There are three categories of performing therapy: mild, rough and rigorous. Mild therapy involves compresses, fomentation and massage. Rough therapy included bloodletting, moxibustion and minor surgery. Rigorous therapies consist of incision, excision, scraping and extraction.
Surgical instruments include probes, forceps, lancets, stylets and other auxiliary instruments.
Probes are used for exploring cranial bone fractures and excision of hemorrhoids. Probing instruments are round, thin and smoothly polished for cranial exploration. For hemorrhoids there are a series of tubular probes with lateral openings for examination and incision.
Forceps include lion mouth forceps, kite-beaked forceps and crow-beaked forceps. They are used for extracting foreign bodies from muscle tissues and ligaments.
Lancets are used mainly for incision into muscle tissue and for puncturing vessels to cause bleeding. They include the sparrow-feather-shaped lancet used the curved lancet, and the sickle-shaped lancet used to incise tongue swellings.
Stylets are used to make punctures to release fluids or vapors from various part of the body. They include hollow surgical stylets the frog-shaped stylet, and the reed-nib-shaped stylet.
Auxiliary instruments include two medical two medical saws a sharp medical knife, trephine and uterine stylets, snake-head-shaped stylets and catheter instruments. All are made from the finest iron, copper, and gold and are well polished. They come in different shapes and lengths.
Very few of these are used, as in Tibetan medicine performing surgery is a last resort when treating a patient.