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Comparative Aesthetics: Indian Aesthetics - Volume I

Comparative Aesthetics: Indian Aesthetics - Volume I

Specifications

Item Code: IDE448

by Prof. Dr. Kanti Chandra Pandey

Hardcover (Edition: 1995)

Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office

Language: English
Size: 8.8" X 5.8"
Pages: 796
944 gms
Price: $34.50   Shipping Free
Viewed times since 31st Jul, 2013

Description

CONTENTS

Introduction to the Second Editionvii
Introduction to the First Editionix
List of abbreviationsxxxvii
CHAPTER I
HISTORY OF INDIAN AESTHETICS1
Preliminary.I
The scope2
Religious origin of drama3
History and evolution of the dramatic art.4
Natya Sastra5
Meaning of Natya Sastra7
Manu's attitude towards Natya10
The aim of the Natya Sastra12
Moral improvement of the aesthete as an end of dramatic presentation12
The questions attempted by Bharata in his Natya Sastra13
Problems of Esthetics solved in the above answers16
Bird's-eye view of the Natya Sastra18
Limitations of the work19
Rasa as Aesthetic object20
Importance of Rasa in the eyes of Bharata20
Constituents of Rasa, the Aesthetic object21
Explanation of the Technical Terms22
Vibhava.24
Two aspects of Vibhava25
Anubhava25
Bhava27
Vyabhicaribhava.28
Sthayibhava.29
Importance of Rasa from different points of view30
Bharata's conception of Rasa31
The relation of the constituents of Rasa31
Omission of the word "Sthayin" in Bharata's definition of Rasa32
Aesthetic object not an imitation33
Distinction of Rasa from Sthayibhava etc.34
Importance of Rasa in the eyes of Bharata. Another point of view35
The nature of the Aesthetic object35
The seat of Rasa36
From the spectator's point of view36
Commentators on the Natya Sastra38
Bhatta Lollata's practical point of view38
Bhatta Lollata's Theory40
Its criticism42
The causes of the misunderstanding44
Another objection to Bhatta Lollata's theory46
Sri Sankuka's contribution47
Sri Sankuka's Psycho-Epistemic approach to the problem of aesthetics49
Conditions of knowledge50
Individual soul or subject51
Manas and senses52
The object to knowledge (Prameya)52
Means of knowledge (Pramana)53
Error or illusion (Vyabhicari Jnana)54
Doubt (Samsaya)56
Recognition (Pratyabhijna)58
Srisankuka's explanation of the omission of "Sthayin" in Bharata's definition of Rasa59
Nature of the inferential judgement60
Unclassifiability of the recognition in art60
Recognition in art is not erroneous61
Aesthetic Judgement not dubious62
It is not a cognition of similarity62
Influence of painting on his aesthetic theory62
Contributions of this theory63
Its criticism63
Criticism of the aesthetic judgement67
Arguments against imitation of Sthayin summarised68
Criticism of analogy of painted horse68
Sankhya theory of aesthetics68
Criticism of the earlier theories70
Sankhya theory of aesthetics in the Sankhya Karika and the Tattva Kaumudi70
Intellectual background of Bhatta Nayaka72
Vedantic tendencies of Bhatta Nayaka72
Bhatta Nayaka's criticism of other theories73
His new technique74
His basic assumptions75
Its contribution76
Vedanta-metaphysics and Ananda77
Sankhya conception of Bhoga.78
The process79
The conception of Bhoga, according to Yoga System80
Vaisesika conception of Bhoga80
The criticism of the new technique80
Bhatta Nayaka's position explained81
The New fectors, which influenced Abhinavagupta's Aesthetics84
CHAPTER II
86
THE SAIVA BASIS OF ABHINAVA'S
AESTHETICS
Importance of Abhinavagupta86
Rational mysticism of Abhinavagupta87
His idealism87
Place of other schools of thought in Abhinava's system88
Mystic conception of the Absolute (Anuttara)88
The impurities of the soul89
Spiritual discipline for freedom from impurities90
Background of his metaphysics91
Rationalistic conception of the Absolute93
Concrete monism of the Saiva97
Voluntarism of the Saiva97
Abhasavada101
The category of Sakti (consciousness) as Camatkara103
The context of the problems of Camatkara104
Saiva conception of Bhoga110
The Absolute in the context of "Bhoga"110
The individual subjects111
The qualities of individual subjects112
Power and quality distinguished112
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and pleasure, pain and senselessness114
Qualities of individual subject and Bhoga116
The conclusions116
Limitations of individual subject117
Kala (Limited power of action)117
Vidya (Limited power of knowledge)118
Raga (General objective desire)120
Niyati (Subjection to causal law)121
Kala (Time)122
Time as a standard of measure122
Levels of experience124
Subject in deep sleep (Sunya Pramata)125
Inconsistency of Hegel129
Sunya Pramata of Abhinava130
Apavedya Susupta and Turiya differentiated133
Distinction between Turiya and Turiyatita134
Savedya Susupta and Prana Pramata134
Aesthetic experience from sense level to objectless level136
Meaning of Rasa142
Epistemic technique of Abhasavada144
Unchanging nature of the Abhasa148
Time and space as the basis of particularity148
The implication of universalisation (Sadharanikarana) according to Abhasavada 149
Katharic level in the light of epistemic theory of Abhasavada.150
CHAPTER III
ABHINAVAGUPTA'S THEORY OF AESTHETICS151
Kathartic level151
Triadic relation151
Constituents of the aesthetic object as a configuration154
The essential nature of the aesthetic object as revealed by psychological analysis156
Dramatic presentation is not an illusory object158
Is aesthetic object a "reflection" (Pratibimba) ?159
It is not a partial representation159
Aesthetic object from spectator's point of view160
Unworldly nature of the aesthetic object161
The constituents of aesthetic personality162
(I) Taste or Rasikatva162
(II) Sahrdayatva or Aesthetic Susceptibility162
(III) Power of Visualisation163
(IV) Intellectual background164
(V) Contemplative habit (Bhavana or Carvana)164
(VI) Psycho-physical condition165
(VII) Capacity to identify165
Aestheti attitude166
From sense-level to self-forgetfulness167
From self-forgetfulness to identification168
Process of identification168
Philosophical explanation of elimination of time etc.171
From identification to imagination173
The development of aesthetic image174
From imagination to emotion174
From emotion to complete Katharsis175
The source of terror177
Impediments to aesthetic experience178
1. Inability to get at the meaning178
2, 3. Subjective and objective limitations of time and space 179
4. The influence of personal joys and sorrows.179
5. Lack of clarity due to insufficient stimulus 179
6. Subordination of the principal179
7. Dubiousness of the presentation180
The conclusion180
Aesthetic experience not truly emotive181
Abhinavagupta's explanation of the omission "Sthayin" in Bharata's definition of Rasa183
Aesthetic experience from drama and poetry.185
Aesthetic experience possible from even hearing the recitation of drama186
CHAPTER IV
TYPES OF RASA188
Different opinions on types of Rasa188
Does Bhavabhuti admit Karuna to be the only Rasa ?188
Bhanudatta's approach to the problem of types of Rasa192
Does Bhoja admit Srngara to be the only Rasa ?193
His conception of Srngara194
Rasa and Bhava distinguished198
Aesthetic experience198
The process200
Three stages of Srngara201
The reply201
Dhananjaya's approach201
Abhinavagupta's approach to the problem of types of Rasa202
Aesthetic experience of love (Srngara)205
The meaning of Srngara205
Derivation of Srngara206
Love, the basic emotion of Srngara206
The process in the rise of aesthetic experience of love (Srngara)208
Aesthetic experience of anger (Raudra)210
Aesthetic experience of enthusiasm (Vira)212
Aesthetic experience of disgust (Bibhatsa)212
Bibhatsa in relation to Moksa213
Aesthetic experience of laughter (Hasya).213
Aesthetic experience of grief (Karuna) 215
Karuna and Vipralambha Srngara distinguished216
Srisankuka's conception of Karuna217
Its criticism218
Abhinavagupta's view of Karuna218
Aesthetic experience of wonder (Adbhutarasa).219
Santa Rasa219
Dhananjaya and Abhinavagupta on Santa Rasa220
The text of the Natya Sastra221
Evidence of the Abhinava Bharati222
Opposition to Santa on textual basis223
Its criticism224
Opposition to Santa independently of the text224
Opposition on the basis of the indirect evidence of Bharata225
Its criticism225
Semi-textual opposition to the semi-textual exponents of Santa226
Its criticism by Abhinava's predecessors.227
Criticism of the above228
Expositions of Santa on the basis of indirect evidence of Bharata229
Nirveda as Sthayin of Santa229
Its criticism230
Philosophical conception of Vairagya and its relation to self-realisation (Tattvajnana)
Para or higher Vairagya.234
Relation between Nirveda and Tattvajnana in the light of the Nyaya system234
Dhananjaya on Nirveda as Sthayin of Santa235
Any one of the eight accepted Sthayins as the Sthayin of Santa236
All the eight together as Sthayin of Santa237
The view on Santa with slight difference from that of Abhinavagupta237
Dhananjaya on Sama as Sthayin of Santa237
Additional reason for unpresentability of Sama,238
The view of Santa based on another conception of Sama239
Abhinavagupta's theory of Santa239
Santa in practical life241
The hero of Santa Rasa241
The self as the Sthayin of Santa242
Why is Tattvajnana (Sama) mentioned separately ?243
Why does Bharata use the word Sama and not Tattvajnana?244
Other constituents of Santa.245
Other Sthayins in the context of Santa.245
Discussion on Rasa in the Nagananda246
Manuscript authority249
The nature of aesthetic experience of Santa249
Division of Rasas into two classes250
Basic and dependent Rasas252
Another kind of causality of one Rasa to the rise of another,254
Identical natural tendency necessary for aesthetic experience255
CHAPTER V
ABHINAVAGUPTA'S THEORY OF
MEANING257
Language and aesthetic configuration257
History of Dhvani258
The presence of the suggested meaning in the earliest poetic production260
The probable time of the discovery of the spiritual meaning264
The chief exponent of the spiritual meaning of language or Dhvani264
The theory of meaning before the acceptance of the theory of Dhvani267
An illustration of Dhvani269
Can Laksana explain the negative meaning conceived by hearer on hearing the positive statement under discussion ?271
Unsoundness of the opponent's position271
Review of the position of the opponents of the theory of suggested meaning 272
The views of the opponents of the theory of suggested meaning summarized.275
The arguments of the opponents of the theory of Dhvani277
The position of the exponeut explained280
The various meanings of the word Dhvani and their origin.281
Abhinava's conception of poetry 283
The position of the Laksanavadin explained284
Laksanavadin's position criticised285
The process analysed.286
Another conception of Laksana and its criticism287
Laksanalaksana as substitute for Dhvani289
Laksanalaksana criticised290
Criticism of Laksana summarised291
The Anvitabhidhana theory of the Prabhakaras.291
Criticism of the Anvitabhidhanavada292
Necessity of admission of the instrumentality of consciousness of one meaning in the rise of another294
Bhatta Nayaka's explanation of the consciousness of the suggested meaning and its criticism296
Dhvani distinguished from figures of speech,298
Figure Samasokti defined298
The distinctive spheres of Upama and Rasavat Alankara on the one hand and that of Resadhvani on the other.301
Embellishments and aesthetic presentation303
The psychological basis of the classification of the suggested meaning304
Vastudhvani.305
Alankaradhvani305
Rasadhvani306
Bhavadhvani306
Avivaksita vakya and vivaksitanyaparavacya307
The situation308
Arthantara Sankramitavacya309
The situation309
Atyantatiraskrtavacya311
Sabdasaktyudbhava312
Arthasaktyudbhava314
The situation315
Classification of the suggested meaning, according to the means of suggestion315
Suggestive poetry distinguished from unsuggestive.316
The distinction of the suggestive poetry from the embellished317
Dhvani Chart319
CHAPTER VI
MAHIMA BHATTA'S CRITICISM OF DHVANI AND A REPLY
Dhvani as a controversial problem320
An introduction to Mahima Bhatta320
The purpose of the book323
His attitude towards Dhvanikara, 324
Kashmir Saiva tendencies of Mahima Bhatta325
(I) His reference to Para325
(II) His reference to the Saiva theory of Abhasavada325
(III) His admission of the Saiva theory of Abhasavada. 325
(IV) His reference to the causal theory of Kashmir Saivaism333
His theory of aesthetics335
Charm in poetic presentation335
His conception of rasa as a reflection of a Sthayin,336
His answers to the objections against the inferential theory of aesthetics 336
His advance on Srisankuka338
His conception of Camatkara339
The background of the theory of meaning340
Mahima's approach to the problem of meaning341
His division of words342
His reference to and rejection of the view that function is the basis of the use of a noun for an object.343
His division of meaning345
Anumeyartha347
His conception of Kavya in the context of the criticism of Bhatta Tauta's definition of it.347
His conception of Gamyagamakabhava349
Ananda Vardhana's points of view349
His criticism of the theory of Dhvani350
His refutation of other powers of word than the conventional351
(a) His criticism of Laksana352
(b) His criticism of the Tatparyasakti of words356
(c) His criticism of Abhivyakti356
Dhvanivadin's position explained361
The defects in the definition of Dhvani Kavya362
(I) Criticism of the adjunct of 'Artha'.363
Dhavanivadin's position explained364
His criticism of the word 'Artha' in the definition of Dhvani.364
(II) Criticism of the use of the word 'Sabda'365
Dhvanivadin's position explained.367
(III) Criticism of the adjunct of 'Sabda'367
(IV) Criticism of the masculine gender in the pronoun 'Tam'368
(V) Criticism of the dual in 'Vyanktah'368
(VI) Criticism of the use of 'Va'369
(VII) His criticism of the suggestive power of word, indicated by 'Vi-anj' in the definition369
(VIII) Criticism of the use of the word 'Dhvani' for poetic composition,371
(IX) His criticism of Ananda Vardhava's conception of the particular Kavya (Kavyavisesa)373
Dhvanivadin's position explained375
(X) Criticism of the use of the subject of the predicate 'Kathitah'376
The necessity of inclusion of 'Abhidha' in the definition376
Dhvanivadin's position explained377
His conception of incongruity (Anaucitya)378
His criticism of Kuntaka's theory of Vakrokti 381
His criticism and rejection of some of the types of Dhvani381
His criticism of Vastu and Alankara Dhvani381
His criticism of the division of Kavya into Dhvani and Gunibhuta Vyangya.382
Ruyyaka383
CHAPTER VII
THE TECHNIQUE OF SANSKRIT DRAMA385
What does the dramatist present ?387
Incongruity387
Action in Sanskrit Drama,389
Rules of dramatization and dramatic genius 390
Method of dramatisation393
Presentable and unpresentable in drama396
Unities of time, place and action,397
Difference between Sanskrit and English dramas in respect of action and emotion.399
Analysis of the main plot.403
Absence of tragedy in Sanskrit literature explained405
(i) The traditional conception of the hero of drama. 405
(ii) The triadic relation407
The conception of the five stages elaborated408
The beginning (Prarambha)410
The effort (Yatna).411
The effort situation412
The height (Praptyasa).413
Praptyasa situation414
The consequence (Niyatapti)418
The close (Phalagama)420
The means to the end (Arthaprakrti)420
The seed (Bija) and its psychological necessity421
The recollection of the motive force (Bindu)425
Sub-plot (Pataka).427
Minor plot (Prakari)428
The resources (Karya)429
Sandhis (Parts) in Sanskrit drama 430
Mukha Sandhi (Birth of the seed)432
Pratimukha (Opening of the seed)432
Garbha432
Avamarsa432
Nirvahana (Fruition)436
The Sandhyanga defined437
The general purpose of Sandhyangas437
The purposes of Sandhyangas from the point of view of dramatist,438
Freedom in the use of Sandhyangas439
CHAPTER VIII
TYPES OF DRAMA441
Two main types of drama 442
(1) Nataka442
The name "Nataka" explained444
(II) Prakarana444
(i) Subject-matter444
(ii) The hero and his helpers445
(iii) The heroine446
(iv) Subdivisions of Prakarana446
(III) Samavakara446
Duration of each act447
Meaning of Samavakara448
Three kinds of flight, deception and love448
The absence of the graceful action in Samavakara explained448
(IV) Ihamrga449
(V) Dima450
(VI) Vyayoga452
(VII) Utsrstikanka452
(VIII) Prahasana453
(IX) Bhana454
(X) Bithi.455
Aesthetic configurations (Rasas) presentable in different types of drama455
CHAPTER IX
ESSENTIALS OF SANSKRIT DRAMATIC PRESENTATION457
Meaning of Vrtti458
Action in poetic composition459
Dramatic action distinguished from the worldly.460
The origin of different forms of action. 461
Employment of different forms of action in the presentation of Rasas464
Difference of opinion on the number of forms of action (Vrtti)464
Consciousness of fruit (Phalasamvitti Vrtti) as a form of action admitted by Udbhata465
Its criticism.466
The view of the followers of Udbhata on forms of action (Vrtti)467
Abhinavagupta's criticism468
Bhoja's positioning regard to the number of Vrttis469
Difference of opinion on the/use of different forms of Vrtti474
Pravrtti or local usages477
The relation between Vrtti and Pravrtti479
Acting or Abhinaya479
Change of personality in acting481
Four types of acting (Abhinaya)482
(I) Physical gesture (Angikabhinaya)482
(II) Verbal acting or histrionic representation in words. (Vacikabhinaya)483
(III) Gesture that flows from mental state (Sattvikabhinaya)484
(IV) Costume and make-up (Aharyabhinaya)484
Difference of opinion on the presentation of death on the stage.485
Hero's death never to be presented in any way.487
Restriction about the number of characters on the stage487
Dramatic presentation in the open air and in the theatre.487
CHAPTER X
AESTHETIC CURRENTS IN POETICS.489
The dramatic and the poetic experiences differentiated490
Bhamahs491
Bhamaha's conception of poetry492
His conception of poetic experience493
Bhamaha's conception of gunas494
The poetic qualities in the eyes of Bhamaha495
Bhamaha's indebtedness to Bharata in the conception of Vakrokti495
Difference between Laksana and Alankara497
Laksana defined498
Difference between Bharata and Bhamaha 499
Other conceptions of Vakrokti500
His scanty treatment500
Dandin's conception of poetry501
Difference of opinion on the qualities of poetry explained502
Vamana's conception of poetry505
Vamana's contribution507
Udbhata's position.508
CHAPTER XI
ART OF MUSIC (SANGITA-KALA)511
Music and poetry511
History and evolution of the art of music512
Samavedic Schools of Music513
The texts of the Kauthuma School513
The relative chronology of the Samavedic texts.514
Indication of the pitch of syllable in the Kauthuma tradition of the Sama Veda515
Drone tone516
Musical and poetical metre516
Changes in the chant introduced by Udgata517
The relation between the spoken and the chanted Vedic language517
Samavedic melodization518
Evolution of the number of tones519
Gandharvaveda, the subsidiary Veda (Upaveda) of the Sama Veda.521
Progress of music reflected in the Brahmanas522
Development of the Samavedic Music in the Sutra period525
Fixation of interval.526
Seven Notes in the Paniniya Siksa527
Nandikesvara's conception of seven notes and three pitches527
Disappearance of distinction between the Samavedic and the classical notes531
Samavedic and classical music532
Writers on classical music before Bharata533
Bharata and his contemporaries535
(1) Kasyapa535
Did Bharata know the Ragas ?536
(2) Sardula538
(3) Dattila538
Successors of Bharata538
Utpalacarya539
Authors of independent works on music after Bharata540
Abhinavagupta541
Jayadeva542
Sarngadeva, the author of the Sangita Ratnakara542
Mohamedan influence on Indian Music543
Gopala Nayaka544
Commentators on the Sangita Ratuakara.545
(1) Sirhha Bhupala545
(2) Kallinatha,546
Locana Kavi547
Ramamatya547
Gwaliar School of Music549
Music during the reigu of Akbar550
Suppression of Indian music by Aurangzeb.551
Sangita Ratnakara Vyakhya, Setu.552
Rise of Southern and Northern Schools of Indian Music.553
The Influence of the Mela System on North Indian Music.555
CHAPTER XII
PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC556
Recognition of the spiritual value of music in the Chandogya Upanisad557
Abhinavagupta's Philosophy of Music557
Experience of Ananda at the transcendental level of aesthetic experience from music561
Metaphysical basis of the musical notes562
Pasyanti and musical notes564
Identification with Para-Nada in musical experience564
Notes, produced by musical instruments and Madhyama,565
Subtle and transcendental forms of Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari.565
Harmonious unity of notes as the essential of charm in music566
Yoga and Nada-Brahmavada.566
Importance of the Cakras for music.569
Mental concentration on Nada as a means to liberation 569
Ahata Nada as a means to liberation570
Nada-Brahma-Vada of Sarngadeva571
Nagesa Bhatta on the origin of musical notes572
Philosophy of music in the light of the Siddhanta Saiva Dualism575
Bindu And Nada576
CHAPTER XIII
ART OF ARCHITECTURE OR VASTUKALA579
Meaning of Vastu579
Presupposition of Vastu Sastra579
Division of literary sources of information on architecture 580
Non-technical references to architecture581
The sources of technical information on architecture582
1. Atharvaveda and Sutras582
2. Architectural material in works on subjects other than architecture583
3. Saiva tradition.585
4. Brahma tradition587
Painting589
Sculpture591
5. Maya tradition591
Uncertainty about the dates of books on architecture593
Spread of Indian Culture and architectural tradition594
Wood, the earliest material for the construction of human dwelling596
The relation between building and its inmate597
Style as the basis of classification of architectural work,600
Another basis of classification of Indian architecture 600
The relation of styles and enshrined deities601
The principle of harmony as the basis of different conceptions of pillar602
Works of architecture most enduring602
Sculpture and painting as dependent arts603
Philosophy of Architecture or Vastu-Brahma-Vada609
Aesthetic experience from architecture609
Indian Philosophy of fine Art 611
APPENDIX
The Textual Authority indicated by foot-notes617
Index717
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