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Books > Philosophy > A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part One
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A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part One
A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part One
Description
From the Jacket:

The history of the Vedanta school is well known since the time of Sankaracarya on, and its prehistory before Sankara is quite obscure. However, from the time of compilation of major Upanisads to Sankara there is a period of thousand years, and the tradition of Upanisads was not lost; there appeared many philosophers and dogmaticians, although their thoughts are not clearly known.

The author has made clear the details of the pre-Sankara Vedanta philosophy, utilizing not only Sanskrit materials, but also Pali, Prakrit (Jain), as well as Tibetan and Chinese sources.

In this respect this is quite a unique work. For this work the author was awarded the Imperial Prize by the Academy of Japan.

Some sections of this work were already published in Indian as well as European and American journals in English. This work is a complete English translation of the entire book. The English translation was done with the financial aid by the Harvard-Yenching Institute, and the final touch was given by Mr. Trevor Leggett, the British writer, who is well-versed in Sanskrit as well as in Japanese.

About the Author:

Professor Hajime Nakamura, D.Litt. (University of Tokyo), Honorary D.Litt. (Government of India and Nehru University) is a distinguished scholar of international repute. As a Chairman of the Department of Indian Philosophy and Literature, Director of the Eastern Institute, Tokyo and a member of several Research Institutes in India and other countries he has a brilliant career. He was awarded the honorary degree of Vidya-vacaspati by the President of the Republic of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. He was awarded the honorary doctorate by the University of Delhi and Kuppu-Swami Research Institute, Madras. He was also awarded the honorary degree of Deshikottama by Visvabharati University, Shantiniketana. He was Visiting Professor at Harvard University, Stanford University, University of Hawaii, State University of New York.

He was Professor of Indian and Buddhist Philosophy a the University of Tokyo for thirty years. Since his retirement he has been conducting the Eastern Institute, Inc., as the Founder-Director. He is now Professor Emeritus of University of Tokyo. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland and a Corresponding Member of the Austrian Academy of Science, Vienna.

He is a versatile and striking genius. He has splendid achievement in the literary field too. Among his greatest production may be ranked History of Vedanta, 4 Volumes (in Japanese), Early Buddhism, 5 Volumes (in Japanese), Japan and Indian Asia (in English) and History of the Development of Japanese Thoughts, 2 Volumes.

CONTENTS

Prefacevii
Abbreviations

xiii
Part I The Significance of Early Vedanta Philosophy
Chapter IIntroduction1
Chapter IIThe Chronological Division of Early Vedanta Introduction9
Part IThe Period of the Composition of the Upanisads
Section IThe Old Upanisads10
Sub-Section IThe Relative Date Order of the Old Upanisads10
Sub-Section IICriteria for Dating13
ILinguistic Investigation13
IIRelation with Other Schools of Thought17
IIIThe Chronological Relation of the Early and Middle Period Upanisads35
IVConclusion42
Section IIThe Dates of the Formulation of the New Upanisads43
Section IIIThe Eraly Limit of the Early Vedanta School45
Part IIThe Dates of Sankara and Contemporary Philosophers48
A.A Critique of Past Arguments on the Dates of Sankara48
Section IThe Traditional Theory of the Sankara School48
Section IIThe Arguments for Sankara's Dates based upon the Keralotpatti52
Section IIIThe Argument for Sankara's Dates Based upon the Legends of Nepal54
Section IVTheories which Try to Trace Back rom the Date of the Samksepa-Sariraka55
Section VThe Arguments for Sankara's Dates Based upon his Relation with Hinduism57
Section VIThe Argument for the Dates of Sankara Based upon the Proper Nouns in the Brahma-sutra-bhasya59
B.The Determination of the Dates of Sankara and Contemporary Philosopher65
Section IThe Relation between Sankara and the Philosophers after him65
(1)The Relation between Sankara and the Dates of Vacaspatimisra and Bhaskara65
(2)The Relation between the Dates of Suresvara and Sankara72
Section IIThe Relation between Sankara and the Philosophers Prior to him75
(1)The Relation between Sankara and Dharmakirti75
(2)The Dates of Kumarila in Conjunction with those of Bhartrharti, Santaraksita, Kamalasila, and Mandanamisra79
(3)The Determination of Sankara's Dates87
Section IIIConcluding Remarks88
Chapter IIIThe Significance of the Vedanta Philosophy90
Section IDefinition of "Vedanta"90
Section IICharacteristics of the Vedanta101
Section IIIThe Circumstances of the Foundation of the Vedanta School108
Section IVOther Names of the Vedanta School117
Section VThe Beginnings of the Vedanta School

126
Part II The Early-period Vedanta Philosophy as Seen by the Indian Schools
Introduction

129
Chapter IVVedanta Philosophy as Seen by the Buddhists131
Section IIntroduction131
Section IIEarly Buddhism and Upanisadic Thought133
Section IIISectarian Buddhism and the Upanisads140
Section IVThe Mahayana Sutras and Vedanta Thought152
Section VThe Early Madhyamikas and the Upanisads158
1.Nagarjuna and the Upanisads158
2.Orthodox Brahmanical Thought Mentioned in Aryadeva's Sastra on Heretic and Hinayanist Nirvana165
Section VIReferences to Upanisadic Ideas in the early Yogacara School
Maitreya-natha and Vasubandhu
180
Section VIIThe Vedanta Philosophy Known to Bhavya and Dharmapala182
Sub-Section 1Introduction182
Sub-Section 2The Vedanta Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-hrdaya184
Sub-Section 3The Vedanta as Presented by Bhavya in his Madhyamaka-hrdaya and Tarka-jvala206
Sub-Section 4The Vedanta Thought as Referred to in Other Texts of Bhavya217
Sub-Section 5The Vedanta Thought Mentioned by Dharmapala219
Section VIIIThe Vedanta Philosophy Reported by Santaraksita and Kamalasila221
Introduction221
Sub-Section IAn Examination of Purusa (Purusa-pariksa)230
A.Translation
B.Remarks
Sub-Section IIAn Examination of Atman falsely constructed by the Aupanisadas (Aupanisadakalpitatmapariksa)245
A.Translation
B.Remarks
Section IXVedanta Philosophy and Buddhism after Santaraksita and Kamalasila257
1.Remarks257
2.Bhaskara the Vedantin in Buddhist Literature260
Chapter VVedanta Philosophy as Seen from the Scriptures of Early Jainism266
Section IIntroduction266
Section IIVedanta Thought Described in the early Jain Scriptures268
Section IIIYajnavalkya and Other Upanisadic Thinkers in a Jain Tradition274
Section IVThe Vedanta as Noticed in Mediaeval Jain Literature282
Section VConclusion294
Chapter VIVedanta as it Appears in the Orthodox Brahmanical Literature296
Section IThe Brahmin as Transmitter of Indian Culture296
Section IIVedanta Philosophy in the Epic Poems298
Section IIIVedanta Thought in the Dharmasastras305
Section IVVedanta in the Arthasastra319
Section VWorks on Natural Science and the Connection with Vedanta323
Section VIVedanta Philosophy in Philosophical and Religious Works330
Section VIIVednata in Purely Literary Works345
Chapter VII(Supplement). Vedanta Thought Handed down by the Greeks

359
Part III Scholars Before the Brahma-sutra
Chapter VIIIThe Character and Thought of the Scholars prior to the Brahma-sutra369
Section IKarsnajini366
Section IIKasakrtsna372
Section IIIAtreya380
Section IVAudulomi382
Section VAsmarathya384
Section VIBadari386
Section VIIJaimini390
I.His Works390
1Mimamsa-sutra390
2Devata-kanda and the Samkarsana-Kanda392
3Sariraka-sutra396
II.His Personality and Dates399
III.His Vedanta Thought401
Section VIIIBadarayana404
Chapter IX The Separation of the Two Mimamsas409
Section IThe Relation Between the Two Mimamsas409
Section IIThe Ideological Confrontation of Jaimini and Badarayana

414
Part IV The Brahma-sutra
Chapter XIntroduction425
Section IOther Names of the Brahma-sutra425
Section IIThe Circumstances under which the Brahma-sutra came into being429
Section IIIThe Date of the Compilation of the Brahma-sutra435
Section IVPrestige of the Brahma-sutra is later Centuries438
Section VThe Style of the Brahma-sutra and the need for a Re-examination of the Original Meaning of the Sutras439
Chapter XIExplanatory Notes on the Brahma-sutra448
(Appendix) Results of the Comparative Study of the Three Ancient Commentaries451
Section IThe Historico-Social Attitude of the Brahma-sutras470
Section IIProblem of Knowledge475
Section IIIThe Absolute and World-Creation484
(1)Brahman in Itself484
(2)Brahman as the World-Cause486
(3)Rationality of World Emanation492
(4)The Emanation and Dissolution of the World497
Section IVThe Individual Self500
(1)The Relationship Between the individual Self and Brahman500
(2)The Various Characteristics of the Individual Self504
(3)The Structure of Individual Existence507
1The Various organs507
2Chief Vital Breath508
3Body509
4Conclusion511
(4)Types of Individual Existences512
(5)Consciousness514
Section VPractical Affairs515
1.Practical Life515
2.Meditation519
Section VITransmigration and Release524
1.The Soul after Death524
2.The Realm of Spiritual Liberation529
Index533
Errata563

A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part One

Item Code:
IDE527
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1990
ISBN:
8120806514
Size:
8.8" X 6.2"
Pages:
585
Price:
$35.00   Shipping Free
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From the Jacket:

The history of the Vedanta school is well known since the time of Sankaracarya on, and its prehistory before Sankara is quite obscure. However, from the time of compilation of major Upanisads to Sankara there is a period of thousand years, and the tradition of Upanisads was not lost; there appeared many philosophers and dogmaticians, although their thoughts are not clearly known.

The author has made clear the details of the pre-Sankara Vedanta philosophy, utilizing not only Sanskrit materials, but also Pali, Prakrit (Jain), as well as Tibetan and Chinese sources.

In this respect this is quite a unique work. For this work the author was awarded the Imperial Prize by the Academy of Japan.

Some sections of this work were already published in Indian as well as European and American journals in English. This work is a complete English translation of the entire book. The English translation was done with the financial aid by the Harvard-Yenching Institute, and the final touch was given by Mr. Trevor Leggett, the British writer, who is well-versed in Sanskrit as well as in Japanese.

About the Author:

Professor Hajime Nakamura, D.Litt. (University of Tokyo), Honorary D.Litt. (Government of India and Nehru University) is a distinguished scholar of international repute. As a Chairman of the Department of Indian Philosophy and Literature, Director of the Eastern Institute, Tokyo and a member of several Research Institutes in India and other countries he has a brilliant career. He was awarded the honorary degree of Vidya-vacaspati by the President of the Republic of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. He was awarded the honorary doctorate by the University of Delhi and Kuppu-Swami Research Institute, Madras. He was also awarded the honorary degree of Deshikottama by Visvabharati University, Shantiniketana. He was Visiting Professor at Harvard University, Stanford University, University of Hawaii, State University of New York.

He was Professor of Indian and Buddhist Philosophy a the University of Tokyo for thirty years. Since his retirement he has been conducting the Eastern Institute, Inc., as the Founder-Director. He is now Professor Emeritus of University of Tokyo. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland and a Corresponding Member of the Austrian Academy of Science, Vienna.

He is a versatile and striking genius. He has splendid achievement in the literary field too. Among his greatest production may be ranked History of Vedanta, 4 Volumes (in Japanese), Early Buddhism, 5 Volumes (in Japanese), Japan and Indian Asia (in English) and History of the Development of Japanese Thoughts, 2 Volumes.

CONTENTS

Prefacevii
Abbreviations

xiii
Part I The Significance of Early Vedanta Philosophy
Chapter IIntroduction1
Chapter IIThe Chronological Division of Early Vedanta Introduction9
Part IThe Period of the Composition of the Upanisads
Section IThe Old Upanisads10
Sub-Section IThe Relative Date Order of the Old Upanisads10
Sub-Section IICriteria for Dating13
ILinguistic Investigation13
IIRelation with Other Schools of Thought17
IIIThe Chronological Relation of the Early and Middle Period Upanisads35
IVConclusion42
Section IIThe Dates of the Formulation of the New Upanisads43
Section IIIThe Eraly Limit of the Early Vedanta School45
Part IIThe Dates of Sankara and Contemporary Philosophers48
A.A Critique of Past Arguments on the Dates of Sankara48
Section IThe Traditional Theory of the Sankara School48
Section IIThe Arguments for Sankara's Dates based upon the Keralotpatti52
Section IIIThe Argument for Sankara's Dates Based upon the Legends of Nepal54
Section IVTheories which Try to Trace Back rom the Date of the Samksepa-Sariraka55
Section VThe Arguments for Sankara's Dates Based upon his Relation with Hinduism57
Section VIThe Argument for the Dates of Sankara Based upon the Proper Nouns in the Brahma-sutra-bhasya59
B.The Determination of the Dates of Sankara and Contemporary Philosopher65
Section IThe Relation between Sankara and the Philosophers after him65
(1)The Relation between Sankara and the Dates of Vacaspatimisra and Bhaskara65
(2)The Relation between the Dates of Suresvara and Sankara72
Section IIThe Relation between Sankara and the Philosophers Prior to him75
(1)The Relation between Sankara and Dharmakirti75
(2)The Dates of Kumarila in Conjunction with those of Bhartrharti, Santaraksita, Kamalasila, and Mandanamisra79
(3)The Determination of Sankara's Dates87
Section IIIConcluding Remarks88
Chapter IIIThe Significance of the Vedanta Philosophy90
Section IDefinition of "Vedanta"90
Section IICharacteristics of the Vedanta101
Section IIIThe Circumstances of the Foundation of the Vedanta School108
Section IVOther Names of the Vedanta School117
Section VThe Beginnings of the Vedanta School

126
Part II The Early-period Vedanta Philosophy as Seen by the Indian Schools
Introduction

129
Chapter IVVedanta Philosophy as Seen by the Buddhists131
Section IIntroduction131
Section IIEarly Buddhism and Upanisadic Thought133
Section IIISectarian Buddhism and the Upanisads140
Section IVThe Mahayana Sutras and Vedanta Thought152
Section VThe Early Madhyamikas and the Upanisads158
1.Nagarjuna and the Upanisads158
2.Orthodox Brahmanical Thought Mentioned in Aryadeva's Sastra on Heretic and Hinayanist Nirvana165
Section VIReferences to Upanisadic Ideas in the early Yogacara School
Maitreya-natha and Vasubandhu
180
Section VIIThe Vedanta Philosophy Known to Bhavya and Dharmapala182
Sub-Section 1Introduction182
Sub-Section 2The Vedanta Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-hrdaya184
Sub-Section 3The Vedanta as Presented by Bhavya in his Madhyamaka-hrdaya and Tarka-jvala206
Sub-Section 4The Vedanta Thought as Referred to in Other Texts of Bhavya217
Sub-Section 5The Vedanta Thought Mentioned by Dharmapala219
Section VIIIThe Vedanta Philosophy Reported by Santaraksita and Kamalasila221
Introduction221
Sub-Section IAn Examination of Purusa (Purusa-pariksa)230
A.Translation
B.Remarks
Sub-Section IIAn Examination of Atman falsely constructed by the Aupanisadas (Aupanisadakalpitatmapariksa)245
A.Translation
B.Remarks
Section IXVedanta Philosophy and Buddhism after Santaraksita and Kamalasila257
1.Remarks257
2.Bhaskara the Vedantin in Buddhist Literature260
Chapter VVedanta Philosophy as Seen from the Scriptures of Early Jainism266
Section IIntroduction266
Section IIVedanta Thought Described in the early Jain Scriptures268
Section IIIYajnavalkya and Other Upanisadic Thinkers in a Jain Tradition274
Section IVThe Vedanta as Noticed in Mediaeval Jain Literature282
Section VConclusion294
Chapter VIVedanta as it Appears in the Orthodox Brahmanical Literature296
Section IThe Brahmin as Transmitter of Indian Culture296
Section IIVedanta Philosophy in the Epic Poems298
Section IIIVedanta Thought in the Dharmasastras305
Section IVVedanta in the Arthasastra319
Section VWorks on Natural Science and the Connection with Vedanta323
Section VIVedanta Philosophy in Philosophical and Religious Works330
Section VIIVednata in Purely Literary Works345
Chapter VII(Supplement). Vedanta Thought Handed down by the Greeks

359
Part III Scholars Before the Brahma-sutra
Chapter VIIIThe Character and Thought of the Scholars prior to the Brahma-sutra369
Section IKarsnajini366
Section IIKasakrtsna372
Section IIIAtreya380
Section IVAudulomi382
Section VAsmarathya384
Section VIBadari386
Section VIIJaimini390
I.His Works390
1Mimamsa-sutra390
2Devata-kanda and the Samkarsana-Kanda392
3Sariraka-sutra396
II.His Personality and Dates399
III.His Vedanta Thought401
Section VIIIBadarayana404
Chapter IX The Separation of the Two Mimamsas409
Section IThe Relation Between the Two Mimamsas409
Section IIThe Ideological Confrontation of Jaimini and Badarayana

414
Part IV The Brahma-sutra
Chapter XIntroduction425
Section IOther Names of the Brahma-sutra425
Section IIThe Circumstances under which the Brahma-sutra came into being429
Section IIIThe Date of the Compilation of the Brahma-sutra435
Section IVPrestige of the Brahma-sutra is later Centuries438
Section VThe Style of the Brahma-sutra and the need for a Re-examination of the Original Meaning of the Sutras439
Chapter XIExplanatory Notes on the Brahma-sutra448
(Appendix) Results of the Comparative Study of the Three Ancient Commentaries451
Section IThe Historico-Social Attitude of the Brahma-sutras470
Section IIProblem of Knowledge475
Section IIIThe Absolute and World-Creation484
(1)Brahman in Itself484
(2)Brahman as the World-Cause486
(3)Rationality of World Emanation492
(4)The Emanation and Dissolution of the World497
Section IVThe Individual Self500
(1)The Relationship Between the individual Self and Brahman500
(2)The Various Characteristics of the Individual Self504
(3)The Structure of Individual Existence507
1The Various organs507
2Chief Vital Breath508
3Body509
4Conclusion511
(4)Types of Individual Existences512
(5)Consciousness514
Section VPractical Affairs515
1.Practical Life515
2.Meditation519
Section VITransmigration and Release524
1.The Soul after Death524
2.The Realm of Spiritual Liberation529
Index533
Errata563

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