||9|
|Index of Sutras||10-20|
|Index of words||21-46|
Item Code: NAL100 Author: T. R. Chintamani Cover: Hardcover Edition: 1992 Publisher: University of Madras ISBN: 8170130944 Language: Sanskrit Only Size: 9.5 inch X 6.5 inch Pages: 325 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 615 gms