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The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-VI)
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-VI)
Description
Foreword

Awareness on Quality Standards of Ayurvedic Medicine is increasing with the demand for these products. The growth and acceptability of these medicines depend upon the compliance with the quality standards and in process quality assurance in the manufacture of these medicines. Therefore, it is essential to have scientific standards for identity, purity and strength of these medicines. Government of India appreciated the need for developing Pharmacopoeial Standards of Ayurveda, Siddha & Unani medicines and established the Pharmacopoeial Laboratory of Indian Medicines (PLIM) at Ghaziabad in the year 1970 to undertake pharmacopoeial work on Ayurvedic, Siddha & Unani medicines. The scientific work of PLIM is guided and monitored by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee (APC). The APC comprises of experts in Ayurveda, Pharmacognosy, Phyto-Chemistry, Pharmaceuticals Sciences and Ayurvedic Pharmacy who constantly scrutinize the scientific data generated by PLIM and other Laboratories on Pharmacopoeial work. Quality standardization of natural products is a complex task, therefore, 20 other laboratories of the Council of Scientific & Industrial (CCRAS) and other eminent Laboratories & Universities have been associated with the work of development of the Pharmacopoeial Standards under the APC Scheme of the Department of Ayush. The scientific work of various laboratories is regularly monitored by subject experts of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee.

This Sixth volume of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India containing 101 monographs of single drugs is a result of hard work of experts of Pharmacopoeia Committee, scientists working in PLIM, CCRAS and other laboratories associated with the APC Scheme. I place on record my appreciation for the dedication and hard work put by the officers of the dedication and hard work put by the officers of the Department of Ayush, PLIM, CCRAS and experts associated with the APC in the publication of this Volume. I hope that the Drug Testing Laboratories, in-house Quality Control Labs of Manufacturing units, teaching and R&D institutions will be highly benefited with this publication and their suggestions and feedback will be welcome for updation of APC Volumes.

Preface

The first and second part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India comprising of 444 and 191 formulations respectively cover more than 351 single drugs of plant origin. This is part of nearly 500 priority single drugs of plant origin to come with in the ambit of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I, Vol-I, Vol-II, Vol-III, Vol IV and V comprises 80, 78, 100, 68 and 72 monographs of Ayurvedic single drugs of plant origin which go into one or more formulations included in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part-I and Part-II. As a continuing activity monographs on 96 single drugs of plant origin and four monographs each on Gupta (Jaggery), Goghrta (Clarified Cow’s Butter), Jala (Potable water), Madhu (Honey) and Sarkara (Sugar) used as Vehicle or adjuvant, making compilation of Vol VI of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part-I comprising of these 101 monographs. In compiling the monograph, each monograph bears the title of the drug in Sanskrit as given in Ayurvedic Formulary of India. This is followed by definition of the drug giving botanical identity by using scientific binomial nomenclature with authority and very brief information about its source, occurrence, distribution and precautions to the taken during collection, if any. List of synonyms in Sanskrit and also in other Indian regional languages. The monograph further records macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug highlighting diagnostic features for identification and authentication even if the drug is in powdered state. The monograph further gives under identity, Purity and Strength, certain physico chemical parameters such as limits of foreign matter, moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive, volatile content (if any) followed by thin layer chromatographic fingerprint profile. Wherever feasible, an Assay of active/maker chemical constituent or a group of chemical constituents such as total alkaloids or volatile oil etc have been given. There is always range of variations in data on chemical constituents and certain physico chemical parameters due to geographical, climatic and ontogenetic variability. Therefore, variations in results of such data pose difficulty in fixing narrow range. The data has been given on the basis of average results of 3 samples from different laboratories. Under the constituents major chemical constituents as reported in the literature have been given.

Under each monograph, classical attributes of each drug according to the doctrine of Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Karma have been kept intact. These are considered a reasonable basis and convenient reference point for a clinical classification. Such parameters are not possible to measures by modern scientific methods thus not mandatory.

The legal notices and general notices have been provided for pharmaceutical and regulatory purposes. The Appendices include details of the apparatus, reagents, chemicals, solution tests, methods of preparation of samples for microscopic or chromatographic examination.

The committee hopes that the publication of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I Vol-VI containing 101 monographs would add to the requirements under the Drugs and Cosmetic Act. The regular monitoring of the manufactured and marketed Ayurvedic drugs, on the basis of the standards prescribed here in would bear evidences of the usefulness of these volumes and help ensure their quality and status revision for the future.

The committee urges the Government of India to recommend the adoption of these monographs for the purposes of identity, purity and strength of drugs for use in their Government, Semi-Government and Government aided institutions and voluntary public organizations. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I, Vol. VI, 2008 would be added to Rule 168 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and be notified by Government as standards to be complied with the manufacturers for sale or distribution of Ayurvedic drugs Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I, Vol. I, II, III, IV and V are already included in the First Schedule of Drugs & Cosmetics act 1940.

Contents

Legal Notices xiii
General Notices xiv
Preface xix
Acknowledgement xxi
Introduction xxii
Contributing Laboratories & Institutions xxx
Monographs
1. Adari (Lf.) Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. 1
2. Amragandhi-guggulu (L.f.) Balsamodendron caudate Mauch 3
3. Aranya-surana (Tuber) Synantherias syeatica Schoot Gen.Aocja 5
4. Ararota (Rz.) Maranta arundinacea L. 7
5. Asthirsnkhala (Aerial Part) Cissus quadrangularis L. 9
6. Bhutakesi (Rr.) Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke 12
7. Bhutakesi (Rz.) Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke 14
8. Bijapatra (Wh.Pl.) Adiantum cappillus-veneris L. 16
9. Bimbi (Lf.) Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt 19
10. Bimbi (St.) Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt 21
11. Brhat Dugdhika (Wh.Pl.) Euphorbia hirta L. 23
12. Brhati (Wh.Pl.) Solanum anguivi Lam. 26
13. Canaka (Wh.Pl.) Cicer arietinum L. 29
14. Daruharidra (Fr.) Berberis aristata DC. 32
15. Dhava (Fr.) Anogeissus latifolia Wall. 34
16. Anogeissus latifolia Wall. 36
17. Dvipantara Damanaka (Wh.Pl.)Artemisia absinthium L. 38
18. Dvipantara Satavari (Rt.) Asparagus officinalis L. 41
19. Elavalukam (Rt.) Prunus avium L.43
20. Elavalukam (St. Bk.) Prunus avium L. 45
21. Erandakarkati (Fr) Carica papaya L. 47
22. Erandakarkati (Rt.) Carica papaya L. 49
23. Gandhasipha (Wh.Pl.) Pavonia odorata Willd. 51
24. Grismachatraka (Wh.Pl.) Mollugo cerviana Seringe. 54
25. Goksura (Wh. Pl.) Tribulus terrestris L. 56
26. Granthimula (Rz.) Alpinia calcarata Rosc. 59
27. Guladaudi (Lf.) Chrysanthemum indicum L. 61
28. Haritamanjari (Wh. Pl.) Acalypha indica L. 63
29. Hastisundi (Wh.Pl.) Heliotropium indicum L. 66
30. Indivara (Rz.) Monochoria voginalis Prest. 68
31. Jalakumbhi (Wh.Pl.) Pistia stratiotes L. 70
32. Jivanti (Rt.) Leptadenia reticulate W. & A. 73
33. Kantakigulma (Aerial Part) Lycium barbarum L. 75
34. Karaphsa (Rt.) Apium graveolens L. 78
35. Katugulma (Wh.Pl.) Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. 80
36. Kesaraja (Wh. Pl.) Wedelia calendulacea Less non Rich. 83
37. Ketaki (Stilt Rt.) Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.86
38. Kitamari (Lf.) Aristolochia bracteata Retz 88
39. Kumarivetra (Rz.) Calamus thwaitesii Becc. 90
40. Kusumbha (Fr.) Carthamus tinctorius L. 92
41. Kusumbha (Lf.) Carthamus tinctorius L. 94
42. Kusumbha (Fl.) Carthamus tinctorius L. 96
43. Laghu Haritamanjari (Rt.) Acalypha fruticosa Forsk. 99
44. Laghupatra-varsabhu (Wh.Pl.) Trianthema decandra L. 101
45. Lohitaniryasa (Exd.) Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. 104
46. Madhavi (Fl) Hiptage benghalensis L. 106
47. Matsyapatrika (Wh.Pl.) Merremia tridentate (L.) Hall.f. 108
48. Meda (Rz.) Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle. 111
49. Niadihingu (Exd.) Gardenia gummifera L.f. 113
50. Nahi (Wh.PI.) Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal. 115
51. Nikocake (Kernel) Pinus gerardiana Wall 118
52. Panasa (Rt.Bk.) Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. 120
53. Papatah (Rt.)Pavetta indica L. 122
54. Parnayavani (Lf.) Coleus amboinicus Lour. 124
55. Patra snuhi (Latex) Euphorbia nivulia Buch-Ham. 127
56. Pinda Tagara (Rz.) Asarum europaeum L.129
57. Pita-kancanara (Fl.) Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. 131
58. Rakta Citraka (Rt.) Plumbago indica L. 133
59. Rohitaka (St.Bk.) Tecomella undulate (Sm.) Seem. 135
60. Sala (Ht. Wd.) Shorea robusta Gaertn. 137
61. Salaparni (Wh. Pl.) Desmodium gangeticum DC.139
62. Sami (Lf.) Prosopis cineraria Druce 142
63. Saurabhanimba (Lf.) Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng 145
64. Sitivaraka (Sd.) Celosia argentea L. 148
65. Siva-nili (Rt. & St.) Indigofera aspalathoides Vahl ex DC. 150
66. Slesmataka (Fr.) Cordia dichotoma Forst. F. 152
67. Slesmataka (St.Bk.) Cordia dichotoma Forst. F. 154
68. Slipadarikanda (Tuber) Typhonium trilobatum Schott 156
69. Sphitakitari (Rz.) Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott 158
70. Sprkka (Wh. Pl.) Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R.Br. ex Sims 160
71. Sruvavrksa (Fr.) Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. 163
72. Sthulaila (Fr.) Amomum subulatum Roxb. 165
73. Sukanasa (Rz.) Corallocarpus epigaeus Benth.ex Hook.f.167
74. Sveta Vetasa (Lf.) Salix alba L. 169
75. Takkola (Fr.) Illicium verum Hook. f. 171
76. Tinduka (Fr.) Diospyros peregrine Gurke 173
77. Trayamana (Rz.)Gentiana kurroo Royle 175
178. Tripaksi (Wh.Pl.)Coldenia procumbens L. 177
179. Tuvaraka (Sd.) Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch-Ham.) Oken180
180. Osandi (Wh.Pl.)Glinus lotoides L. 182
81. Vajranna (Lf. Base) Pennisetum typhoides (Burm.f.) stapf & C.E. Hubb. 185
82. Valuka-Saka (Lf.) Gisekia pharnaceoides L. 187
83. Vanya-asvagola (Lf.) Plantago lanceolata L.189
84. Vetra (Rz.) Calamus rotang L. 191
85. V isanika (Wh.Pl.) Pergularia daemia (Forsk) Chiov. 193
86. Vrantamlaphala (Fr. Rind) Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. 196
87. Vrscikakanda (Rz.) Doronicum hooker C.B. Clarke 198
88. Darusita Taila (Cinnamomum Oil) Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume 200
89. Gandhapura Patra Taila Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. 202
90. Karpura (Natural Camphor) Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm. And Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke 204
91. Lavanga Taila (Clove Oil) Syzygium aromaticum Merril & Perry 206
92. Peppermint-Satva (Menthol) Mentha sps. 208
93. Sarsapa Tail (Mustard Oil) Brassica campestris L. 210
94. Tailaparna Taila (Eucalyptus Oil) Eucalyptus globulus Labill 212
95. Tila Taila (Sesamum Oil) Sesamum indicum L. 214
96. Yavani Satva (Thymol) Thymus vulgaris L. and Trachyspermum amni (L.) Sprague 216
97. Goghrta (Clarified Cow’s Butter 218
98. Guda (Jaggery) Saccharum officinarum L. 220
99. Jala (Potable water) 222
100. Madhu (Honey) Apis sps 224
101. Sarkara (Sugar) 226
Appendix-1 1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 230
1.1.1. Nessler Cylinder 230
1.1.2. Sieves 230
1.1.3. Thermometers 231
1.1.4. Ultra-Violet Lamp (For general purposes & for chromatography work) 231
1.1.5. Volumetric Glass Ware 231
1.1.6. Weights and Balances 231
1.1.7. Muslin Cloth 232
Appendix-2 2.1 Tests and Determinations 233
2.1.1. Microscopic identification 233
2.1.2. Microscopical Methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 236
2.1.3. Types of Stomata 239
2.1.4. Determination of Stomatal Index 240
2.1.5. Determination of Palisade Ratio240
2.1.6. Determination of Vein-Islet Number241
2.1.7. Determination of Stomatal Number242
2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data 242
2.2.1 Net Content 242
2.2.2. Foreign Matter 242
2.2.3. Determination of Acid Toatal Ash 242
2.2.4. Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash242
2.2.5. Determination of Water Soluble Ash243
2.2.6. Determination of Sulphated Ash243
2.2.7. Determination of Alcohol Soluble Extractive243
2.2.8. Determination of Water Soluble Extractive243
2.2.9. Determination of 243
2.2.10. Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying)243
2.2.11. Determination of Water Insoluble Matter244
2.2.12. Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs244
2.2.13. Special Processes Used in Alkaloidal Assays 245
2.2.13a. Continuous Extraction of Drug245
2.2.13b. Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 245
2.2.14. Thin – Layer Chromatography (TLC) 246
2.2.15. Starch Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957) [Spectrophotometric method] 248
2.2.16. Sugar Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957) [Spectrophotometric method] 248
2.2.17. Fatty Oil Estimation 249
2.2.18. Test for Argemone Oil (Mustard Oil) 249
2.2.19. Test for the Presence of Cottonseed Oil (Halphen Test) 249
2.2.20. Test for Clove Oil – Alkali – Soluble Matter 249
2.2.21. Test for Eucaluptus Oil 249
2.2.22. Determination of Acidity 250
2.2.23. Protein Estimation (Lowry et al., 1951) 251
2.2.24. Method for Alkaloid Estimation 251
2.2.25. Determination of Esters 251
2.3. Limit Tests
2.3.1. Limit Test for Arsenic 252
2.3.2. Limit Test for Chlorides 252
2.3.3. Limit Test for Heavy Metals256
2.3.4. Limit Test for Iron256
2.3.5. Limit Test for Lead 259
2.3.6. Limit Test for Sulphates261
2.3.7. Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectorphotometry261
2.3.8. Determination of Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury and Copper 263
2.3.9. Determination of Calcium Oxide 266
Microbial Limit Tests
2.4.1. Total Aerobic Microbial Count 275
2.4.2. Tests for Specified Micro-Organisms 277
2.5. Pesticide Residue 280
2.5.1. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Pesticide Residues 282
2.5.2. Test for Pesticides 283
2.5.3. Quantitative Analysis 284
2.6. Gas Chromatography 286
2.7. Test of Aflatoxins 288
Appendix-3 3.1. Physical Test and Determinations 290
3.1.1 Refractive Index 290
3.1.2. Weight per Millimeter and Specific Gravity 290
3.1.3. Determination of pH Values 291
3.2. Determination of Melting Range and Congealing Range 291
3.2.1. Determination of Melting Range 291
3.2.2. Determination of Congealing Range 293
3.2.3. Determination of Boiling Range 294
3.3. Determination of Optical Rotation and Specific Optical Rotation 296
3.4. Determination of Viscosity297
3.5. Determination of Total Solids 298
3.6.Solubility in Water298
3.7. Determination of Saponification Value298
3.8. Determination of Iodine Value299
3.9. Determination of Acid Value300
3.10. Determination of Peroxide Value300
3.11. Determination of Unsaponifiable Matter301
3.12. Determination of Mineral Oil (Holde’s Test)301
3.13. Rancidity Test (Kreis number)301
3.14. Determination of Reichert Meissl and Polenske Value302
3.15. Determination of Alcohol Content303
Appendix-4 4.1 Reagents and Solutions 307
Appendix-5 5.1. Chemical Tests and Assays 336
5.1.1. Estimation of Total Phenolic 336
5.1.2. Estimation of Total Tannins336
5.1.3. Estimation of Sugars336
5.1.3.1. Reducing sugars337
5.1.3.2. Total sugars 337
5.1.3.3. Non-reducing sugars 337
5.1.4. Feihe’s Test338
5.1.5. Aniline Chloride Test338
5.1.6. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide338
5.1.7. Determination of Total Reducing Sugars, Sucrose and Fructose-Glucose Ration340
5.2 Estimation of Curcumin by TLC Densitometer 341
5.2.1. Determination of Aluminium 342
5.2.2. Determination of Borax343
5.2.3. Determination of Calcium343
5.2.4. Determination of Copper343
5.2.5. Determination of Iron344
5.2.6. Determination of Magnesium345
5.2.7. Determination of Mercury345
5.2.8. Determination of Silica345
5.2.9. Estimation of Sodium and Potassium by Flame Photometer345
5.2.10. Determination of Sodium Chloride346
5.2.11. Determination of Sulphur346
5.2.12. Qualitative Reactions of Some Radicals346
Appendix-6 6.1. Weights and Measures 349
6.1.1. Metric Equivalents of Classical Weights and Measures 349
6.2. Metric system 350
Appendix-7 7.1. Classical Ayurvedic References 351
Index 388
Definitions 415
Monographs published in Volume-I 416
Monographs published in Volume-II 418
Monographs published in Volume-III 420
Monographs published in Volume-IV 423
Monographs published in Volume-V 425

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-I, Volume-VI)

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Foreword

Awareness on Quality Standards of Ayurvedic Medicine is increasing with the demand for these products. The growth and acceptability of these medicines depend upon the compliance with the quality standards and in process quality assurance in the manufacture of these medicines. Therefore, it is essential to have scientific standards for identity, purity and strength of these medicines. Government of India appreciated the need for developing Pharmacopoeial Standards of Ayurveda, Siddha & Unani medicines and established the Pharmacopoeial Laboratory of Indian Medicines (PLIM) at Ghaziabad in the year 1970 to undertake pharmacopoeial work on Ayurvedic, Siddha & Unani medicines. The scientific work of PLIM is guided and monitored by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee (APC). The APC comprises of experts in Ayurveda, Pharmacognosy, Phyto-Chemistry, Pharmaceuticals Sciences and Ayurvedic Pharmacy who constantly scrutinize the scientific data generated by PLIM and other Laboratories on Pharmacopoeial work. Quality standardization of natural products is a complex task, therefore, 20 other laboratories of the Council of Scientific & Industrial (CCRAS) and other eminent Laboratories & Universities have been associated with the work of development of the Pharmacopoeial Standards under the APC Scheme of the Department of Ayush. The scientific work of various laboratories is regularly monitored by subject experts of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee.

This Sixth volume of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India containing 101 monographs of single drugs is a result of hard work of experts of Pharmacopoeia Committee, scientists working in PLIM, CCRAS and other laboratories associated with the APC Scheme. I place on record my appreciation for the dedication and hard work put by the officers of the dedication and hard work put by the officers of the Department of Ayush, PLIM, CCRAS and experts associated with the APC in the publication of this Volume. I hope that the Drug Testing Laboratories, in-house Quality Control Labs of Manufacturing units, teaching and R&D institutions will be highly benefited with this publication and their suggestions and feedback will be welcome for updation of APC Volumes.

Preface

The first and second part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India comprising of 444 and 191 formulations respectively cover more than 351 single drugs of plant origin. This is part of nearly 500 priority single drugs of plant origin to come with in the ambit of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I, Vol-I, Vol-II, Vol-III, Vol IV and V comprises 80, 78, 100, 68 and 72 monographs of Ayurvedic single drugs of plant origin which go into one or more formulations included in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part-I and Part-II. As a continuing activity monographs on 96 single drugs of plant origin and four monographs each on Gupta (Jaggery), Goghrta (Clarified Cow’s Butter), Jala (Potable water), Madhu (Honey) and Sarkara (Sugar) used as Vehicle or adjuvant, making compilation of Vol VI of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part-I comprising of these 101 monographs. In compiling the monograph, each monograph bears the title of the drug in Sanskrit as given in Ayurvedic Formulary of India. This is followed by definition of the drug giving botanical identity by using scientific binomial nomenclature with authority and very brief information about its source, occurrence, distribution and precautions to the taken during collection, if any. List of synonyms in Sanskrit and also in other Indian regional languages. The monograph further records macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug highlighting diagnostic features for identification and authentication even if the drug is in powdered state. The monograph further gives under identity, Purity and Strength, certain physico chemical parameters such as limits of foreign matter, moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive, volatile content (if any) followed by thin layer chromatographic fingerprint profile. Wherever feasible, an Assay of active/maker chemical constituent or a group of chemical constituents such as total alkaloids or volatile oil etc have been given. There is always range of variations in data on chemical constituents and certain physico chemical parameters due to geographical, climatic and ontogenetic variability. Therefore, variations in results of such data pose difficulty in fixing narrow range. The data has been given on the basis of average results of 3 samples from different laboratories. Under the constituents major chemical constituents as reported in the literature have been given.

Under each monograph, classical attributes of each drug according to the doctrine of Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Karma have been kept intact. These are considered a reasonable basis and convenient reference point for a clinical classification. Such parameters are not possible to measures by modern scientific methods thus not mandatory.

The legal notices and general notices have been provided for pharmaceutical and regulatory purposes. The Appendices include details of the apparatus, reagents, chemicals, solution tests, methods of preparation of samples for microscopic or chromatographic examination.

The committee hopes that the publication of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I Vol-VI containing 101 monographs would add to the requirements under the Drugs and Cosmetic Act. The regular monitoring of the manufactured and marketed Ayurvedic drugs, on the basis of the standards prescribed here in would bear evidences of the usefulness of these volumes and help ensure their quality and status revision for the future.

The committee urges the Government of India to recommend the adoption of these monographs for the purposes of identity, purity and strength of drugs for use in their Government, Semi-Government and Government aided institutions and voluntary public organizations. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I, Vol. VI, 2008 would be added to Rule 168 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and be notified by Government as standards to be complied with the manufacturers for sale or distribution of Ayurvedic drugs Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I, Vol. I, II, III, IV and V are already included in the First Schedule of Drugs & Cosmetics act 1940.

Contents

Legal Notices xiii
General Notices xiv
Preface xix
Acknowledgement xxi
Introduction xxii
Contributing Laboratories & Institutions xxx
Monographs
1. Adari (Lf.) Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. 1
2. Amragandhi-guggulu (L.f.) Balsamodendron caudate Mauch 3
3. Aranya-surana (Tuber) Synantherias syeatica Schoot Gen.Aocja 5
4. Ararota (Rz.) Maranta arundinacea L. 7
5. Asthirsnkhala (Aerial Part) Cissus quadrangularis L. 9
6. Bhutakesi (Rr.) Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke 12
7. Bhutakesi (Rz.) Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke 14
8. Bijapatra (Wh.Pl.) Adiantum cappillus-veneris L. 16
9. Bimbi (Lf.) Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt 19
10. Bimbi (St.) Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt 21
11. Brhat Dugdhika (Wh.Pl.) Euphorbia hirta L. 23
12. Brhati (Wh.Pl.) Solanum anguivi Lam. 26
13. Canaka (Wh.Pl.) Cicer arietinum L. 29
14. Daruharidra (Fr.) Berberis aristata DC. 32
15. Dhava (Fr.) Anogeissus latifolia Wall. 34
16. Anogeissus latifolia Wall. 36
17. Dvipantara Damanaka (Wh.Pl.)Artemisia absinthium L. 38
18. Dvipantara Satavari (Rt.) Asparagus officinalis L. 41
19. Elavalukam (Rt.) Prunus avium L.43
20. Elavalukam (St. Bk.) Prunus avium L. 45
21. Erandakarkati (Fr) Carica papaya L. 47
22. Erandakarkati (Rt.) Carica papaya L. 49
23. Gandhasipha (Wh.Pl.) Pavonia odorata Willd. 51
24. Grismachatraka (Wh.Pl.) Mollugo cerviana Seringe. 54
25. Goksura (Wh. Pl.) Tribulus terrestris L. 56
26. Granthimula (Rz.) Alpinia calcarata Rosc. 59
27. Guladaudi (Lf.) Chrysanthemum indicum L. 61
28. Haritamanjari (Wh. Pl.) Acalypha indica L. 63
29. Hastisundi (Wh.Pl.) Heliotropium indicum L. 66
30. Indivara (Rz.) Monochoria voginalis Prest. 68
31. Jalakumbhi (Wh.Pl.) Pistia stratiotes L. 70
32. Jivanti (Rt.) Leptadenia reticulate W. & A. 73
33. Kantakigulma (Aerial Part) Lycium barbarum L. 75
34. Karaphsa (Rt.) Apium graveolens L. 78
35. Katugulma (Wh.Pl.) Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. 80
36. Kesaraja (Wh. Pl.) Wedelia calendulacea Less non Rich. 83
37. Ketaki (Stilt Rt.) Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.86
38. Kitamari (Lf.) Aristolochia bracteata Retz 88
39. Kumarivetra (Rz.) Calamus thwaitesii Becc. 90
40. Kusumbha (Fr.) Carthamus tinctorius L. 92
41. Kusumbha (Lf.) Carthamus tinctorius L. 94
42. Kusumbha (Fl.) Carthamus tinctorius L. 96
43. Laghu Haritamanjari (Rt.) Acalypha fruticosa Forsk. 99
44. Laghupatra-varsabhu (Wh.Pl.) Trianthema decandra L. 101
45. Lohitaniryasa (Exd.) Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. 104
46. Madhavi (Fl) Hiptage benghalensis L. 106
47. Matsyapatrika (Wh.Pl.) Merremia tridentate (L.) Hall.f. 108
48. Meda (Rz.) Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle. 111
49. Niadihingu (Exd.) Gardenia gummifera L.f. 113
50. Nahi (Wh.PI.) Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal. 115
51. Nikocake (Kernel) Pinus gerardiana Wall 118
52. Panasa (Rt.Bk.) Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. 120
53. Papatah (Rt.)Pavetta indica L. 122
54. Parnayavani (Lf.) Coleus amboinicus Lour. 124
55. Patra snuhi (Latex) Euphorbia nivulia Buch-Ham. 127
56. Pinda Tagara (Rz.) Asarum europaeum L.129
57. Pita-kancanara (Fl.) Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. 131
58. Rakta Citraka (Rt.) Plumbago indica L. 133
59. Rohitaka (St.Bk.) Tecomella undulate (Sm.) Seem. 135
60. Sala (Ht. Wd.) Shorea robusta Gaertn. 137
61. Salaparni (Wh. Pl.) Desmodium gangeticum DC.139
62. Sami (Lf.) Prosopis cineraria Druce 142
63. Saurabhanimba (Lf.) Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng 145
64. Sitivaraka (Sd.) Celosia argentea L. 148
65. Siva-nili (Rt. & St.) Indigofera aspalathoides Vahl ex DC. 150
66. Slesmataka (Fr.) Cordia dichotoma Forst. F. 152
67. Slesmataka (St.Bk.) Cordia dichotoma Forst. F. 154
68. Slipadarikanda (Tuber) Typhonium trilobatum Schott 156
69. Sphitakitari (Rz.) Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott 158
70. Sprkka (Wh. Pl.) Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R.Br. ex Sims 160
71. Sruvavrksa (Fr.) Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. 163
72. Sthulaila (Fr.) Amomum subulatum Roxb. 165
73. Sukanasa (Rz.) Corallocarpus epigaeus Benth.ex Hook.f.167
74. Sveta Vetasa (Lf.) Salix alba L. 169
75. Takkola (Fr.) Illicium verum Hook. f. 171
76. Tinduka (Fr.) Diospyros peregrine Gurke 173
77. Trayamana (Rz.)Gentiana kurroo Royle 175
178. Tripaksi (Wh.Pl.)Coldenia procumbens L. 177
179. Tuvaraka (Sd.) Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch-Ham.) Oken180
180. Osandi (Wh.Pl.)Glinus lotoides L. 182
81. Vajranna (Lf. Base) Pennisetum typhoides (Burm.f.) stapf & C.E. Hubb. 185
82. Valuka-Saka (Lf.) Gisekia pharnaceoides L. 187
83. Vanya-asvagola (Lf.) Plantago lanceolata L.189
84. Vetra (Rz.) Calamus rotang L. 191
85. V isanika (Wh.Pl.) Pergularia daemia (Forsk) Chiov. 193
86. Vrantamlaphala (Fr. Rind) Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. 196
87. Vrscikakanda (Rz.) Doronicum hooker C.B. Clarke 198
88. Darusita Taila (Cinnamomum Oil) Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume 200
89. Gandhapura Patra Taila Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. 202
90. Karpura (Natural Camphor) Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm. And Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke 204
91. Lavanga Taila (Clove Oil) Syzygium aromaticum Merril & Perry 206
92. Peppermint-Satva (Menthol) Mentha sps. 208
93. Sarsapa Tail (Mustard Oil) Brassica campestris L. 210
94. Tailaparna Taila (Eucalyptus Oil) Eucalyptus globulus Labill 212
95. Tila Taila (Sesamum Oil) Sesamum indicum L. 214
96. Yavani Satva (Thymol) Thymus vulgaris L. and Trachyspermum amni (L.) Sprague 216
97. Goghrta (Clarified Cow’s Butter 218
98. Guda (Jaggery) Saccharum officinarum L. 220
99. Jala (Potable water) 222
100. Madhu (Honey) Apis sps 224
101. Sarkara (Sugar) 226
Appendix-1 1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 230
1.1.1. Nessler Cylinder 230
1.1.2. Sieves 230
1.1.3. Thermometers 231
1.1.4. Ultra-Violet Lamp (For general purposes & for chromatography work) 231
1.1.5. Volumetric Glass Ware 231
1.1.6. Weights and Balances 231
1.1.7. Muslin Cloth 232
Appendix-2 2.1 Tests and Determinations 233
2.1.1. Microscopic identification 233
2.1.2. Microscopical Methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 236
2.1.3. Types of Stomata 239
2.1.4. Determination of Stomatal Index 240
2.1.5. Determination of Palisade Ratio240
2.1.6. Determination of Vein-Islet Number241
2.1.7. Determination of Stomatal Number242
2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data 242
2.2.1 Net Content 242
2.2.2. Foreign Matter 242
2.2.3. Determination of Acid Toatal Ash 242
2.2.4. Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash242
2.2.5. Determination of Water Soluble Ash243
2.2.6. Determination of Sulphated Ash243
2.2.7. Determination of Alcohol Soluble Extractive243
2.2.8. Determination of Water Soluble Extractive243
2.2.9. Determination of 243
2.2.10. Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying)243
2.2.11. Determination of Water Insoluble Matter244
2.2.12. Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs244
2.2.13. Special Processes Used in Alkaloidal Assays 245
2.2.13a. Continuous Extraction of Drug245
2.2.13b. Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 245
2.2.14. Thin – Layer Chromatography (TLC) 246
2.2.15. Starch Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957) [Spectrophotometric method] 248
2.2.16. Sugar Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957) [Spectrophotometric method] 248
2.2.17. Fatty Oil Estimation 249
2.2.18. Test for Argemone Oil (Mustard Oil) 249
2.2.19. Test for the Presence of Cottonseed Oil (Halphen Test) 249
2.2.20. Test for Clove Oil – Alkali – Soluble Matter 249
2.2.21. Test for Eucaluptus Oil 249
2.2.22. Determination of Acidity 250
2.2.23. Protein Estimation (Lowry et al., 1951) 251
2.2.24. Method for Alkaloid Estimation 251
2.2.25. Determination of Esters 251
2.3. Limit Tests
2.3.1. Limit Test for Arsenic 252
2.3.2. Limit Test for Chlorides 252
2.3.3. Limit Test for Heavy Metals256
2.3.4. Limit Test for Iron256
2.3.5. Limit Test for Lead 259
2.3.6. Limit Test for Sulphates261
2.3.7. Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectorphotometry261
2.3.8. Determination of Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury and Copper 263
2.3.9. Determination of Calcium Oxide 266
Microbial Limit Tests
2.4.1. Total Aerobic Microbial Count 275
2.4.2. Tests for Specified Micro-Organisms 277
2.5. Pesticide Residue 280
2.5.1. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Pesticide Residues 282
2.5.2. Test for Pesticides 283
2.5.3. Quantitative Analysis 284
2.6. Gas Chromatography 286
2.7. Test of Aflatoxins 288
Appendix-3 3.1. Physical Test and Determinations 290
3.1.1 Refractive Index 290
3.1.2. Weight per Millimeter and Specific Gravity 290
3.1.3. Determination of pH Values 291
3.2. Determination of Melting Range and Congealing Range 291
3.2.1. Determination of Melting Range 291
3.2.2. Determination of Congealing Range 293
3.2.3. Determination of Boiling Range 294
3.3. Determination of Optical Rotation and Specific Optical Rotation 296
3.4. Determination of Viscosity297
3.5. Determination of Total Solids 298
3.6.Solubility in Water298
3.7. Determination of Saponification Value298
3.8. Determination of Iodine Value299
3.9. Determination of Acid Value300
3.10. Determination of Peroxide Value300
3.11. Determination of Unsaponifiable Matter301
3.12. Determination of Mineral Oil (Holde’s Test)301
3.13. Rancidity Test (Kreis number)301
3.14. Determination of Reichert Meissl and Polenske Value302
3.15. Determination of Alcohol Content303
Appendix-4 4.1 Reagents and Solutions 307
Appendix-5 5.1. Chemical Tests and Assays 336
5.1.1. Estimation of Total Phenolic 336
5.1.2. Estimation of Total Tannins336
5.1.3. Estimation of Sugars336
5.1.3.1. Reducing sugars337
5.1.3.2. Total sugars 337
5.1.3.3. Non-reducing sugars 337
5.1.4. Feihe’s Test338
5.1.5. Aniline Chloride Test338
5.1.6. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide338
5.1.7. Determination of Total Reducing Sugars, Sucrose and Fructose-Glucose Ration340
5.2 Estimation of Curcumin by TLC Densitometer 341
5.2.1. Determination of Aluminium 342
5.2.2. Determination of Borax343
5.2.3. Determination of Calcium343
5.2.4. Determination of Copper343
5.2.5. Determination of Iron344
5.2.6. Determination of Magnesium345
5.2.7. Determination of Mercury345
5.2.8. Determination of Silica345
5.2.9. Estimation of Sodium and Potassium by Flame Photometer345
5.2.10. Determination of Sodium Chloride346
5.2.11. Determination of Sulphur346
5.2.12. Qualitative Reactions of Some Radicals346
Appendix-6 6.1. Weights and Measures 349
6.1.1. Metric Equivalents of Classical Weights and Measures 349
6.2. Metric system 350
Appendix-7 7.1. Classical Ayurvedic References 351
Index 388
Definitions 415
Monographs published in Volume-I 416
Monographs published in Volume-II 418
Monographs published in Volume-III 420
Monographs published in Volume-IV 423
Monographs published in Volume-V 425
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