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Books > Ayurveda > The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-III)
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The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-III)
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-III)
Description
From the Jacket

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India is the legal document of standards for the quality of drugs, substances and preparations included therein (under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940). This 3rd Volume consists of 100 monographs of single drugs of plant origin. Pharmacognostical, chemical and ayurvedic standards of the parts of the plants used in Ayurveda are described in detail in each monograph.

One monograph is exclusively devoted to the one part of the drug of plant origin which describes the macroscopic, microscopic characters along with their chemical standards on the protocol developed and designed by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee. It deals in detail about the permissible limits of foreign matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and chromatographic pattern of TLC. All this work was carried out in Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad. The data has been finalised after confirmation of various samples obtained from different agro climatic conditions by the cross- section of experienced scientists in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee after careful scientific scrutiny. These standards have been consciously kept modest so that its implementation by the manufacturing companies becomes easily acceptable in order to maintain their quality control and avoid batch-to-batch variations.

Ayurvedic pharmacological properties like Rasa, Guna, Virya,Vipaka, Karma etc. are also mentioned in each monograph along with their therapeutic uses, some of the important classical formulations and therapeutic dose.

Appendix of this volume contains the details of the protocols used in determination of various scientific standards. References of ancient Ayurvedic literature in its original form are an added attraction in order to authenticate the Ayurvedic statements made in each and every monograph. In the end English equivalents of Ayurvedic terms have been given to make the volume more useful for the people who are not conversant with Sanskrit Ayurvedic terminologies.

In general, this book is more user friendly for scientists involved in drug quality testings of Ayurveda medicines, teachers of Dravyaguna, research scholars, physicians, students of Ayurveda and many others who have interest in Ayurvedic medicines.

Foreword

The demand for Ayurvedic and plant-based medicines is growing rapidly within the country as well as abroad. The use of quality drugs is of a paramount importance which will increase the faith of the users in this system. The Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare appreciated the need to prescribe quality standards for Ayurveda drugs and the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 was amended in 1964 to bring within its purview the drugs of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems of medicine. For the implementation of the Drug Act and the Rules there under, it was considered necessary to work out standards for establishing the quality of these drugs. The Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad has been constantly engaged since 1970 in developing standards of quality, purity and strengths for Ayurvedic drugs. This laboratory is guided by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee (APC) having experts of Ayurveda, Pharmacognosy, Chemistry and Pharmacy. On the advice of APC, the Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM) has been carrying out scientific work to generate data on various monographs of drugs.

With continuous efforts of APC and PLIM, two volumes of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India and two volumes of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, containing 158 monographs have been published. The third volume of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia comprising of 100 monographs on single drugs of plant origin is now being brought out. This is work of continuous nature and will be followed up in subsequent volumes also. To prepare the third volume, painstaking efforts have been made by PLIM and APC. We now have standards available for 258 drugs of plant origin used in Ayurveda.

I would like to put on record my appreciation to the Chairman and Members of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, the organizations which have supplied authentic samples of crude drugs and the staff of the Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine(PLIM) and technical staff of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee (APC), the technical officers of the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy, National Institute of Science Communications(NISCOM) (publication division of CSIR) and all those who have joined hands in our efforts to bring out this volume.

I am aware that there will always be room for improvement. Suggestions and comments from experts working in this field are welcome as this will help us in bringing out improved versions in the subsequent editions.

Preface

India, due to its unique variety of geographical and climatic factors, has had a rich and varied flora of medicinal plants since the Vedic period. No wonder that out of a total number of over 15,000 plant species in India about 2000 are known to have medicinal properties and some of them are even used as home-remedies in the rural and remotest parts of the country.

2. The vastness of the country with its inadequate means of communication and facilities for transport of drugs coupled with diverse regional languages, resulted into a multitude of synonyms (the names in regional languages). Further, Ayurveda being a science put into professional practice on umpteen occasions to try newer drugs locally available, led to the successful use of several other drugs with therapeutic values similar to those of he drugs which were originally equated with the classical Ayurvedic drug, but later assumed the name of the very same classical drug and continued to be locally collected, sold and used in that name since the main classical drug was famous yet locally unavailable and substitution was a necessity. Later, in the first half of the century, while scientifically identifying the drugs in vogue in different regions, the scientists found that there were more than one species, belonging even to different families of plants, claiming the same classical name of the Ayurvedic drug. ‘Brahmi’ could be cited as a good example. This created a sensation that there existed a great controversy about the identity of Ayurvedic drugs and that there were more than one independent drug’ claiming the classical name of drug and one drug therefore, having different scientific identities. This innocent impression of scientists was further exaggerated during the alien rule to run down the claim of Ayurveda as a cultural heritage of India out of patriotism. All such drugs with a multiple claim on the classical name in different provinces were stamped as controversial drugs without going into their genesis basically as therapeutic equivalents.

3. Ayurveda had never been static. Its practitioners had been innovative and dynamic in the therapeutic practice and carried on clinical trials out of the local flora and discovered newer medicine with same therapeutic values as the classical drugs which might have been then either locally un-available or perhaps demanding heavy prices. These newer drugs have been accepted by the then practicing profession as substitutes. In fact on study of Ayurvedic literature, one comes across several references of permitting the use of a substitute drug when the classical drug is not available. This is based on its therapeutic equivalence and clinical efficacy.

4. Then there were certain classical drugs of Himalayan origin whose supply was limited and seasonal. They were not, or perhaps could not be, grown on plains and hence their use was restricted to the traders. By the time efforts were made to identify these drugs, their supply had dwindled and commercial substitution started these few drugs were rightly stamped as “Sandigdha Dravyas” (or drugs of doubtful identity) of which ‘Ashta Varga’ could be cited as a glaring example.

5. It was again during the last 100 years of the alien rule that the social and economic conditions in India changed, that the process of urbanisation began and growth of forests neglected. It was during this period that the Ayurvedic physicians took to cities and lost their contact with forests and drug sources. It was during this period that as a consequence of better transport facilities, the crude drug supplying agencies came up and commercial manufacture of Ayurvedic Medicines on mass scale in factories started these were the inevitable consequences of the socio-economic changes in the country. The new economic set up was such that the Ayurvedic practitioner could no longer process and prepare his own medicines but had to depend on the big pharmaceutical houses run commercially and on the suppliers of crude drugs to whatever extent he needed them. There was, in a way, a forced division of labour where he had no choice but to purchase his drugs and no means to ascertain the authenticity of the medicines and formulations offered to him by the pharmaceutical houses, nor was there any Governmental control on the manufacture to ensure the quality of the medicines marketed, prescribed and administered to his patient.

6. The conditions prevailing in India for compilation of Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia were quite discouraging under the alien rule. Not only no efforts were made to investigate the efficacy and potency of Ayurvedic drugs, but there was also a systematic policy to discourage such moves and project Ayurveda as an out-dated and unscientific native system of treatment. Its drugs were poblicised to be crude, poisonous and detrimental to health. The influence of this canard unfortunately still continues to lurk in some quarters. It was under these circumstances that some of the rationalist Indian Scientists and Scholars of Ayurveda dedicated themselves to the renaissance of Ayurveda. It was a part, of the overall movement of independence of the country. But it gave the necessary momentum and after independence, not only Ayurvedic education but Ayurvedic drugs and their marketing were looked into.

7. As an outcome of the first Health Minister’s Conference of 1946, a Committee under the Chairmanship of Lt. Col. RN. Chopra was appointed in 1946 by the Government of India. It was the Chopra Committee that had first gone into the question of need for proper identification of Ayurvedic medicinal plants, control over collection and distribution of crude drugs and made positive recommendation for compilation of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Thereafter, the Dave Committee (1955) reiterated the recommendations for compilation of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

8. The Government of Bombay was specially interested in the survey of resources of Ayurvedic Drugs, their collection, cultivation, farming, distribution and standardization. They, therefore had appointed a Committee for Standard and Genuine Ayurvedic herbs and Drugs in 1955 and subsequently after receiving its report with fresh set of terms of reference, appointed a second committee called the Committee for Standard Ayurvedic Herbs and Drugs in 1957 both under the Chairmanship of Vaidya Bapalal Shah, of which I had the privilege to be the Member Secretary. The Bapalal Committee has very elaborately recommended the compilation of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an urgent prerequisite for effective control of Ayurvedic Drugs to ensure quality assurance. Finally Government of India appointed the “Ayurvedic Research Evaluation Committee”, under the Chairmanship of Dr. K.N. Udupa (1958) which had strongly highlighted the urgency of the compilation of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

9. In compliance with some of these recommendations, the Union Government as also some of the State Governments had started taking positive steps. The Government of Bombay State established its Board of Research in Ayurveda, Bombay in 1951, which was subsequently reconstituted in 1955 and 1958. The Government of India established CCRIMH in 1969 for research in all aspects including drug standardisation in Indian Medicine & l4omoeopathy. This Council was divided into 4 research councils in 1978 and the research work in Ayurveda and Siddha was entrusted to the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. The PLIM, at Ghaziabad was established in 1970 for testing and standardisation of single drugs and compound formulations. Under the auspices of the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. Several survey units in different Slates were established and work of standardisation of single drugs and compound medicines as also composite research work was initiated. The first Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee was constituted in 1962 under the Chairmanship of Col. Sir Ram Nath Chopra. The Committee was reconstituted in 1972 under the Chairmanship of Prof. A.N. Namjoshi which took over the work of compilation of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India as a pre-requisite for under taking the work of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

10. Alter publication of the First and the Second part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part III of the Formulary is under preparation. A list of single drugs which enter into the formulations has been prepared and the Committee could now apply its mind to the task of collection of data from published material and to entrust experimental work to produce data necessary to supplement the information already available as well as to vei-i1’ experimentally some of the information previously gathered.

11. The First and Second Part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India comprising of some 444 and 191 formulations respectively cover more than 351 single drugs of plant origin. This takes up about 500 priority drugs of plant origin to come within the ambit of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

12. As against the above land-marks of growing interest in the renaissance of Ayurveda and systematic efforts to investigate into the merits of this ancient science during the post-independence period it is interesting to note that the western or modem system of medicine with a formidable armoury of mostly synthetic drugs, chemo-therapeutic agents and later antibiotics, slowly realised that they also had adverse side effects and toxicity which would damage human systems. The western world slowly started appreciating the value of herbal medicines, and understanding the basic comprehensive philosophy of Ayurveda, which initially appeared to be rather abstract and difficult to interpret in terms of modern medical sciences.

13. With the introduction of a uniform system of Ayurvedic education all over the country, a process initiated some 50 years ago, there would be some uniformity in the Ayurvedic medicines marketed, in so far as their identity, purity and strength are concerned, with the physician and the patient needing to be assured of the quality of the medicine through proper drug control measures. The efforts to publish an Ayurvedic Formulary of India and to compile the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India have been well scheduled as to serve the profession and the public through proper quality assurance.

14. The Union Government has brought the Ayurvedic Drugs under the preview of the Drugs and Cosmetic Act 1940 from 15-9-1964. The publication of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India would give Government a base for fuller enforcement of the Act in respect of standards.

15. In the absence of technical information officially published by Government for statutory purposes, the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry in general and the Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Industry in particular have been experiencing a great handicap in imposing standards as a part of their own internal discipline, as whatever standards they would lay down would be only arbitrary and subjective.

16. To meet the acute need of the hour felt by the academic institutions, the Ayurvedic Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Industry and the authorities, implementing Drugs and Cosmetics Act, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee has made a modest effort to lay down earlier some norms of single drugs based on experimental data worked out at the PLIM, Ghaziabad and some of the units of the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, supplemented by the published scientific literature on the subject after due verification wherever found necessary and additions wherever possible.

17. The Western countries did pass through this phase years ago and had to codil5’ their medicine and their characteristics, methods of preparation and determining criteria of their identity, purity and strength. Endeavors to determining the above were made by researchers all over the world and out of this common pool of scientific data the pharmacopoeial monographs of single drugs and formulations were drafted. And the result of these efforts are the several pharmacopoeias of the modem world with considerable commonness of approach and information. Thus, while for compilation of the modern pharmacopoeia universal need of information and scientific data was available, for the compilation of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia little information and published data existed and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee had to begin from scratch.

18. While incorporating the experimental data like macroscopic and microscopic pharmacognostic descriptions and chemical norms, one must admit that modern pharmacognosy had its genesis in Texts of Ayurvedic Nighantus where entire drug and drug plant have been minutely studied and eloquent Sanskrit terms used to describe the parts of plant so that it projects a convincing picture of the drug and the drug plant before the reader. The description of the Castor oil plant — (Ricinus communis Linn.) given by Bhavprakash and of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Wild). Miers.) are typical examples. Thus when we insist on the pharmacognostic study of each drug, we are really extending and expanding Ayurvedic Pharmacognosy.

19. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part—I, Vol—I comprises of 80 monographs of Ayurvedic single drugs of plant origin, which go into one or more formulations enlisted in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part I. In compiling the monographs, the title of each drug had been given in Sanskrit as already obtained in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Then comes the definition of the drug giving its identify in scientific nomenclature and very brief information about its source, occurrence, distribution and precautions in collection if any, etc.

20. This is followed by a list of synonyms in Sanskrit and also the other Indian regional languages. The monographs then record the detailed gross or Microscopic description of the drug and its Microscopic tissue structures, the individual elements, deposition of crystals, starch grains, hairy out growths etc, each having a pharmacognostic value in identification, especially when the drug is in powder form.

21. The monograph then gives norms and limits under “Identity, Purity and Strength” like tolerance of foreign matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive volatile oil contents etc. Some of them have a direct bearing on the purity and strength, while others enable to detect substitution or adulteration, if any. Where possible, Assay of one constituent or group of constituents like total alkaloids or total volatile oils has been given. However, under the heading ‘Constituents’ one or more constituents or group of constituents like oleoresins, essential oils, alkaloids have been mentioned which only have an informative value based on published research work in phytochemistry. In the case of water soluble or alcohol soluble extractives specification of lower limit has an added relevance to the maturity of the drug in addition to its authenticity. It will however, be worth mentioning that there is always a wide variation in crude drugs (raw materials) of plant origin in respect of their chemical contents, due to varied climatic conditions, geographical distribution, source and season of collection and lack of scientific methods of storage and preservation. Therefore, the variation in the chemical data created a great difficulty in fixing the standards for single drugs. However, the data has been fixed up by working out as many samples as possible procured from different sources.

22. Since the effort is to compile pharmaeopoeial monographs of Ayurvedic drugs, the accent of the classical attributes of respective drugs according to the doctrine of Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Karma has not been lost sight of, though some of them appear to be abstract and subjective in the absence of an established experimental methods to quantify them.

23. The Legal Notices and General Notices have been given for guidance of the analysts, the Pharmaceutical suppliers and manufactures and the research workers engaged in this field Details about the apparatus, reagents and solutions, tests, methods of preparation of speciments for microscopical examinations have been given in the Appendices.

24. The Committee hopes that with the publication of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part I, Vol.11 comprising of 78 single drugs of vegetables origin, as per the format and procedure laid don the different research units under Deptt. of ISM & H under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare would plan their research enquiries such that the output of work would be accelerated. At the same time, these 78 drugs would provide basic information and norms about these drugs to those research institutions which would be interested in an in-depth study of these drugs, the outcome of which might provide further data for incorporation to the extent it would be relevant to the second edition of the pharmacopoeia.

25. The Committee urges the Government of India to recommend the adoption of these monographs for the purposes of identity, purity and strength of drugs for use in their Government, Semi- Government and Government aided institutions and voluntary public organisations. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1998, Part-I, Vol 11 may also be notified by Government as a book of reference for implementation of the drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1944) all over India as Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Vol. I is already included in the First Schedule of Drugs & Cosmitis Act 1940.

26. On behalf of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, I feel it my duty to place on records our sincere thanks and appreciation to the Government of India, State Governments, Institutions, Councils, Scientists and Ayurvedic. Scholars for their whole hearted co-operation in preparing the monographs on Single Drugs. I thank all members of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee without whose co-operation this volume would not have seen the light of day. My thanks to Dr. S.K. Sharma, Adviser (Ayurveda), and Member Secretary of A.P.C., Ms. Savita Satakopan and Prof. S.S. Handa, Senior Member of A.P.C, Dr. M.L. Sharma and Dr. A.M. Joshi, Dr. Advisers (Ayurveda) and Dr. J. Pandey. Asstt. Advisor (Ay.) for their constant efforts to bring out this volume.

Dr. R.U. Ahmad, Director, PLIM, Ghaziabad and his colleagues viz. Dr. P.C. Srivastava, Sr. Scientific Officer (Chem), Dr. Rajeev Kumar Sharma, Senior Scientific Officer (Pharmacognosy), Shri N.S. Mahara, R.O. (Phg.) Dr. Jai Prakash, R.O. (Chem.), Shri B.B. Prasad, R.A. (Botany), Shri C.Arunachalam, R.A. (Botany) deserve my special thanks for this endeavor. The technical staff of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee for preparing the Ayurvedic portion of the Pharmacopoeia viz; Dr. Chhote Lal, A.K.S. Bhadoria, Dr. M.N. Ragne, Mr. Padam Kumar, Mr. Ashok Kumar and Mr. O.P. Kholi Section Officer (APC) and also other officers who have done a wonderful job in convening the meeting of the committee and completion of this work also deserve my sincere thanks. Lastly I remember the efforts of late Prof. A.N. Namjoshi former chairman of A.P.C. who initiated this a decade before but could be completed by the present pharmacopoeia committee in the year 2000.

Contents

Legal Notices ix
General Notices xi-xiv
Preface xv-xix
Introduction xxi-xxxiii
Monographs
1. Adhaki (Rt.)- Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. 1-2
2. Agnimantha (Rt.)- Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. 3-4
3. Ambasthaki (Rt.)- Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. 5-6
4. Amra (Sd.)- Mangifere indica Linn 7-8
5. Amra (St.Bk.)- Mangifere indica Linn. 9-10
6. Amrata (St.) – Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.) Kurz. 11-12
7. Apamarga (Rt.)- Achyranthes aspera Linn. 13-14
8. Aralu (St.Bk.)- Ailanthus ex celsa Roxb. 15-16
9. Arka (St.Bk.)- Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. 17-18
10. Asana (St.Bk.)- Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. 19-20
11. Asthisamhrta (St.)- Cissus quadrangularis Linn. 21-22
12. Atmagupta (Sd.)- Mucuna prurita Hook.23-24
13. Bharngi (Rt.)- Cherodendrum serratum Linn. 25-26
14. Bijapura (Fr.Frt.)- Citrus medica Linn. 27-28
15. Bilva (Rt.)- Aegle marmelos Corr. 29-31
16. Bimbi (W.P.)- Coccinia indica W.&A. 32-35
17. Cangeri (W.P.)- Oxalis corniculata Linn. 36-38
18. Cirabilva (Frt.)- Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. 39-40
19. Danti (Rt.)- Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. 41-42
20. Dhattura (Sd.)- Datura metel Linn. 43-44
21. Draksa (Frt.)- Vitis vinifera Linn. 45-46
22. Durva (Rt.)- Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. 47-48
23. Eranda (Fr.Lf.)- Ricinus communis Linn. 49-50
24. Eranda (Sd.)- Ricinus communis Linn. 51-52
25. Gambhari (St.)- Gmelina arborea Roxb. 53-54
26. Gojihva (Aerial Part)- Onosma bracteatum Wall 55-57
27. Granthiparni (Rt.)- Leonotis nepetaefolia R.Br. 58-59
28. Hamsapadi (W.P.)- Adiantum lunulatum Burm. 60-62
29. Hapusa (Frt.)- Juniperus communis Linn.63-64
30. Indravaruni (Frt.)- Ci trullus colocynthis Schrad. 65-66
31. Indrayava (Sd.)- Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. 67-68
32. Isvari (Rt.)- Aristolochia indica Linn. 69-70
33. Jati (Lf)- Jasminum officinale Linn. 71-72
34. Kadali (Fr.Rz.)- Musa paradisiacal Linn. 73-74
35. Kakajangha (Rt.)- Peristrophe bicalyculata Linn. 75-76
36. Kakanasika (Sd.)- Martynia annua Linn. 77-78
37. Kakoli (Tub. Rt.)- Lilium polyphyllum D.Don 79-80
38. Kamala (Rz.)- Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 81-83
39. Karavira (Rt.) – Nerium indicum Mill. 84-85
40. Karamarda (Rt.)- Carissa carandas Linn. 86-87
41. Kasa (Rt. Stock)- Saccharum spontaneum Linn. 88-89
42. Katphala (Frt.)- Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham. Ex D. Don 90-91
43. Katphala (St.Bk.)- Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham. Ex D. Don 92-93
44. Kola (Frt. Pulp.)- Zizyphus jujube Lam. 94-95
45. Kola (St.Bk.)- Zizyphus jujube Lam. 96-97
46. Kosataki (W.P.)- Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb.98-101
47. Kumuda (Fl.)- Nymphaea alba Linn. 102-103
48. Kusa (Rt. Stock)- Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf. 104-105
49. Langali (Tub.Rt.)- Gloriosa superba Linn. 106-107
50. Lasuna (Bulb)- Allium sativum Linn. 108-109
51. Mahabala (Rt.)- Sida rhombifolia Linn. 110-111
52. Manjistha (St.)- Rubia cordifolia Linn. 112-114
53. Marica (Frt.)- Piper nigrum Linn. 115-117
54. Masaparni (W.p.)- Teramnus labialis Spreng. 118-120
55. Masura (Sd.)- Lens culinaris Medic. 121-122
56. Mudga (Sd.)- Phaseolus radiatus Linn. 123-124
57. Mulaka (Sd.)- Raphanus sativus Linn. 125-126
58. Munditika (Lf.)- Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.127-128
59. Musta (Rz.) – Cyperus rotundus Linn. 129-130
60. Nagavalli (Lf.) – Piper betle Linn. 131-133
61. Narikela (Endos.)- Cocos mucifera Linn. 134-135
62. Nicula (Frt.)- Barringtonia acutangula (Linn.) Gaertn. 136-137
63. Nili (W.P.)- Indigofera tinctoria Linn. 138-141
64. Nirgundi (Lf.)- Vitex negundo Linn. 142-144
65. Padmaka (Ht. Wd.)- Prunus cerasoides D.Don 145-146
66. Patala (Rt.)- Stereospermum suaveolens DC. 147-148
67. Phalgu (Frt.)- Ficus hispida Linna149-150
68. Phalgu (Rt.)- Ficus hispida Linna 151-152
69. Prapunnada (Sd.)- Cassia tora Linn. 153-154
70. Raktacandana (Ht. Wd.)- Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. 155-156
71. Raktapunarnava (Rt.)- Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. 157-158
72. Ramasitalika (W.P.)- Amaranthus tricolor Linn. 159-161
73. Rasna (Lf)- Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiem. 162-164
74. Sahacara (W.P.)- Barleria prionitis Linn. 165-168
75. Sahadevi (W.P.)- Vernonia cinerea Less. 169-171
76. Saileya (Lichen)- Parmelia perlata (Huds.) Ach. 172-173
77. Saka (Ht. Wd.)- Tectona grandis Linn.f. 174-175
78. Sakhotaka (St.Bk.) – Streblus asper Lour. 176-177
79. Salaparni (Rt.)- Desmodium gangeticum DC. 178-180
80. Sali (Frt.)- Oryza sativa Linn. 181-182
81. Salmali (St.Bk.)- Bombax ceiba Linn. 183-184
82. Sana (Sd.)- Crotolaria juncea Linn. 185-186
83. Sara (Rt.)- Saccharum bengalense Retz. 187-188
84. Sarala (Ht. Wd.)- Pinus roxburghii Sargent. 189-190
85. Sarala (Rt.)- Pinus roxburghii Sargent. 191-192
86. Sarsapa (Sd.)- Brassica compestris Linn. 193-194
87. Satapatrika (Fl.) – Rosa centifolia Linn. 195-196
88. Simsapa (Ht. Wd.)- Dalbergia sissoo Roxb 197-198
89. Simsapa (St. Bk)- Dalbergia sissoo Roxb 199-200
90. Sirisa (St.Bk.)- Albizzia lebbeck Benth. 201-202
91. Sthauneya (Lf.)- Taxus baccata Linn. 203-204
92. Surana (Corm.) – Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.0 Blume 205-206
93. Svetacandana (Ht.Wd.)- Santalum album Linn. 207-208
94. Syonaka (Rt.)- Oroxylum indicum Vent. 209-210
95. Tala (Infl.)- Borassus flabellifer Linn. 211-112
96. Trivrt (Rt.)- Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso 213-214
97. Tumbini (Fr.Frt.)- Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.0 Standl. 215-216
98. Udumbara (Frt.)- Ficus glomerata Roxb. 217-218
99. Usira (Rt.)- Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash 219-220
100. Utpala (Fl.)- Nymphaea stellata Willd. 221-223
Appendix-1: 1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 224-226
1.1.1- Nessler Cylinder
1.1.2- Sieves
1.1.3- Thermometers
1.1.4- Volumetric Glassware
1.1.5- Weights and Balances
Appendix-2: 2.1 Testing of Drugs 227-233
2.1.1- Systematic Study of Crude Drugs
2.1.2- Microscopic Methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs
2.1.3- Types of Stomata
2.1.4- Determination of Stomatal Index
2.1.5- Determination of Palisade Ratio
2.1.6- Determination of Vein-Islet Number
2.1.7- Determination of Stomatal Number
2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 233-240
2.2.1- Sampling of Drugs
2.2.2- Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign Matter
2.2.3- Determination of Total Ash
2.2.4- Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash
2.2.5- Determination of Water Soluble Ash
2.2.6- Determination of Alcohol Soluble Extractive
2.2.7- Determination of Water Soluble Extractive
2.2.8- Determination of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content)
2.2.9- Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying)
2.2.10- Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs
2.2.11- Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays
2.2.11-a – Continuous Extraction of Drugs
2.2.11-b - Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids
2.2.12- Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
2.3 Limit Tests 241-249
2.3.1- Limit Test for Arsenic
2.3.2- Limit Test for Chlorides
2.3.3- Limit Test for Heavy Metals
2.3.4- Limit Test for Iron
2.3.5- Limit Test for Lead
2.3.6- Sulphated Ash
2.3.7- Limit Test for Sulphates
Appendix-3: 3.1 Physical Tests and Determinations 250-252
3.1.1- Powder Fineness
3.1.2- Refractive Index
3.1.3- Weight Per Millilitre and Specific Gravity
Appendix-4: 4.1 Reagents and Solutions 253-305
Appendix-5
5.1- Weights and Measures 306
5.2- Approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System
Appendix-6 307-411
Classical Ayurvedic References 412-434
Index
English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases 435-453
Definition of Rasa 454
Guna 454
Vipaka 455
Virya 455

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-III)

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2001
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From the Jacket

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India is the legal document of standards for the quality of drugs, substances and preparations included therein (under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940). This 3rd Volume consists of 100 monographs of single drugs of plant origin. Pharmacognostical, chemical and ayurvedic standards of the parts of the plants used in Ayurveda are described in detail in each monograph.

One monograph is exclusively devoted to the one part of the drug of plant origin which describes the macroscopic, microscopic characters along with their chemical standards on the protocol developed and designed by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee. It deals in detail about the permissible limits of foreign matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and chromatographic pattern of TLC. All this work was carried out in Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad. The data has been finalised after confirmation of various samples obtained from different agro climatic conditions by the cross- section of experienced scientists in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee after careful scientific scrutiny. These standards have been consciously kept modest so that its implementation by the manufacturing companies becomes easily acceptable in order to maintain their quality control and avoid batch-to-batch variations.

Ayurvedic pharmacological properties like Rasa, Guna, Virya,Vipaka, Karma etc. are also mentioned in each monograph along with their therapeutic uses, some of the important classical formulations and therapeutic dose.

Appendix of this volume contains the details of the protocols used in determination of various scientific standards. References of ancient Ayurvedic literature in its original form are an added attraction in order to authenticate the Ayurvedic statements made in each and every monograph. In the end English equivalents of Ayurvedic terms have been given to make the volume more useful for the people who are not conversant with Sanskrit Ayurvedic terminologies.

In general, this book is more user friendly for scientists involved in drug quality testings of Ayurveda medicines, teachers of Dravyaguna, research scholars, physicians, students of Ayurveda and many others who have interest in Ayurvedic medicines.

Foreword

The demand for Ayurvedic and plant-based medicines is growing rapidly within the country as well as abroad. The use of quality drugs is of a paramount importance which will increase the faith of the users in this system. The Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare appreciated the need to prescribe quality standards for Ayurveda drugs and the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 was amended in 1964 to bring within its purview the drugs of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems of medicine. For the implementation of the Drug Act and the Rules there under, it was considered necessary to work out standards for establishing the quality of these drugs. The Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad has been constantly engaged since 1970 in developing standards of quality, purity and strengths for Ayurvedic drugs. This laboratory is guided by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee (APC) having experts of Ayurveda, Pharmacognosy, Chemistry and Pharmacy. On the advice of APC, the Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM) has been carrying out scientific work to generate data on various monographs of drugs.

With continuous efforts of APC and PLIM, two volumes of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India and two volumes of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, containing 158 monographs have been published. The third volume of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia comprising of 100 monographs on single drugs of plant origin is now being brought out. This is work of continuous nature and will be followed up in subsequent volumes also. To prepare the third volume, painstaking efforts have been made by PLIM and APC. We now have standards available for 258 drugs of plant origin used in Ayurveda.

I would like to put on record my appreciation to the Chairman and Members of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, the organizations which have supplied authentic samples of crude drugs and the staff of the Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine(PLIM) and technical staff of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee (APC), the technical officers of the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy, National Institute of Science Communications(NISCOM) (publication division of CSIR) and all those who have joined hands in our efforts to bring out this volume.

I am aware that there will always be room for improvement. Suggestions and comments from experts working in this field are welcome as this will help us in bringing out improved versions in the subsequent editions.

Preface

India, due to its unique variety of geographical and climatic factors, has had a rich and varied flora of medicinal plants since the Vedic period. No wonder that out of a total number of over 15,000 plant species in India about 2000 are known to have medicinal properties and some of them are even used as home-remedies in the rural and remotest parts of the country.

2. The vastness of the country with its inadequate means of communication and facilities for transport of drugs coupled with diverse regional languages, resulted into a multitude of synonyms (the names in regional languages). Further, Ayurveda being a science put into professional practice on umpteen occasions to try newer drugs locally available, led to the successful use of several other drugs with therapeutic values similar to those of he drugs which were originally equated with the classical Ayurvedic drug, but later assumed the name of the very same classical drug and continued to be locally collected, sold and used in that name since the main classical drug was famous yet locally unavailable and substitution was a necessity. Later, in the first half of the century, while scientifically identifying the drugs in vogue in different regions, the scientists found that there were more than one species, belonging even to different families of plants, claiming the same classical name of the Ayurvedic drug. ‘Brahmi’ could be cited as a good example. This created a sensation that there existed a great controversy about the identity of Ayurvedic drugs and that there were more than one independent drug’ claiming the classical name of drug and one drug therefore, having different scientific identities. This innocent impression of scientists was further exaggerated during the alien rule to run down the claim of Ayurveda as a cultural heritage of India out of patriotism. All such drugs with a multiple claim on the classical name in different provinces were stamped as controversial drugs without going into their genesis basically as therapeutic equivalents.

3. Ayurveda had never been static. Its practitioners had been innovative and dynamic in the therapeutic practice and carried on clinical trials out of the local flora and discovered newer medicine with same therapeutic values as the classical drugs which might have been then either locally un-available or perhaps demanding heavy prices. These newer drugs have been accepted by the then practicing profession as substitutes. In fact on study of Ayurvedic literature, one comes across several references of permitting the use of a substitute drug when the classical drug is not available. This is based on its therapeutic equivalence and clinical efficacy.

4. Then there were certain classical drugs of Himalayan origin whose supply was limited and seasonal. They were not, or perhaps could not be, grown on plains and hence their use was restricted to the traders. By the time efforts were made to identify these drugs, their supply had dwindled and commercial substitution started these few drugs were rightly stamped as “Sandigdha Dravyas” (or drugs of doubtful identity) of which ‘Ashta Varga’ could be cited as a glaring example.

5. It was again during the last 100 years of the alien rule that the social and economic conditions in India changed, that the process of urbanisation began and growth of forests neglected. It was during this period that the Ayurvedic physicians took to cities and lost their contact with forests and drug sources. It was during this period that as a consequence of better transport facilities, the crude drug supplying agencies came up and commercial manufacture of Ayurvedic Medicines on mass scale in factories started these were the inevitable consequences of the socio-economic changes in the country. The new economic set up was such that the Ayurvedic practitioner could no longer process and prepare his own medicines but had to depend on the big pharmaceutical houses run commercially and on the suppliers of crude drugs to whatever extent he needed them. There was, in a way, a forced division of labour where he had no choice but to purchase his drugs and no means to ascertain the authenticity of the medicines and formulations offered to him by the pharmaceutical houses, nor was there any Governmental control on the manufacture to ensure the quality of the medicines marketed, prescribed and administered to his patient.

6. The conditions prevailing in India for compilation of Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia were quite discouraging under the alien rule. Not only no efforts were made to investigate the efficacy and potency of Ayurvedic drugs, but there was also a systematic policy to discourage such moves and project Ayurveda as an out-dated and unscientific native system of treatment. Its drugs were poblicised to be crude, poisonous and detrimental to health. The influence of this canard unfortunately still continues to lurk in some quarters. It was under these circumstances that some of the rationalist Indian Scientists and Scholars of Ayurveda dedicated themselves to the renaissance of Ayurveda. It was a part, of the overall movement of independence of the country. But it gave the necessary momentum and after independence, not only Ayurvedic education but Ayurvedic drugs and their marketing were looked into.

7. As an outcome of the first Health Minister’s Conference of 1946, a Committee under the Chairmanship of Lt. Col. RN. Chopra was appointed in 1946 by the Government of India. It was the Chopra Committee that had first gone into the question of need for proper identification of Ayurvedic medicinal plants, control over collection and distribution of crude drugs and made positive recommendation for compilation of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Thereafter, the Dave Committee (1955) reiterated the recommendations for compilation of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

8. The Government of Bombay was specially interested in the survey of resources of Ayurvedic Drugs, their collection, cultivation, farming, distribution and standardization. They, therefore had appointed a Committee for Standard and Genuine Ayurvedic herbs and Drugs in 1955 and subsequently after receiving its report with fresh set of terms of reference, appointed a second committee called the Committee for Standard Ayurvedic Herbs and Drugs in 1957 both under the Chairmanship of Vaidya Bapalal Shah, of which I had the privilege to be the Member Secretary. The Bapalal Committee has very elaborately recommended the compilation of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an urgent prerequisite for effective control of Ayurvedic Drugs to ensure quality assurance. Finally Government of India appointed the “Ayurvedic Research Evaluation Committee”, under the Chairmanship of Dr. K.N. Udupa (1958) which had strongly highlighted the urgency of the compilation of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

9. In compliance with some of these recommendations, the Union Government as also some of the State Governments had started taking positive steps. The Government of Bombay State established its Board of Research in Ayurveda, Bombay in 1951, which was subsequently reconstituted in 1955 and 1958. The Government of India established CCRIMH in 1969 for research in all aspects including drug standardisation in Indian Medicine & l4omoeopathy. This Council was divided into 4 research councils in 1978 and the research work in Ayurveda and Siddha was entrusted to the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. The PLIM, at Ghaziabad was established in 1970 for testing and standardisation of single drugs and compound formulations. Under the auspices of the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. Several survey units in different Slates were established and work of standardisation of single drugs and compound medicines as also composite research work was initiated. The first Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee was constituted in 1962 under the Chairmanship of Col. Sir Ram Nath Chopra. The Committee was reconstituted in 1972 under the Chairmanship of Prof. A.N. Namjoshi which took over the work of compilation of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India as a pre-requisite for under taking the work of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

10. Alter publication of the First and the Second part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part III of the Formulary is under preparation. A list of single drugs which enter into the formulations has been prepared and the Committee could now apply its mind to the task of collection of data from published material and to entrust experimental work to produce data necessary to supplement the information already available as well as to vei-i1’ experimentally some of the information previously gathered.

11. The First and Second Part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India comprising of some 444 and 191 formulations respectively cover more than 351 single drugs of plant origin. This takes up about 500 priority drugs of plant origin to come within the ambit of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

12. As against the above land-marks of growing interest in the renaissance of Ayurveda and systematic efforts to investigate into the merits of this ancient science during the post-independence period it is interesting to note that the western or modem system of medicine with a formidable armoury of mostly synthetic drugs, chemo-therapeutic agents and later antibiotics, slowly realised that they also had adverse side effects and toxicity which would damage human systems. The western world slowly started appreciating the value of herbal medicines, and understanding the basic comprehensive philosophy of Ayurveda, which initially appeared to be rather abstract and difficult to interpret in terms of modern medical sciences.

13. With the introduction of a uniform system of Ayurvedic education all over the country, a process initiated some 50 years ago, there would be some uniformity in the Ayurvedic medicines marketed, in so far as their identity, purity and strength are concerned, with the physician and the patient needing to be assured of the quality of the medicine through proper drug control measures. The efforts to publish an Ayurvedic Formulary of India and to compile the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India have been well scheduled as to serve the profession and the public through proper quality assurance.

14. The Union Government has brought the Ayurvedic Drugs under the preview of the Drugs and Cosmetic Act 1940 from 15-9-1964. The publication of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India would give Government a base for fuller enforcement of the Act in respect of standards.

15. In the absence of technical information officially published by Government for statutory purposes, the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry in general and the Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Industry in particular have been experiencing a great handicap in imposing standards as a part of their own internal discipline, as whatever standards they would lay down would be only arbitrary and subjective.

16. To meet the acute need of the hour felt by the academic institutions, the Ayurvedic Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Industry and the authorities, implementing Drugs and Cosmetics Act, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee has made a modest effort to lay down earlier some norms of single drugs based on experimental data worked out at the PLIM, Ghaziabad and some of the units of the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, supplemented by the published scientific literature on the subject after due verification wherever found necessary and additions wherever possible.

17. The Western countries did pass through this phase years ago and had to codil5’ their medicine and their characteristics, methods of preparation and determining criteria of their identity, purity and strength. Endeavors to determining the above were made by researchers all over the world and out of this common pool of scientific data the pharmacopoeial monographs of single drugs and formulations were drafted. And the result of these efforts are the several pharmacopoeias of the modem world with considerable commonness of approach and information. Thus, while for compilation of the modern pharmacopoeia universal need of information and scientific data was available, for the compilation of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia little information and published data existed and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee had to begin from scratch.

18. While incorporating the experimental data like macroscopic and microscopic pharmacognostic descriptions and chemical norms, one must admit that modern pharmacognosy had its genesis in Texts of Ayurvedic Nighantus where entire drug and drug plant have been minutely studied and eloquent Sanskrit terms used to describe the parts of plant so that it projects a convincing picture of the drug and the drug plant before the reader. The description of the Castor oil plant — (Ricinus communis Linn.) given by Bhavprakash and of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Wild). Miers.) are typical examples. Thus when we insist on the pharmacognostic study of each drug, we are really extending and expanding Ayurvedic Pharmacognosy.

19. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part—I, Vol—I comprises of 80 monographs of Ayurvedic single drugs of plant origin, which go into one or more formulations enlisted in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part I. In compiling the monographs, the title of each drug had been given in Sanskrit as already obtained in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Then comes the definition of the drug giving its identify in scientific nomenclature and very brief information about its source, occurrence, distribution and precautions in collection if any, etc.

20. This is followed by a list of synonyms in Sanskrit and also the other Indian regional languages. The monographs then record the detailed gross or Microscopic description of the drug and its Microscopic tissue structures, the individual elements, deposition of crystals, starch grains, hairy out growths etc, each having a pharmacognostic value in identification, especially when the drug is in powder form.

21. The monograph then gives norms and limits under “Identity, Purity and Strength” like tolerance of foreign matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive volatile oil contents etc. Some of them have a direct bearing on the purity and strength, while others enable to detect substitution or adulteration, if any. Where possible, Assay of one constituent or group of constituents like total alkaloids or total volatile oils has been given. However, under the heading ‘Constituents’ one or more constituents or group of constituents like oleoresins, essential oils, alkaloids have been mentioned which only have an informative value based on published research work in phytochemistry. In the case of water soluble or alcohol soluble extractives specification of lower limit has an added relevance to the maturity of the drug in addition to its authenticity. It will however, be worth mentioning that there is always a wide variation in crude drugs (raw materials) of plant origin in respect of their chemical contents, due to varied climatic conditions, geographical distribution, source and season of collection and lack of scientific methods of storage and preservation. Therefore, the variation in the chemical data created a great difficulty in fixing the standards for single drugs. However, the data has been fixed up by working out as many samples as possible procured from different sources.

22. Since the effort is to compile pharmaeopoeial monographs of Ayurvedic drugs, the accent of the classical attributes of respective drugs according to the doctrine of Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Karma has not been lost sight of, though some of them appear to be abstract and subjective in the absence of an established experimental methods to quantify them.

23. The Legal Notices and General Notices have been given for guidance of the analysts, the Pharmaceutical suppliers and manufactures and the research workers engaged in this field Details about the apparatus, reagents and solutions, tests, methods of preparation of speciments for microscopical examinations have been given in the Appendices.

24. The Committee hopes that with the publication of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part I, Vol.11 comprising of 78 single drugs of vegetables origin, as per the format and procedure laid don the different research units under Deptt. of ISM & H under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare would plan their research enquiries such that the output of work would be accelerated. At the same time, these 78 drugs would provide basic information and norms about these drugs to those research institutions which would be interested in an in-depth study of these drugs, the outcome of which might provide further data for incorporation to the extent it would be relevant to the second edition of the pharmacopoeia.

25. The Committee urges the Government of India to recommend the adoption of these monographs for the purposes of identity, purity and strength of drugs for use in their Government, Semi- Government and Government aided institutions and voluntary public organisations. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1998, Part-I, Vol 11 may also be notified by Government as a book of reference for implementation of the drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1944) all over India as Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Vol. I is already included in the First Schedule of Drugs & Cosmitis Act 1940.

26. On behalf of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, I feel it my duty to place on records our sincere thanks and appreciation to the Government of India, State Governments, Institutions, Councils, Scientists and Ayurvedic. Scholars for their whole hearted co-operation in preparing the monographs on Single Drugs. I thank all members of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee without whose co-operation this volume would not have seen the light of day. My thanks to Dr. S.K. Sharma, Adviser (Ayurveda), and Member Secretary of A.P.C., Ms. Savita Satakopan and Prof. S.S. Handa, Senior Member of A.P.C, Dr. M.L. Sharma and Dr. A.M. Joshi, Dr. Advisers (Ayurveda) and Dr. J. Pandey. Asstt. Advisor (Ay.) for their constant efforts to bring out this volume.

Dr. R.U. Ahmad, Director, PLIM, Ghaziabad and his colleagues viz. Dr. P.C. Srivastava, Sr. Scientific Officer (Chem), Dr. Rajeev Kumar Sharma, Senior Scientific Officer (Pharmacognosy), Shri N.S. Mahara, R.O. (Phg.) Dr. Jai Prakash, R.O. (Chem.), Shri B.B. Prasad, R.A. (Botany), Shri C.Arunachalam, R.A. (Botany) deserve my special thanks for this endeavor. The technical staff of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee for preparing the Ayurvedic portion of the Pharmacopoeia viz; Dr. Chhote Lal, A.K.S. Bhadoria, Dr. M.N. Ragne, Mr. Padam Kumar, Mr. Ashok Kumar and Mr. O.P. Kholi Section Officer (APC) and also other officers who have done a wonderful job in convening the meeting of the committee and completion of this work also deserve my sincere thanks. Lastly I remember the efforts of late Prof. A.N. Namjoshi former chairman of A.P.C. who initiated this a decade before but could be completed by the present pharmacopoeia committee in the year 2000.

Contents

Legal Notices ix
General Notices xi-xiv
Preface xv-xix
Introduction xxi-xxxiii
Monographs
1. Adhaki (Rt.)- Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. 1-2
2. Agnimantha (Rt.)- Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. 3-4
3. Ambasthaki (Rt.)- Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. 5-6
4. Amra (Sd.)- Mangifere indica Linn 7-8
5. Amra (St.Bk.)- Mangifere indica Linn. 9-10
6. Amrata (St.) – Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.) Kurz. 11-12
7. Apamarga (Rt.)- Achyranthes aspera Linn. 13-14
8. Aralu (St.Bk.)- Ailanthus ex celsa Roxb. 15-16
9. Arka (St.Bk.)- Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. 17-18
10. Asana (St.Bk.)- Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. 19-20
11. Asthisamhrta (St.)- Cissus quadrangularis Linn. 21-22
12. Atmagupta (Sd.)- Mucuna prurita Hook.23-24
13. Bharngi (Rt.)- Cherodendrum serratum Linn. 25-26
14. Bijapura (Fr.Frt.)- Citrus medica Linn. 27-28
15. Bilva (Rt.)- Aegle marmelos Corr. 29-31
16. Bimbi (W.P.)- Coccinia indica W.&A. 32-35
17. Cangeri (W.P.)- Oxalis corniculata Linn. 36-38
18. Cirabilva (Frt.)- Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. 39-40
19. Danti (Rt.)- Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. 41-42
20. Dhattura (Sd.)- Datura metel Linn. 43-44
21. Draksa (Frt.)- Vitis vinifera Linn. 45-46
22. Durva (Rt.)- Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. 47-48
23. Eranda (Fr.Lf.)- Ricinus communis Linn. 49-50
24. Eranda (Sd.)- Ricinus communis Linn. 51-52
25. Gambhari (St.)- Gmelina arborea Roxb. 53-54
26. Gojihva (Aerial Part)- Onosma bracteatum Wall 55-57
27. Granthiparni (Rt.)- Leonotis nepetaefolia R.Br. 58-59
28. Hamsapadi (W.P.)- Adiantum lunulatum Burm. 60-62
29. Hapusa (Frt.)- Juniperus communis Linn.63-64
30. Indravaruni (Frt.)- Ci trullus colocynthis Schrad. 65-66
31. Indrayava (Sd.)- Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. 67-68
32. Isvari (Rt.)- Aristolochia indica Linn. 69-70
33. Jati (Lf)- Jasminum officinale Linn. 71-72
34. Kadali (Fr.Rz.)- Musa paradisiacal Linn. 73-74
35. Kakajangha (Rt.)- Peristrophe bicalyculata Linn. 75-76
36. Kakanasika (Sd.)- Martynia annua Linn. 77-78
37. Kakoli (Tub. Rt.)- Lilium polyphyllum D.Don 79-80
38. Kamala (Rz.)- Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 81-83
39. Karavira (Rt.) – Nerium indicum Mill. 84-85
40. Karamarda (Rt.)- Carissa carandas Linn. 86-87
41. Kasa (Rt. Stock)- Saccharum spontaneum Linn. 88-89
42. Katphala (Frt.)- Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham. Ex D. Don 90-91
43. Katphala (St.Bk.)- Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham. Ex D. Don 92-93
44. Kola (Frt. Pulp.)- Zizyphus jujube Lam. 94-95
45. Kola (St.Bk.)- Zizyphus jujube Lam. 96-97
46. Kosataki (W.P.)- Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb.98-101
47. Kumuda (Fl.)- Nymphaea alba Linn. 102-103
48. Kusa (Rt. Stock)- Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf. 104-105
49. Langali (Tub.Rt.)- Gloriosa superba Linn. 106-107
50. Lasuna (Bulb)- Allium sativum Linn. 108-109
51. Mahabala (Rt.)- Sida rhombifolia Linn. 110-111
52. Manjistha (St.)- Rubia cordifolia Linn. 112-114
53. Marica (Frt.)- Piper nigrum Linn. 115-117
54. Masaparni (W.p.)- Teramnus labialis Spreng. 118-120
55. Masura (Sd.)- Lens culinaris Medic. 121-122
56. Mudga (Sd.)- Phaseolus radiatus Linn. 123-124
57. Mulaka (Sd.)- Raphanus sativus Linn. 125-126
58. Munditika (Lf.)- Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.127-128
59. Musta (Rz.) – Cyperus rotundus Linn. 129-130
60. Nagavalli (Lf.) – Piper betle Linn. 131-133
61. Narikela (Endos.)- Cocos mucifera Linn. 134-135
62. Nicula (Frt.)- Barringtonia acutangula (Linn.) Gaertn. 136-137
63. Nili (W.P.)- Indigofera tinctoria Linn. 138-141
64. Nirgundi (Lf.)- Vitex negundo Linn. 142-144
65. Padmaka (Ht. Wd.)- Prunus cerasoides D.Don 145-146
66. Patala (Rt.)- Stereospermum suaveolens DC. 147-148
67. Phalgu (Frt.)- Ficus hispida Linna149-150
68. Phalgu (Rt.)- Ficus hispida Linna 151-152
69. Prapunnada (Sd.)- Cassia tora Linn. 153-154
70. Raktacandana (Ht. Wd.)- Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. 155-156
71. Raktapunarnava (Rt.)- Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. 157-158
72. Ramasitalika (W.P.)- Amaranthus tricolor Linn. 159-161
73. Rasna (Lf)- Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiem. 162-164
74. Sahacara (W.P.)- Barleria prionitis Linn. 165-168
75. Sahadevi (W.P.)- Vernonia cinerea Less. 169-171
76. Saileya (Lichen)- Parmelia perlata (Huds.) Ach. 172-173
77. Saka (Ht. Wd.)- Tectona grandis Linn.f. 174-175
78. Sakhotaka (St.Bk.) – Streblus asper Lour. 176-177
79. Salaparni (Rt.)- Desmodium gangeticum DC. 178-180
80. Sali (Frt.)- Oryza sativa Linn. 181-182
81. Salmali (St.Bk.)- Bombax ceiba Linn. 183-184
82. Sana (Sd.)- Crotolaria juncea Linn. 185-186
83. Sara (Rt.)- Saccharum bengalense Retz. 187-188
84. Sarala (Ht. Wd.)- Pinus roxburghii Sargent. 189-190
85. Sarala (Rt.)- Pinus roxburghii Sargent. 191-192
86. Sarsapa (Sd.)- Brassica compestris Linn. 193-194
87. Satapatrika (Fl.) – Rosa centifolia Linn. 195-196
88. Simsapa (Ht. Wd.)- Dalbergia sissoo Roxb 197-198
89. Simsapa (St. Bk)- Dalbergia sissoo Roxb 199-200
90. Sirisa (St.Bk.)- Albizzia lebbeck Benth. 201-202
91. Sthauneya (Lf.)- Taxus baccata Linn. 203-204
92. Surana (Corm.) – Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.0 Blume 205-206
93. Svetacandana (Ht.Wd.)- Santalum album Linn. 207-208
94. Syonaka (Rt.)- Oroxylum indicum Vent. 209-210
95. Tala (Infl.)- Borassus flabellifer Linn. 211-112
96. Trivrt (Rt.)- Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso 213-214
97. Tumbini (Fr.Frt.)- Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.0 Standl. 215-216
98. Udumbara (Frt.)- Ficus glomerata Roxb. 217-218
99. Usira (Rt.)- Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash 219-220
100. Utpala (Fl.)- Nymphaea stellata Willd. 221-223
Appendix-1: 1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 224-226
1.1.1- Nessler Cylinder
1.1.2- Sieves
1.1.3- Thermometers
1.1.4- Volumetric Glassware
1.1.5- Weights and Balances
Appendix-2: 2.1 Testing of Drugs 227-233
2.1.1- Systematic Study of Crude Drugs
2.1.2- Microscopic Methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs
2.1.3- Types of Stomata
2.1.4- Determination of Stomatal Index
2.1.5- Determination of Palisade Ratio
2.1.6- Determination of Vein-Islet Number
2.1.7- Determination of Stomatal Number
2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 233-240
2.2.1- Sampling of Drugs
2.2.2- Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign Matter
2.2.3- Determination of Total Ash
2.2.4- Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash
2.2.5- Determination of Water Soluble Ash
2.2.6- Determination of Alcohol Soluble Extractive
2.2.7- Determination of Water Soluble Extractive
2.2.8- Determination of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content)
2.2.9- Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying)
2.2.10- Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs
2.2.11- Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays
2.2.11-a – Continuous Extraction of Drugs
2.2.11-b - Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids
2.2.12- Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
2.3 Limit Tests 241-249
2.3.1- Limit Test for Arsenic
2.3.2- Limit Test for Chlorides
2.3.3- Limit Test for Heavy Metals
2.3.4- Limit Test for Iron
2.3.5- Limit Test for Lead
2.3.6- Sulphated Ash
2.3.7- Limit Test for Sulphates
Appendix-3: 3.1 Physical Tests and Determinations 250-252
3.1.1- Powder Fineness
3.1.2- Refractive Index
3.1.3- Weight Per Millilitre and Specific Gravity
Appendix-4: 4.1 Reagents and Solutions 253-305
Appendix-5
5.1- Weights and Measures 306
5.2- Approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System
Appendix-6 307-411
Classical Ayurvedic References 412-434
Index
English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases 435-453
Definition of Rasa 454
Guna 454
Vipaka 455
Virya 455
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