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Essays on History of Indian Economics (Set of Three Volumes)
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Ancient Indian Economic History

About the Book

Essays in Ancient Indian Economic History is part of a three-volume set focusing on the developments in the economic history of India during the last millennium.

The essays in this volume provide an outline of the change in the status and orientation of early Indian economic history and in the approach to the economic features of ancient Indian history. The essays traverse diverse subjects such as the function of property, family and caste, the origin of the state in early India; agriculture, surplus appropriation and distribution, and labour; the role of crafts and craftsmen in the economy of early India; and trade and trade organizations, and coinage. In doing so, the volume attempts to provide a chronological and spatial view of early Indian economy.

Re-issued in a revised form to synchronize with the Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Indian History Congress, the essays are accompanied by a new Preface and a Introduction that highlight the changing contours of emphases, shifting focus and methodologies and projections of research both encouraged and documented under the aegis of the Indian History Congress.

About the Author

B.D. Chattopadhyaya was formerly Professor, Centre of Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. His publications include The Making of Early Medieval India; Representing the Other?; Studying Early India: Archaeology, Texts, and Historical Issues; Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History and; an edited volume Combined Methods inIndology and Other Writings.

Preface

THE INDIAN History Congress has emerged as a representative organization for a large section of historians in India, providing its members with a forum to present their unpublished research work, using data from across the country. The annual sessions of the Indian History Congress are invariably attended by senior historians, who provide guidance to young researchers in their endeavours. In its multi-pronged activities, the Congress is perhaps one of the few organizations in India to provide a research and publication forum. To this end, it brings out an edited volume containing selection of the research articles presented at various sessions. In fact, it is the meticulous selection of essays and rigorous editing of the volumes that has given cause for the University Grants Commission to recognize these Proceedings to the level of a referred journal for the purposes of granting Promotion to college and university teachers under the Career Advancement scheme.

During its Golden Jubilee Celebrations in 1987, the Indian History Congress decided to publish three thematic volumes focusing on the Economic history of India. This three-volume set, entitled Indian History Congress golden Jubilee Year Publication Series together contained over a hundred essays, with an introduction by eminent historians. The series met with much success, as it provided a panoramic view of 50 years of changing focuses and emphases of scholars on art, religion, and society and issues related to the historical roots of economic backwardness and the resultant economic under-development in India's colonial past.

These volumes on economic history were also important from another perspective. While inaugurating the first session of the Indian History Congress 1935, Sir Shafa'at Ahmad Khan remarked that, 'economic history is almost virgin field: In the years following 1935, research in this area gathered depth and pace. In the subsequent decade and, in particular after Independence, considerable literature too was produced on the various aspects of the economic history of India. A nationalistic critique of colonialism during the process of decolonization was a major factor in developing interest in this topic. Meanwhile, since the mid-1950s the Marxist approach too gathered acceptance in the academic world of historians as an important factor in the explication of Historical development. Together, the twin discourses of nationalist critique and Marxist approach became important contributory factors for a heightened interest in the economic aspects of India's historical past.

In challenging the imperialist historiography, Indian historians evolved Considerable interest in studying society, religion, and art. They posited that Indian cultural past was essentially composite in nature and different communities lived side by side in a spirit of syncretism. In doing so, historians also examined the nature of religious identities and their role in shaping the contours of societal developments in our past.

Prints of the 1987 three-volume set were soon exhausted. Keeping in view their usefulness and steady demand among scholars as well as students, the Executive Committee of the 71st Session of the Indian History Congress, at University of Gour Banga, Malda, West Bengal, decided to reprint the three volumes, possibly with a new introduction by their respective editors. To this end, I am grateful to Professor Satish Chandra, Professor Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, and Professor B.D. Chattopadhyaya for contributing substantial pieces for the new editions. And, it is indeed a pleasure to have these volumes released as a part of the preparations for the celebrations of the Platinum Jubilee Session of the Congress.

Introduction

THE ESSAYS in this collection on different aspects of the economic history of ancient India were, originally presented at the annual sessions of the Indian History Congress and have been published in the Proceedings of the Congress. The volume was put together by scrutinizing carefully the Proceedings of the Congress during the first fifty years of its existence. The publication of this four-volume series in 1987 of which Essays in Ancient Indian Economic History was the first, was intended to mark the Golden Jubilee Anniversary of the Congress, in 1987.

It is little more than two and a half decades since. By now, this collection and its companion volumes have all gone out of print, but it seems there is still a demand for them. Ideally, this new edition should have been updated by including new essays published in the Proceedings of the Congress in the last twenty-five years, and by locating them within the global trend of economic history writing during this period. It would indeed have been interesting to have considered the general state of economic history after its heyday in the sixties and seventies of the last century and the nature of historiographical drifts towards social formation oriented studies, and further, to examine how these drifts are reflected in the contributions at the Congress. That task, one hopes, will be taken up soon, at least in the centenary year or Platinum Jubilee of the Congress. All that needs to be stated here is that all the issues which are represented in this collection continue to be of relevance to serious historical studies.

I thank the secretary of the Indian History Congress for asking me for a new Introduction to the re-issue of the collection, and I shall look forward to its post publication reception.

Contents

Preface to the Second EditionIX
Preface to the First EditionXI
Introduction to the First EditionXIII
Introduction to the Second Editionxv
PART 1
EARLY INDIAN ECONOMY: GENERAL THEMES
1.Role of Property, Family and Caste in the Origin of the State in Ancient India 3
2.Economic Condition of Western India During 200 BC - AD 50013
3.Family and Inheritance in Early South India19
PART 2
THE EARLY PATTERNS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION
4.Agricultural Production During the Early Iron Age in Northern India 27
5.Some Aspects of Early Orissan Economy and Society33
6.Aspects of Early Iron Age Economy: Problems of Agrarian Expansion in Tarnilakam 41
PART 3

LAND, AGRICULTURE, SURPLUS APPROPRIATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LABOUR
7.Types of Land in North-Eastern India (From Fourth Century to Seventh Century AD)53
8.The Plough Measure in North India59
9Classification of Land and Assessment of Land-Tax in Early Medieval Tamil Nadu from 950 to 130063
10.Theory of Commendation and Sub-Infeudation in Ancient India69
11.Farm Labourers of Karnataka (Ancient and Medieval Period)75
12.Halika-Kara: Crystallization of a Practice into a Tax 8881
PART 4
CRAFTS PRODUCTION AND CRAFTSMEN
13.Artisans in Manu87
14.Urban Occupations and Crafts in the Kusana Period103
15.Leather Workers in Ancient and Early Medieval India113
16.Some Crafts of Ancient Bengal (Textile)121
17.Basic Industries in Northern India on the Eve of Turko-Afghan Conquests129
PART 5
ASPECTS OF EXCHANGE IN EARLY INDIAN ECONOMY: TRADE, ORGANISATION OF TRADERS, INTEREST, COINAGE
18.Trade and Commerce from Panini's Astadhyayi139
19.Some Aspects of India-China Maritime Trade c. AD 250-1200149
20.The Role of the Arab Traders in Western India During Early Medieval Period 153
21.Trade in the Growth of Towns: A Case Study of Karnataka, c. AD 600-1200163
22.Trade Guilds Under the Calukyas of Kalyani171
23.Merchant Guilds in Medieval Andhra177
24.Rate of Interest During Early Medieval India197
25.Minting in Medieval Karnataka201
PART 6
PATTERNS OF SETBACKS AND TENSIONS IN EARLY INDIAN ECONOMY
26.Socio-Economic Tensions in Bhojakara Rajya of Vakaraka Kingdom in the Time of Pravarasena II 209
27.Famines and Relief Measures Under the Imperial Colas, AD 850-1279215
28.Socio-Economic Implications of the Concept of Mahapataka in the Feudal Society of South India 235
Index231

Medieval Indian Economic History

About The Book

Essays in Medieval Indian Economic History is part of a four-volume set, comprising representative articles of Indian History Congress Proceedings (1935-85). In their analysis of the economic history of India during the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries, the essays in this volume delineate a shift from the studies of policies to the working of the revenue system, and its impact on the lives of the Indian people. Further, they highlight patterns and trends of agricultural production, the role of Madadd-i-ma'ash holders, and institutions involved in agricultural expansion and improvement, and the incidence of rural taxes. The scholarship also marks growing interest in urban studies, and in the structure and role of the business community in India, in relation to the growth of the economy in India, and its relationship to the State. Several articles deal with subjects as diverse as coinage and mints, and the international debate on the impact of the European trading companies and their system of armed trade and monopoly on the Indian economy and the Indian business community.

Re-issued in a revised form to synchronize with the Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Indian History Congress, the essays in this volume are accompanied by a new preface and an introduction that highlight the changing contours of emphasis, shifting focus/es and methodologies and projections of research, held under the aegis of the Indian History Congress.

About the Author

Satish Chandra, former Professor of Economic History of Medieval India, Jawaharlal Nehru University, also served as Vice-Chairman and Chairman of University Grants Commission. His publication, Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, 1707-1740 broke new ground in Mughal studies. On behalf of the Indian History Congress, of which he has been General (1977) and Secretary (1971-3), he has been responsible for the preparation and publication of several volumes of A Comprehensive History of India.

Introduction

THIS COLLECTION of articles on economic history during the Medieval period from the thirteenth century to the middle of the eighteenth century, extracted from the articles printed in the Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, between 1935 and 1986, was prepared more than a quarter century ago. These articles still remain relevant, but are not easily accessible to serious students of history. Hence this present edition. However in the Introduction I have tried to highlight the main trends of economic history of Medieval India during the period, that is from 1986 to date.

It is evident that during the period the study of economic history has broadened and deepened. Papers, articles and books carry forward some of the earlier assumptions or postulates on economic development, but also question some of them. Also, they are often posed in the context of social structures. Cultural developments have also been studied in an economic context .... Thus, a holistic picture has begun to emerge.

In the field of agrarian history of India, focus has shifted from the study of administrative methods adopted by the central government for assessing and collecting land revenue, to how these measures operated at the local level, and their impact on different segments of village society. This has led to a deeper study of the structure of village societies, and the economic and social position and role of different sections there. Segmentation of village society has been worked out in some areas such as east Rajasthan. It has also been postulated that the economically stronger sections in village society-the zamindars and khud-kasht, played a definite role in expanding and improving cultivation. The richer section of the khud-kasht, were actively engaged in expanding cash crops and superior crops (jins-i-kamil) and introducing new crops. However, these sections also largely appropriated the fruits of development in the area.

In this context, it has been noted that the sharecroppers (muzarian) and the landless that formed together the majority of village population lived at the marginal or subsistence level. Among them, there was a process of rural migrations in search for better prospects. Some of these pahis or landless which specially included the scheduled castes, did manage to get land in some areas, such as south Rajasthan. Elsewhere, when the state undertook bringing new land under cultivation, some of it was sometimes given to scheduled castes as a reward for their labour Thus, rural society was not totally unchanging.

Study on the role of towns, including small towns (qasbas) has shown that in many of the qasbas, specially those on or near major roads, artisans and traders formed a considerable section. Growth of qasbas reflected growth of rural society because some of the richer peasants also lived there. Both Indian and foreign scholars have engaged themselves in the study of the structure of the state, and its role in the national economy. While the earlier assumption that the Medieval Indian state was inhibitive of economic development' was discarded quite sometime back, according to some scholars it still remained a major obstacle to economic development. According to them, the state demand of revenue was so heavy, and its appropriation among the stakeholders was so lopsided, that it left little room for economic expansion.

This view has been countered by another group of scholars. They consider the Medieval state, particularly the Mughal state, as being basically mercantilist in nature, with the feudal bureaucracy and the royal elements being commerce minded. Hence a fairly close nexus existed between them and the rising class of wholesale traders and financiers (shroffs). According to them, this was reflected in the large-scale use of the hundi-not only for trade but for financial transactions of the state, including land revenue collection.

This debate is carried forward to the eighteenth century: whether the economy continued to grow during the period, following the decline and fall of the Mughal Empire, or there was a setback in the process of developments, specially during the second half of the century:' One view was that, development received a big set back with the East India Company's domination of Bengal and south India. Another view has been that despite some set backs the economic growth continued, largely till the early part of the nineteenth century. Apart from this controversy, study of economic developments of specific regions, such as Awadh and Bengal, Poona, etc., has been carried forward.

The discussion on the nature of the state and its role in economy has led to a study of (a) prices during the seventeenth century (sharp rise or stable); (b) role of the rupee nationally and internationally; and (c) mints and their role in the growth of trade and economy.

Discussion about the role and character of the Mughal state-patrimonial bureaucratic or feudal bureaucratic, and the function and role has also raised questions about the nature and consequences of the concept of an agrarian crisis in the Mughal empire. It has been shown that agricultural production, or the extent of land under cultivation, did not decline. Nor was there any mass migration of peasants. Hence, the agrarian crisis been seen in the context of a developing social crisis whereby the rising class of zamindars and the khud kasht tried to assert themselves, and sharply opposed Mughal revenue and administrative measures, leading to revolt against it in some areas. It has, however, been noted that while these revolts put pressure on the Mughal state, they were not able to open any new avenues of growth or change the existing system.

There has been emphasis on the study of the artisans-both those engaged in quality and export production, and those working at the local and village levels.

A new aspect which has opened up is women's studies. While a major focus of women's studies has been on their social position, and their cultural role, the position of women artisans, and women workers among the weaker section has received some attention. The position of better off women with respect to their property rights-housing, shops, land, etc., has also received some notice.

Another new field of study which has opened up is the study of mentalities. Such studies go forward from subaltern studies to a deeper study of the position and role of marginal sections, including tribals. Recent studies on mentalities have largely concentrated on the attitude and perceptions of the Mughal ruling class towards religious values, the ruler, and the lower classes. Study on trade and economy has been furthered by the study of the role, structure and composition of the Indian trading classes: overland up to south Russia, and the sea up to Levant. The domination of the sea by foreign traders- Portuguese, French, Dutch, and their role in the economic, social and cultural developments of the country including boat-building has received attention. However, it has been noted that Indian traders remained active, either individually or in partnership of the Europeans. There were shipowners and large merchants among them. Hence they cannot be called peddlers.

Large-scale study of documents in various libraries is still a lacuna which, when made good, would further deepen and broaden the study of economic history of Medieval India.

Contents

Preface to the Second EditionIX
Preface to the First EditionXI
Introduction to the Second EditionXII
Introduction to the First EditionXVII
PART 1
AGRICULTURE AND REVENUE
1.Sources of Revenue under Firoz Shah Tughluq3
2.Revenue System of Sher Shah9
3.Some Documents on Revenue Administration During Aurangzeb's Reign 17
4.Classification of Agrarian Land Under Akbar25
5.Nature of the Sair Jihat Taxes39
6.The Pattern of the Agricultural Production in the Territories of Amber (c. 1650-1750)45
7.Studies in the Land-Grant Copperplates of the Ahom Kings59
8.Position of the Patel in Eastern Rajputana During the Eighteenth Century 65
9.Some Aspects of the Changes in the Position of the Madad-i-Maash Holders in Awadh, 1676- 172273
10.New Evidence on Agrarian and Rural Taxation in Eastern Rajasthan, Seventeenth-Eighteenth Centuries83
11.The Deshmukhi Watan with Special Reference to Indapur95
12.Taxation and Hindu Temples in the Telugu Districts Under the Vijayanagara Empire 105
13.The Jagirdari System of Maharaja Ranjir Singh in the Light of His Orders111
14.The Economy of Gujarat, c. 1600: The Ain's Statistics Shireen Moosvi119
PART 2
TRADE, MARKET AND CURRENCY
15.Textile Industry and Trade of the Kingdom of Golkonda129
16.Surat in 1663 as Described by Fr. Manuel Godinho141
17.Notes on Balasore and the English in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century151
18.Commercial Activities of the Mughal Emperors163
During the Seventeenth Century
19.19. Mints of the Mughal Empire (A Study in Comparative Currency Output)169
20.Cafilas and Cartazes193
21.The System of Bills of Exchange (Hundis) in the Mughal Empire 201
22.Aspects of Business in Northern India in the Seventeenth Century215
23.Saltpetre Trade and Industry in Bengal Subah, 1650-1720223
24.India in Asian Trade in the 1730s- An Eighteenth Century French Memoir 231
25.Position of the Local Merchants of Orissa, 1550-1757251
26.The Nagarsheth of Ahmedabad: The History of an Urban Institution in a Gujarat City 255
27.Portuguese Trade with India and the Theory of Royal Monopoly in the Sixteenth Century 269
28.Vyaparis and Mahajans in Western Rajasthan During the Eighteenth Century 277
29.Mint-Technology and Mint-Output in an Age of Growing Commercialization 285
Index297

Modern Indian Economic History

About the Book

Essays in Modern Indian Economic History is part of a four-volume set, comprising representative articles of Indian History Congress Proceedings (1935-85). The essays in this volume provide an overview of the continuities and changes in the historians' approach to the economic aspects of 'modern' Indian history. In the agenda of economic historians, the problems uppermost have been the policies of the colonial state, the impact of metropolitan capitalism on colonial trade and industry, and in particular the evolution of land revenue systems in various regions. At the same time, many of the continuities from the pre-colonial period to the so-called modern period in terms of social institutions, political structures, and organization of production have engaged historians. This collection indicates how historical research in modern economic history has pushed beyond the study of colonial economic policies per se, into the processes internal to the economy and society under the impact of these policies-resulting in the development of a culturally and socially sensitive economic history.

Re-issued in a revised form to synchronize with the Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Indian History Congress, the essays in this volume are accompanied by a new preface and an introduction that highlight the changing contours of emphasis, shifting focus/es and methodologies and projections of research, held under the aegis of the Indian History Congress.

About the Author

Sabysachi Bhattacharya, former Professor of Indian Economic History, jawaharlal Nehru University (1975-2003), vice Chancellor, Visva-Bharati University, and Chairman, Indian Council of Historical research, is currently Tagore National fellow, Ministry of Culture, Government of India. His publications include The Foundations of the British Raj: Ideas and Interests in the Reconstruction of indian Public Finance 1858-1872, and Vande Mataram: The Biography of a Song. He has been a general editor of Towards freedom, the Cambridge Economic History India, vol. 2 and has also edited rethinking 1857. He was General president, Indian History Congress in 2004.

Introduction

WHEN i was requested to write a Introduction to the second edition of the Essays in Modern Indian Economic History which I had edited twenty-five years ago, my first reaction was that it would be better to put together a new volume of selected papers submitted at the History Congress since 1985. However, as there is continuing demand for this volume, covers the period 1935 to 1985, I have decided to say a few words about recent research by way of an Introduction to the present volume. I must add, however, that the Introduction I wrote for the earlier edition of this volume needs to be read along with the few pages I am now persuaded to add.

The question I want to address here is the following: Has there been a decline in scholarly interest in economic history? This complaint, or you may call it a lament, has often been heard over the last decade or two. In the decades preceding 1985, there was a huge spate of research in Indian economic history. It was then a new specialization. When, in 1935, Sir Shafa'at Ahmad, in his Presidential Address at the founding session of the Indian History Congress said that 'economic history is almost a virgin field; he was referring to an area of research that has begun to attract many young researchers. Several factors were responsible for promoting an interest in economic history. In late colonial India the Nationalist intellectuals, R.C. Dutt and Dadabhai Naoroji onwards, had focused upon the economic exploitation of India. That critique of colonialism was, by and large, limited to the nationalist public spokesmen, and it filtered down to the groves of academe only much later. One sees it in academic research in the post-independence years. An altogether new interest an economic history was generated when, after 1947, researchers began to address themselves to the issues raised by Naoroji or Dutt or M.G. Ranade. you may also recall a global trend that emerged in the process of decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s in Asia and Africa. There was heightened interest in the issue of economic under-development-which led to a search for the historical roots of economic backwardness. In post-independence India, specially during the Nehruvian regime, an additional factor was the intense discourse on economic growth and national level planning and policy taking, Further, the Marxist approach, with its emphasis on economic factors 1 the explication of historical development, began to be accepted in the academic world-quite contrary to the earlier trend when the Marxian approach was, more often than not, ignored as a 'politically inspired' and artisan approach. There was, thus, an unusually high level of engagement in research in economic history between the 1950s and the 1980s. Thereafter it was but natural that the high quantum of research in a specialization should level off; that is not necessarily evidence of decline.

Perhaps a more important reason is that in recent years the agenda of economic history has changed. The staple tools of the trade of economic historians used to be histories of public finance, domestic and foreign trade and balance of payments; principles of land revenue collection and tenurial relations; growth of railways and factories; banking and monetary history; sectoral distribution of the working population, and so forth. These are things which matter and justifiably continue to be subjects of study, but there are also other themes which have acquired a new importance. To mention just a few of: agro-ecology and environmental history affecting in the long-term primary sector activities in cultivation, forest and water resource exploitation; demographic factors bearing upon the 'carrying capacity' of land from the stage of hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture; the expansion of the agrarian frontier with the enlargement of cultivated land area along with population; mortality, morbidity, life expectancy, family structure, etc. affecting the economically active population; the social traditions determining certain rights such as forest rights, or rights of pasturage, or use of the village commons; the influence of caste not only in obvious ways such as agrestic servitude or bondage, but in other ways as well, as in the transmission of artisanal skills or modes of operation of merchant communities; social and cultural aspects of the life of the urban working class, not only as labouring men but also as part of social networks in their habitation sites; the socio-political movements which formed a part of peasant resistance to economic exploitation and social exclusion. Thus, various .non-economic factors bearing upon economic life in the broadest sense of the term have been focused upon in recent studies. That is not to say that these factors were not important in earlier literature but new research in recent years was much more focused on these aspects. It would have been useful to discuss the works of research which instantiates and illustrates these trends. In my Introduction to the expanded Indian edition (2005) of the Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. II, edited by Dharma Kumar and Meghnad Desai, I have reviewed this literature with bibliographic details. Readers who are interested may consult that review of literature. It is neither necessary nor possible to repeat that exercise here.

It was perhaps not fortuitous that while new aspects of economic life in the past began to be examined, many economists began to look beyond things 'purely' economic. This change was reflected in the new emphasis on the 'quality of life' which is now commonly used as an index of development, side by side with conventional growth indices like the GDP. This change in approach was also reflected in the discourse of 'development' as distinct from economic growth. As Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze have said in their recent work, An Uncertain Glory: India and its Contradictions (2013), 'the relationship between growth and development-their difference as well as their complementarity' has become a central theme with contemporary economists. Hence, Sen and Dreze recommend the inclusion, in the economists' agenda of research, social institutions, formation of knowledge and skills through education, level of nutrition, access to health care and its demographic consequences, and even political systems such as democracy or its antipodal alternatives. Parallel with this expansion in the ambit of economic thinking, one can see an expansion of the domain of economic history in recent times. Arguably, this new turn in economic history was implicitly anticipated by economic historians who made the study of the Political Economy their agenda. Or again, when Marc Bloch spoke of total history; he was beyond doubt pointing to the interconnectedness which the new agenda of research seeks to reveal in relation to economic life.Thus, the endeavours we have referred to are in part new, but also, in part a return to an old tradition of looking at the past.

To sum it up, the frontiers of the discipline of economic history have expanded in recent years. That is not a sign of the 'decline' of economic history, but a challenge to which the practitioners of that discipline must respond. Failure to do so might have been the signal of a decline; there is no evidence of such a failure in the publications since the late 1980s.

I am happy that the early explorations in economic history, of which some Fragments are collected in this volume, are again being presented to a new generation of historians on the occasion of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the foundation of the Indian History Congress.

Contents

Preface to the Second EditionlX
Preface to the First EditionXl
Introduction to the Second EditionXlll
Introduction to the First EditionXVll
PRE-COLONIAL ECONOMY: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE
1.Warren Hastings and Zamindari Rights3
2.Institution of Watan and its Influence on the Eighteenth-Century Maratha Society 13
3.The Ryotwari System and Agricultural Serfdom in Madras, 1792-182719
4.Position of Parels and Karnums in the 'Ceded Districts' (i.e. the Present Districts of Cuddapah, Kurnool, Anantpur and Bellary) during the First Quarter of the Nineteenth Century 25
5.Land Settlement and Revenue Administration Under Maharaja Martanda Varma, AD 1729- 175839
6.Slave Labour of Malabar in the Colonial Context43
7.A Note on Lakhiraj Lands51
8.The Role of the Banaras Bankers in the Economy of Eighteenth-Century Upper India 57
PART 2

IMPACT OF MERCANTILE CAPITALISM
9.Sir George Downing and the East India Company73
10.Danish Settlement of Balasore81
11.British Salt Monopoly in Orissa85
12.The Deplorable Condition of Saltpetre Manufacturers of Bihar, 1773-183393
13.Some Trading Activities of Indians in Russia in the Eighteenth Century99
14.The Britain-China-India Trade Triangle, 1771-1840105
PART 3
COLONIAL STATE: POLICIES AND CONSEQUENCES
15.Was British Conquest of India Accidental?121
16.Genesis of the Diwani Grant of 1765131
17.The Revolt of Zamindars in Akkalkot, 1830135
18.Land Revenue and the Economy of Broach in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 141
19.The Agrarian Structure of the Madras Presidency: Impact of British Administration151
20.The Revolution Behind the Revolt159
PART 4
INDIA AND THE WORLD SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
21.Some Reflections on the East India Company's Charter of 1813167
22.Working of Coalbeds in Upper Assam in the Nineteenth Century181
23.Opportunism of Free Trade: Lancashire Cotton Famine and Indian Cotton Cultivation 189
24.Economic Measures of Lord Ripon's Government, 1880-84197
25.The Development of Modern Entrepreneurship in the Chettiar Community of Tamil Nadu, 1900- 30203
26.The Impact of the Great Depression on India in 1930s 213
PART 5
TENSIONS AND STRUGGLES IN THE COLONIAL SOCIETY
27.Nature of the Kol Insurrection of 1831-32225
28.Agrarian Tensions and British Policy in Malabar231
29.Emigration of Biharis to Mauritius in 1859-70237
30.Condition of Labour in the Coalfields of Bengal and Bihar, 1890-1920247
31.A Pioneer of Working mens Uplift and Welfare Work in Bengal: Sasipada Banerjee257
32.The Agrarian Problems in the Punjab and the Unionist Party, 1923-45263
33.Parties and Politics in the Indian Trade Union Movement: Early Phase 1917-24277
34.The Unsettled Adivasi World of Malda in the First Three Decades of the Present Century293
Index293
Sample Pages

Ancient Indian Economic History















Medival Indian Economic History













Modern Indian Economic History













Essays on History of Indian Economics (Set of Three Volumes)

Item Code:
NAL361
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2015
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ISBN:
Volume I - 9789384082529
Volume II - 9789384082536
Volume III - 9789384082543
Language:
English
Size:
9.5 inch X 6.5 inch
Pages:
908
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Weight of the Book: 1.20 Kg
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Ancient Indian Economic History

About the Book

Essays in Ancient Indian Economic History is part of a three-volume set focusing on the developments in the economic history of India during the last millennium.

The essays in this volume provide an outline of the change in the status and orientation of early Indian economic history and in the approach to the economic features of ancient Indian history. The essays traverse diverse subjects such as the function of property, family and caste, the origin of the state in early India; agriculture, surplus appropriation and distribution, and labour; the role of crafts and craftsmen in the economy of early India; and trade and trade organizations, and coinage. In doing so, the volume attempts to provide a chronological and spatial view of early Indian economy.

Re-issued in a revised form to synchronize with the Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Indian History Congress, the essays are accompanied by a new Preface and a Introduction that highlight the changing contours of emphases, shifting focus and methodologies and projections of research both encouraged and documented under the aegis of the Indian History Congress.

About the Author

B.D. Chattopadhyaya was formerly Professor, Centre of Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. His publications include The Making of Early Medieval India; Representing the Other?; Studying Early India: Archaeology, Texts, and Historical Issues; Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History and; an edited volume Combined Methods inIndology and Other Writings.

Preface

THE INDIAN History Congress has emerged as a representative organization for a large section of historians in India, providing its members with a forum to present their unpublished research work, using data from across the country. The annual sessions of the Indian History Congress are invariably attended by senior historians, who provide guidance to young researchers in their endeavours. In its multi-pronged activities, the Congress is perhaps one of the few organizations in India to provide a research and publication forum. To this end, it brings out an edited volume containing selection of the research articles presented at various sessions. In fact, it is the meticulous selection of essays and rigorous editing of the volumes that has given cause for the University Grants Commission to recognize these Proceedings to the level of a referred journal for the purposes of granting Promotion to college and university teachers under the Career Advancement scheme.

During its Golden Jubilee Celebrations in 1987, the Indian History Congress decided to publish three thematic volumes focusing on the Economic history of India. This three-volume set, entitled Indian History Congress golden Jubilee Year Publication Series together contained over a hundred essays, with an introduction by eminent historians. The series met with much success, as it provided a panoramic view of 50 years of changing focuses and emphases of scholars on art, religion, and society and issues related to the historical roots of economic backwardness and the resultant economic under-development in India's colonial past.

These volumes on economic history were also important from another perspective. While inaugurating the first session of the Indian History Congress 1935, Sir Shafa'at Ahmad Khan remarked that, 'economic history is almost virgin field: In the years following 1935, research in this area gathered depth and pace. In the subsequent decade and, in particular after Independence, considerable literature too was produced on the various aspects of the economic history of India. A nationalistic critique of colonialism during the process of decolonization was a major factor in developing interest in this topic. Meanwhile, since the mid-1950s the Marxist approach too gathered acceptance in the academic world of historians as an important factor in the explication of Historical development. Together, the twin discourses of nationalist critique and Marxist approach became important contributory factors for a heightened interest in the economic aspects of India's historical past.

In challenging the imperialist historiography, Indian historians evolved Considerable interest in studying society, religion, and art. They posited that Indian cultural past was essentially composite in nature and different communities lived side by side in a spirit of syncretism. In doing so, historians also examined the nature of religious identities and their role in shaping the contours of societal developments in our past.

Prints of the 1987 three-volume set were soon exhausted. Keeping in view their usefulness and steady demand among scholars as well as students, the Executive Committee of the 71st Session of the Indian History Congress, at University of Gour Banga, Malda, West Bengal, decided to reprint the three volumes, possibly with a new introduction by their respective editors. To this end, I am grateful to Professor Satish Chandra, Professor Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, and Professor B.D. Chattopadhyaya for contributing substantial pieces for the new editions. And, it is indeed a pleasure to have these volumes released as a part of the preparations for the celebrations of the Platinum Jubilee Session of the Congress.

Introduction

THE ESSAYS in this collection on different aspects of the economic history of ancient India were, originally presented at the annual sessions of the Indian History Congress and have been published in the Proceedings of the Congress. The volume was put together by scrutinizing carefully the Proceedings of the Congress during the first fifty years of its existence. The publication of this four-volume series in 1987 of which Essays in Ancient Indian Economic History was the first, was intended to mark the Golden Jubilee Anniversary of the Congress, in 1987.

It is little more than two and a half decades since. By now, this collection and its companion volumes have all gone out of print, but it seems there is still a demand for them. Ideally, this new edition should have been updated by including new essays published in the Proceedings of the Congress in the last twenty-five years, and by locating them within the global trend of economic history writing during this period. It would indeed have been interesting to have considered the general state of economic history after its heyday in the sixties and seventies of the last century and the nature of historiographical drifts towards social formation oriented studies, and further, to examine how these drifts are reflected in the contributions at the Congress. That task, one hopes, will be taken up soon, at least in the centenary year or Platinum Jubilee of the Congress. All that needs to be stated here is that all the issues which are represented in this collection continue to be of relevance to serious historical studies.

I thank the secretary of the Indian History Congress for asking me for a new Introduction to the re-issue of the collection, and I shall look forward to its post publication reception.

Contents

Preface to the Second EditionIX
Preface to the First EditionXI
Introduction to the First EditionXIII
Introduction to the Second Editionxv
PART 1
EARLY INDIAN ECONOMY: GENERAL THEMES
1.Role of Property, Family and Caste in the Origin of the State in Ancient India 3
2.Economic Condition of Western India During 200 BC - AD 50013
3.Family and Inheritance in Early South India19
PART 2
THE EARLY PATTERNS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION
4.Agricultural Production During the Early Iron Age in Northern India 27
5.Some Aspects of Early Orissan Economy and Society33
6.Aspects of Early Iron Age Economy: Problems of Agrarian Expansion in Tarnilakam 41
PART 3

LAND, AGRICULTURE, SURPLUS APPROPRIATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LABOUR
7.Types of Land in North-Eastern India (From Fourth Century to Seventh Century AD)53
8.The Plough Measure in North India59
9Classification of Land and Assessment of Land-Tax in Early Medieval Tamil Nadu from 950 to 130063
10.Theory of Commendation and Sub-Infeudation in Ancient India69
11.Farm Labourers of Karnataka (Ancient and Medieval Period)75
12.Halika-Kara: Crystallization of a Practice into a Tax 8881
PART 4
CRAFTS PRODUCTION AND CRAFTSMEN
13.Artisans in Manu87
14.Urban Occupations and Crafts in the Kusana Period103
15.Leather Workers in Ancient and Early Medieval India113
16.Some Crafts of Ancient Bengal (Textile)121
17.Basic Industries in Northern India on the Eve of Turko-Afghan Conquests129
PART 5
ASPECTS OF EXCHANGE IN EARLY INDIAN ECONOMY: TRADE, ORGANISATION OF TRADERS, INTEREST, COINAGE
18.Trade and Commerce from Panini's Astadhyayi139
19.Some Aspects of India-China Maritime Trade c. AD 250-1200149
20.The Role of the Arab Traders in Western India During Early Medieval Period 153
21.Trade in the Growth of Towns: A Case Study of Karnataka, c. AD 600-1200163
22.Trade Guilds Under the Calukyas of Kalyani171
23.Merchant Guilds in Medieval Andhra177
24.Rate of Interest During Early Medieval India197
25.Minting in Medieval Karnataka201
PART 6
PATTERNS OF SETBACKS AND TENSIONS IN EARLY INDIAN ECONOMY
26.Socio-Economic Tensions in Bhojakara Rajya of Vakaraka Kingdom in the Time of Pravarasena II 209
27.Famines and Relief Measures Under the Imperial Colas, AD 850-1279215
28.Socio-Economic Implications of the Concept of Mahapataka in the Feudal Society of South India 235
Index231

Medieval Indian Economic History

About The Book

Essays in Medieval Indian Economic History is part of a four-volume set, comprising representative articles of Indian History Congress Proceedings (1935-85). In their analysis of the economic history of India during the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries, the essays in this volume delineate a shift from the studies of policies to the working of the revenue system, and its impact on the lives of the Indian people. Further, they highlight patterns and trends of agricultural production, the role of Madadd-i-ma'ash holders, and institutions involved in agricultural expansion and improvement, and the incidence of rural taxes. The scholarship also marks growing interest in urban studies, and in the structure and role of the business community in India, in relation to the growth of the economy in India, and its relationship to the State. Several articles deal with subjects as diverse as coinage and mints, and the international debate on the impact of the European trading companies and their system of armed trade and monopoly on the Indian economy and the Indian business community.

Re-issued in a revised form to synchronize with the Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Indian History Congress, the essays in this volume are accompanied by a new preface and an introduction that highlight the changing contours of emphasis, shifting focus/es and methodologies and projections of research, held under the aegis of the Indian History Congress.

About the Author

Satish Chandra, former Professor of Economic History of Medieval India, Jawaharlal Nehru University, also served as Vice-Chairman and Chairman of University Grants Commission. His publication, Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, 1707-1740 broke new ground in Mughal studies. On behalf of the Indian History Congress, of which he has been General (1977) and Secretary (1971-3), he has been responsible for the preparation and publication of several volumes of A Comprehensive History of India.

Introduction

THIS COLLECTION of articles on economic history during the Medieval period from the thirteenth century to the middle of the eighteenth century, extracted from the articles printed in the Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, between 1935 and 1986, was prepared more than a quarter century ago. These articles still remain relevant, but are not easily accessible to serious students of history. Hence this present edition. However in the Introduction I have tried to highlight the main trends of economic history of Medieval India during the period, that is from 1986 to date.

It is evident that during the period the study of economic history has broadened and deepened. Papers, articles and books carry forward some of the earlier assumptions or postulates on economic development, but also question some of them. Also, they are often posed in the context of social structures. Cultural developments have also been studied in an economic context .... Thus, a holistic picture has begun to emerge.

In the field of agrarian history of India, focus has shifted from the study of administrative methods adopted by the central government for assessing and collecting land revenue, to how these measures operated at the local level, and their impact on different segments of village society. This has led to a deeper study of the structure of village societies, and the economic and social position and role of different sections there. Segmentation of village society has been worked out in some areas such as east Rajasthan. It has also been postulated that the economically stronger sections in village society-the zamindars and khud-kasht, played a definite role in expanding and improving cultivation. The richer section of the khud-kasht, were actively engaged in expanding cash crops and superior crops (jins-i-kamil) and introducing new crops. However, these sections also largely appropriated the fruits of development in the area.

In this context, it has been noted that the sharecroppers (muzarian) and the landless that formed together the majority of village population lived at the marginal or subsistence level. Among them, there was a process of rural migrations in search for better prospects. Some of these pahis or landless which specially included the scheduled castes, did manage to get land in some areas, such as south Rajasthan. Elsewhere, when the state undertook bringing new land under cultivation, some of it was sometimes given to scheduled castes as a reward for their labour Thus, rural society was not totally unchanging.

Study on the role of towns, including small towns (qasbas) has shown that in many of the qasbas, specially those on or near major roads, artisans and traders formed a considerable section. Growth of qasbas reflected growth of rural society because some of the richer peasants also lived there. Both Indian and foreign scholars have engaged themselves in the study of the structure of the state, and its role in the national economy. While the earlier assumption that the Medieval Indian state was inhibitive of economic development' was discarded quite sometime back, according to some scholars it still remained a major obstacle to economic development. According to them, the state demand of revenue was so heavy, and its appropriation among the stakeholders was so lopsided, that it left little room for economic expansion.

This view has been countered by another group of scholars. They consider the Medieval state, particularly the Mughal state, as being basically mercantilist in nature, with the feudal bureaucracy and the royal elements being commerce minded. Hence a fairly close nexus existed between them and the rising class of wholesale traders and financiers (shroffs). According to them, this was reflected in the large-scale use of the hundi-not only for trade but for financial transactions of the state, including land revenue collection.

This debate is carried forward to the eighteenth century: whether the economy continued to grow during the period, following the decline and fall of the Mughal Empire, or there was a setback in the process of developments, specially during the second half of the century:' One view was that, development received a big set back with the East India Company's domination of Bengal and south India. Another view has been that despite some set backs the economic growth continued, largely till the early part of the nineteenth century. Apart from this controversy, study of economic developments of specific regions, such as Awadh and Bengal, Poona, etc., has been carried forward.

The discussion on the nature of the state and its role in economy has led to a study of (a) prices during the seventeenth century (sharp rise or stable); (b) role of the rupee nationally and internationally; and (c) mints and their role in the growth of trade and economy.

Discussion about the role and character of the Mughal state-patrimonial bureaucratic or feudal bureaucratic, and the function and role has also raised questions about the nature and consequences of the concept of an agrarian crisis in the Mughal empire. It has been shown that agricultural production, or the extent of land under cultivation, did not decline. Nor was there any mass migration of peasants. Hence, the agrarian crisis been seen in the context of a developing social crisis whereby the rising class of zamindars and the khud kasht tried to assert themselves, and sharply opposed Mughal revenue and administrative measures, leading to revolt against it in some areas. It has, however, been noted that while these revolts put pressure on the Mughal state, they were not able to open any new avenues of growth or change the existing system.

There has been emphasis on the study of the artisans-both those engaged in quality and export production, and those working at the local and village levels.

A new aspect which has opened up is women's studies. While a major focus of women's studies has been on their social position, and their cultural role, the position of women artisans, and women workers among the weaker section has received some attention. The position of better off women with respect to their property rights-housing, shops, land, etc., has also received some notice.

Another new field of study which has opened up is the study of mentalities. Such studies go forward from subaltern studies to a deeper study of the position and role of marginal sections, including tribals. Recent studies on mentalities have largely concentrated on the attitude and perceptions of the Mughal ruling class towards religious values, the ruler, and the lower classes. Study on trade and economy has been furthered by the study of the role, structure and composition of the Indian trading classes: overland up to south Russia, and the sea up to Levant. The domination of the sea by foreign traders- Portuguese, French, Dutch, and their role in the economic, social and cultural developments of the country including boat-building has received attention. However, it has been noted that Indian traders remained active, either individually or in partnership of the Europeans. There were shipowners and large merchants among them. Hence they cannot be called peddlers.

Large-scale study of documents in various libraries is still a lacuna which, when made good, would further deepen and broaden the study of economic history of Medieval India.

Contents

Preface to the Second EditionIX
Preface to the First EditionXI
Introduction to the Second EditionXII
Introduction to the First EditionXVII
PART 1
AGRICULTURE AND REVENUE
1.Sources of Revenue under Firoz Shah Tughluq3
2.Revenue System of Sher Shah9
3.Some Documents on Revenue Administration During Aurangzeb's Reign 17
4.Classification of Agrarian Land Under Akbar25
5.Nature of the Sair Jihat Taxes39
6.The Pattern of the Agricultural Production in the Territories of Amber (c. 1650-1750)45
7.Studies in the Land-Grant Copperplates of the Ahom Kings59
8.Position of the Patel in Eastern Rajputana During the Eighteenth Century 65
9.Some Aspects of the Changes in the Position of the Madad-i-Maash Holders in Awadh, 1676- 172273
10.New Evidence on Agrarian and Rural Taxation in Eastern Rajasthan, Seventeenth-Eighteenth Centuries83
11.The Deshmukhi Watan with Special Reference to Indapur95
12.Taxation and Hindu Temples in the Telugu Districts Under the Vijayanagara Empire 105
13.The Jagirdari System of Maharaja Ranjir Singh in the Light of His Orders111
14.The Economy of Gujarat, c. 1600: The Ain's Statistics Shireen Moosvi119
PART 2
TRADE, MARKET AND CURRENCY
15.Textile Industry and Trade of the Kingdom of Golkonda129
16.Surat in 1663 as Described by Fr. Manuel Godinho141
17.Notes on Balasore and the English in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century151
18.Commercial Activities of the Mughal Emperors163
During the Seventeenth Century
19.19. Mints of the Mughal Empire (A Study in Comparative Currency Output)169
20.Cafilas and Cartazes193
21.The System of Bills of Exchange (Hundis) in the Mughal Empire 201
22.Aspects of Business in Northern India in the Seventeenth Century215
23.Saltpetre Trade and Industry in Bengal Subah, 1650-1720223
24.India in Asian Trade in the 1730s- An Eighteenth Century French Memoir 231
25.Position of the Local Merchants of Orissa, 1550-1757251
26.The Nagarsheth of Ahmedabad: The History of an Urban Institution in a Gujarat City 255
27.Portuguese Trade with India and the Theory of Royal Monopoly in the Sixteenth Century 269
28.Vyaparis and Mahajans in Western Rajasthan During the Eighteenth Century 277
29.Mint-Technology and Mint-Output in an Age of Growing Commercialization 285
Index297

Modern Indian Economic History

About the Book

Essays in Modern Indian Economic History is part of a four-volume set, comprising representative articles of Indian History Congress Proceedings (1935-85). The essays in this volume provide an overview of the continuities and changes in the historians' approach to the economic aspects of 'modern' Indian history. In the agenda of economic historians, the problems uppermost have been the policies of the colonial state, the impact of metropolitan capitalism on colonial trade and industry, and in particular the evolution of land revenue systems in various regions. At the same time, many of the continuities from the pre-colonial period to the so-called modern period in terms of social institutions, political structures, and organization of production have engaged historians. This collection indicates how historical research in modern economic history has pushed beyond the study of colonial economic policies per se, into the processes internal to the economy and society under the impact of these policies-resulting in the development of a culturally and socially sensitive economic history.

Re-issued in a revised form to synchronize with the Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Indian History Congress, the essays in this volume are accompanied by a new preface and an introduction that highlight the changing contours of emphasis, shifting focus/es and methodologies and projections of research, held under the aegis of the Indian History Congress.

About the Author

Sabysachi Bhattacharya, former Professor of Indian Economic History, jawaharlal Nehru University (1975-2003), vice Chancellor, Visva-Bharati University, and Chairman, Indian Council of Historical research, is currently Tagore National fellow, Ministry of Culture, Government of India. His publications include The Foundations of the British Raj: Ideas and Interests in the Reconstruction of indian Public Finance 1858-1872, and Vande Mataram: The Biography of a Song. He has been a general editor of Towards freedom, the Cambridge Economic History India, vol. 2 and has also edited rethinking 1857. He was General president, Indian History Congress in 2004.

Introduction

WHEN i was requested to write a Introduction to the second edition of the Essays in Modern Indian Economic History which I had edited twenty-five years ago, my first reaction was that it would be better to put together a new volume of selected papers submitted at the History Congress since 1985. However, as there is continuing demand for this volume, covers the period 1935 to 1985, I have decided to say a few words about recent research by way of an Introduction to the present volume. I must add, however, that the Introduction I wrote for the earlier edition of this volume needs to be read along with the few pages I am now persuaded to add.

The question I want to address here is the following: Has there been a decline in scholarly interest in economic history? This complaint, or you may call it a lament, has often been heard over the last decade or two. In the decades preceding 1985, there was a huge spate of research in Indian economic history. It was then a new specialization. When, in 1935, Sir Shafa'at Ahmad, in his Presidential Address at the founding session of the Indian History Congress said that 'economic history is almost a virgin field; he was referring to an area of research that has begun to attract many young researchers. Several factors were responsible for promoting an interest in economic history. In late colonial India the Nationalist intellectuals, R.C. Dutt and Dadabhai Naoroji onwards, had focused upon the economic exploitation of India. That critique of colonialism was, by and large, limited to the nationalist public spokesmen, and it filtered down to the groves of academe only much later. One sees it in academic research in the post-independence years. An altogether new interest an economic history was generated when, after 1947, researchers began to address themselves to the issues raised by Naoroji or Dutt or M.G. Ranade. you may also recall a global trend that emerged in the process of decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s in Asia and Africa. There was heightened interest in the issue of economic under-development-which led to a search for the historical roots of economic backwardness. In post-independence India, specially during the Nehruvian regime, an additional factor was the intense discourse on economic growth and national level planning and policy taking, Further, the Marxist approach, with its emphasis on economic factors 1 the explication of historical development, began to be accepted in the academic world-quite contrary to the earlier trend when the Marxian approach was, more often than not, ignored as a 'politically inspired' and artisan approach. There was, thus, an unusually high level of engagement in research in economic history between the 1950s and the 1980s. Thereafter it was but natural that the high quantum of research in a specialization should level off; that is not necessarily evidence of decline.

Perhaps a more important reason is that in recent years the agenda of economic history has changed. The staple tools of the trade of economic historians used to be histories of public finance, domestic and foreign trade and balance of payments; principles of land revenue collection and tenurial relations; growth of railways and factories; banking and monetary history; sectoral distribution of the working population, and so forth. These are things which matter and justifiably continue to be subjects of study, but there are also other themes which have acquired a new importance. To mention just a few of: agro-ecology and environmental history affecting in the long-term primary sector activities in cultivation, forest and water resource exploitation; demographic factors bearing upon the 'carrying capacity' of land from the stage of hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture; the expansion of the agrarian frontier with the enlargement of cultivated land area along with population; mortality, morbidity, life expectancy, family structure, etc. affecting the economically active population; the social traditions determining certain rights such as forest rights, or rights of pasturage, or use of the village commons; the influence of caste not only in obvious ways such as agrestic servitude or bondage, but in other ways as well, as in the transmission of artisanal skills or modes of operation of merchant communities; social and cultural aspects of the life of the urban working class, not only as labouring men but also as part of social networks in their habitation sites; the socio-political movements which formed a part of peasant resistance to economic exploitation and social exclusion. Thus, various .non-economic factors bearing upon economic life in the broadest sense of the term have been focused upon in recent studies. That is not to say that these factors were not important in earlier literature but new research in recent years was much more focused on these aspects. It would have been useful to discuss the works of research which instantiates and illustrates these trends. In my Introduction to the expanded Indian edition (2005) of the Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. II, edited by Dharma Kumar and Meghnad Desai, I have reviewed this literature with bibliographic details. Readers who are interested may consult that review of literature. It is neither necessary nor possible to repeat that exercise here.

It was perhaps not fortuitous that while new aspects of economic life in the past began to be examined, many economists began to look beyond things 'purely' economic. This change was reflected in the new emphasis on the 'quality of life' which is now commonly used as an index of development, side by side with conventional growth indices like the GDP. This change in approach was also reflected in the discourse of 'development' as distinct from economic growth. As Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze have said in their recent work, An Uncertain Glory: India and its Contradictions (2013), 'the relationship between growth and development-their difference as well as their complementarity' has become a central theme with contemporary economists. Hence, Sen and Dreze recommend the inclusion, in the economists' agenda of research, social institutions, formation of knowledge and skills through education, level of nutrition, access to health care and its demographic consequences, and even political systems such as democracy or its antipodal alternatives. Parallel with this expansion in the ambit of economic thinking, one can see an expansion of the domain of economic history in recent times. Arguably, this new turn in economic history was implicitly anticipated by economic historians who made the study of the Political Economy their agenda. Or again, when Marc Bloch spoke of total history; he was beyond doubt pointing to the interconnectedness which the new agenda of research seeks to reveal in relation to economic life.Thus, the endeavours we have referred to are in part new, but also, in part a return to an old tradition of looking at the past.

To sum it up, the frontiers of the discipline of economic history have expanded in recent years. That is not a sign of the 'decline' of economic history, but a challenge to which the practitioners of that discipline must respond. Failure to do so might have been the signal of a decline; there is no evidence of such a failure in the publications since the late 1980s.

I am happy that the early explorations in economic history, of which some Fragments are collected in this volume, are again being presented to a new generation of historians on the occasion of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the foundation of the Indian History Congress.

Contents

Preface to the Second EditionlX
Preface to the First EditionXl
Introduction to the Second EditionXlll
Introduction to the First EditionXVll
PRE-COLONIAL ECONOMY: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE
1.Warren Hastings and Zamindari Rights3
2.Institution of Watan and its Influence on the Eighteenth-Century Maratha Society 13
3.The Ryotwari System and Agricultural Serfdom in Madras, 1792-182719
4.Position of Parels and Karnums in the 'Ceded Districts' (i.e. the Present Districts of Cuddapah, Kurnool, Anantpur and Bellary) during the First Quarter of the Nineteenth Century 25
5.Land Settlement and Revenue Administration Under Maharaja Martanda Varma, AD 1729- 175839
6.Slave Labour of Malabar in the Colonial Context43
7.A Note on Lakhiraj Lands51
8.The Role of the Banaras Bankers in the Economy of Eighteenth-Century Upper India 57
PART 2

IMPACT OF MERCANTILE CAPITALISM
9.Sir George Downing and the East India Company73
10.Danish Settlement of Balasore81
11.British Salt Monopoly in Orissa85
12.The Deplorable Condition of Saltpetre Manufacturers of Bihar, 1773-183393
13.Some Trading Activities of Indians in Russia in the Eighteenth Century99
14.The Britain-China-India Trade Triangle, 1771-1840105
PART 3
COLONIAL STATE: POLICIES AND CONSEQUENCES
15.Was British Conquest of India Accidental?121
16.Genesis of the Diwani Grant of 1765131
17.The Revolt of Zamindars in Akkalkot, 1830135
18.Land Revenue and the Economy of Broach in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 141
19.The Agrarian Structure of the Madras Presidency: Impact of British Administration151
20.The Revolution Behind the Revolt159
PART 4
INDIA AND THE WORLD SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
21.Some Reflections on the East India Company's Charter of 1813167
22.Working of Coalbeds in Upper Assam in the Nineteenth Century181
23.Opportunism of Free Trade: Lancashire Cotton Famine and Indian Cotton Cultivation 189
24.Economic Measures of Lord Ripon's Government, 1880-84197
25.The Development of Modern Entrepreneurship in the Chettiar Community of Tamil Nadu, 1900- 30203
26.The Impact of the Great Depression on India in 1930s 213
PART 5
TENSIONS AND STRUGGLES IN THE COLONIAL SOCIETY
27.Nature of the Kol Insurrection of 1831-32225
28.Agrarian Tensions and British Policy in Malabar231
29.Emigration of Biharis to Mauritius in 1859-70237
30.Condition of Labour in the Coalfields of Bengal and Bihar, 1890-1920247
31.A Pioneer of Working mens Uplift and Welfare Work in Bengal: Sasipada Banerjee257
32.The Agrarian Problems in the Punjab and the Unionist Party, 1923-45263
33.Parties and Politics in the Indian Trade Union Movement: Early Phase 1917-24277
34.The Unsettled Adivasi World of Malda in the First Three Decades of the Present Century293
Index293
Sample Pages

Ancient Indian Economic History















Medival Indian Economic History













Modern Indian Economic History













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Testimonials

I recently ordered a hand embroidered stole. It was expensive and I was slightly worried about ordering it on line. It has arrived and is magnificent. I couldn't be happier, I will treasure this stole for ever. Thank you.
Jackie
Today Lord SIVA arrived well in Munich. Thank you for the save packing. Everything fine. Hari Om
Hermann, Munchen
Thank you very much for keeping such an exotic collection of Books. Keep going strong Exotic India!!!
Shweta, Germany
I am very thankful to you for keeping such rare and quality books, DVDs, and CDs of classical music and even Dhrupad which is almost unbelievable. I hope you continue to be this good in your helpfulness. I have found books about rare cultural heritage such as Kodava samaj, Dhrupad and other DVDs and CDs in addition to the beautiful sarees I have from your business, actually business is not the right word, but for lack of a word I am using this.
Prashanti, USA
Shiva Shankar brass statue arrived yesterday. It´s very perfect and beautiful and it was very carefully packed. THANK YOU!!! OM NAMAH SHIVAYA
Mª Rosário Costa, Portugal
I have purchased many books from your company. Your packaging is excellent, service is great and attention is prompt. Please maintain this quality for this order also!
Raghavan, USA
My order arrived today with plenty of time to spare. Everything is gorgeous, packing excellent.
Vana, Australia
I was pleased to chance upon your site last year though the name threw me at first! I have ordered several books on Indian theatre and performance, which I haven't found elsewhere (including Amazon) or were unbelievably exorbitantly priced first editions etc. I appreciate how well you pack the books in your distinctive protective packaging for international and domestic mailing (for I order books for India delivery as well) and the speed with which my order is delivered, well within the indicated time. Good work!
Chitra, United Kingdom
The statue has arrived today. It so beautiful, lots of details. I am very happy and will order from you shop again.
Ekaterina, Canada.
I love your company and have been buying a variety of wonderful items from you for many years! Keep up the good work!
Phyllis, USA
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