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Books > Performing Arts > Intonation in North Indian Music - A Select Comparison of Theories with Contemporary Practice (An Old and Rare Book)
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Intonation in North Indian Music - A Select Comparison of Theories with Contemporary Practice (An Old and Rare Book)
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About the Book

There is probably no aspect of North Indian classical music which illustrates better the divergence of theory and practice than the subject of intonation which is represented by the technical term, sruti. Many musicologists have obviously felt this to be a fundamental element of music theory and have devoted much effort and a great many words to the clarification of this issue. Part of the reason for this is undoubtedly the fact that the subject is open to differing interpretation, but it is equally obvious that there is something about microtonality which attracts the scholar, if not the traditional musician.

The difference between theory and practice is exemplified by the two terms, sruti and sur. The former, as usually defined, refers to a theoretical tuning frame- work and pressupposes that Indian music is composed of steady, discrete tones. The latter refers to performance practice, where specific surs may be oscillated, made weaker or stronger, sustained or cut short, merged with other tones, ornamented in particular ways - all in response to the exigencies of the rag, the specific phrase and the context within the performance. Whereas intonation is the main quality of sruti, it is only one of the variables in sur and it is thus not entirely surprising that an examination of sur in performance with just this parameter in view does not reveal a grear deal of consistency.

A multiplicity of theoretical views on intonation in North Indian music are seen in numerous works on the subject. Documented empirical studies concerning the pitch aspect of contemporary performance are, on the other hand, sorely lacking; hence the need for the present study and others like it. The theoretical writings are all based (to varying extents) on Bharata's Natyasastra.Despite the great quantity of published material, however, the rationale for and nature of Bharata's system of 22 srutis still remain debatable questions. Were these Srutis equal or unequal in size ? Did they result from a conscious division of the octave, or rather from a desire to describe larger intervals in a numerical fashion ? Were these large intervals derived from divisive or cyclical tuning procedures on instruments, or from (less precise) physiological aspects of vocal production ? Ware the vinas in Bharata's time bow-hares Or lutes? Was his concept of svara a note or an interval ? What was the relationship, if any, between Bharata's system and the tradition from ancient to modern times, or did various changes occuring before the seventeenth century result in a break in this tradition ? What was the influence, if any, of the drone and the harmonic series ?

Although an extensive body of theoretical literature has been written on intonation in North-Indian music, there is a surprising lack of published laboratory studies. Until very recently, theoretical writings on music in India have for the most part avoided the empirical approach. Indian scholars have traditionally been preoccupied with interpretations of the ancient Sanskrit treatises, rather than investigations of actual performance practice. Theoreticians in India throughout the centuries have attempted to reconcile discrepencies between ancient theory and contemporary practices, but have done so through further reinterpretations of the treatises rather than analysis of the performed music.

The only published documented empirical study to date in which pitches have been measured in a contemporary performance context, is that of Jairazbhoy and Stone (1963). Due to the methodology of their experiment, which required the arduous task of counting by hand each individual wave peak to determine pitch frequency, the n umber of measured pitches was necessarily rather small. Furthermore, the limited sample made it impossible to investigate correlations between pitch and melodic context. Using somewhat different laboratory procedures, the present author has been able to compile a much larger body of data, thus making it possible to extend the investigation to a consideration of the influence of melodic context on pitch.

Perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from this very important study is the flexibility of Indian music within a relatively tight framework On both the macro and micro levels. On the macro level, no two performances are the same, yet two performances of a single rag will sham some features and reveal structural relationships that are deeper than any single performance. On the micro level, the precise way of rendering a sur, including its intonation, will vary from one performance to another and yet reveal the same kind of structural affinities with another performance of that rag.

About the Author

Mark Levy was born in Chicago. Illinois (U.S.A.) in 1946. After studying Western music at the University of Chicago, he pursued ethno- musicology at the University of California at Los Angeles, specializing in Indian music under the guidance of Nazir Jairazbhoy. He received additional training in Indian music at the Centre for World Music in Berkeley, California. In addition to his Indian interests, Mr. Levy is an accomplished performer and scholar of Balkan folk music, and is currently completing his Doctoral dissertation on Bulgarian music. He has taught at the University of California at Los Angeles and Santa Cruz. the Center for World Music, and Portland State University, and is presently employed by the Russian and East European Studies Center at the University of Oregon in Eugene.

Foreword

There is probably no aspect of North Indian classical music which illustrates better the divergence of theory and practice than the subject of intonation which is r presented by the technical term, sruti. Many musicologists have obviously felt this to be a fundamental element of music theory and have devoted much effort and a great many words to the clarification of this issue. Part of the reason for this is undoubtedly the fact that the subject is open to differing interpretation, but it is equally obvious that there is something about microtonality which attracts the scholar, if not the traditional musician. Bare Ghulam All Khan, one of the most famous singers of the modern era, during an interview in 1963, became quite impatient with my persistent questions about srutis and said, "sruti ko choro, sur ko to pakro" [‘Leave (the matter of) sruti, at least grasp the sur (svara, note)']. It is interesting to speculate on this difference in approach. To a traditional musician, intonation of a sur is governed by a specific context of performance, i.e., a particular rag and a particular phrase within that rag. Few musicians have an interest in the intonation of a sur in the absract or in the general theories that result from this kind of examination. This is, of course, the domain of the musicologist, but performance practice is extremely difficult to analyze at this degree of detail. Even with the most advanced electronic equipment there remain areas of ambiguity, as will be evident from this exceptional work by Mark Levy.

The difference between theory and practice is exemplified by the two terms, sruti and sur. The former, as usually defined, refers to a theoretical tuning framework and presupposes that Indian music is composed of steady, discrete tones. The latter refers to performance practice, where specific surs may be oscillated, made weaker or stronger, sustained or cut short, merged with other tones, ornamented in particular ways-all in response to the exigencies of the rag, the specific phrase and the context within the performance. Whereas intonation is the main quality of sruti, it is only one of the variables in sur and it is thus not entirely surprising that an examination of sur in performance with just this parameter in view does not reveal a great deal of consistency.

Perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from this very important study is the flexibility of Indian music within a relatively tight framework on both the macro and micro levels. On the macro level, no two performances are the same, yet two performances of a single rag will share some features and reveal structural relationships that are deeper than any single performance. On the micro level, the precise way of rendering a sur, including its intonation, will vary from one performance to another and yet reveal the same kind of structral affinities with another performance of that rag. Levy's graphic analysis of the komal Ga (minor third) of the rag Darbari in fourteen different examples, performed by several different musicians, shows the difference of detail quite clearly, nevertheless, none of these would be mistaken for the komal Ga as used, for instance, in the rag Kafi. There are, of course, many notes in rags which are not treated in any special way, just as there are phrases in rags which are ambiguous in terms of rag identity. Further analyses at this level of detail might well reveal that the treatment of many sur in specific contexts can be circumscribed by a perimeter within which the performer is permitted improvisational freedom, paralleling on this micro level, the kind of improvisation which is a characteristic feature of rag performance.

Mark Levy is, at present, a Ph.D. candidate in Ethnomusicology at the University of California at Los Angles and is in the process of completing his doctoral dissertation on Bulgarian music. This extraordinarily systematic and detailed work on intonation in Indian music was completed to satisfy the requirements for his M.A. thesis. In my opinion, it is a most important contribution to Indian music studies since it brings together nearly all the important theories and ideas on intonation and puts them to empirical test using sophisticated electronic tools. I do not believe that Mark Levy has arrived at .the final answer on this subject, but his painstaking research will surely suggest profitable directions for further scholarly endeavour.

Introduction

These quotations from two contemporary Indian authors, although somewhat exaggerated, clearly reflect the diversity of opinion expressed in the great body of theoretical writings concerning intonation in Indian music. The present work has two primary goals: (1) to compile; discuss, and evaluate the most significant ancient and modern theories of intonation in North Indian classical music and (2) to explore their relevance to contemporary North Indian classical performance practice based on my own interval measurements of recorded performances by some of North India's leading vocal and instrumental musicians.

Although an extensive body of theoretical literature has been written on intonation in North Indian music, there is a surprising lack of published laboratory studies. Until very recently, theoretical writings on music in India have for the most part avoided the empirical approach. Indian scholars have traditionally been preoccupied with interpretations of the ancient Sanskrit treatises, rather than investigations of actual performance practice. Furthermore, unlike Arabic and Chinese theoretical writings on music, these treatises have generally avoided any detailed mathematical calculations and interval ratios based on string or pipe lengths. Theoreticians in India throughout the centuries .have attempted to reconcile discrepancies between ancient theory and contemporary practices, but have done so through further reinterpretations of the treatises rather than analysis of the performed music.

In recent times, due to increased contact with the West, there has been some tendency among Indian scholars to assume a more empirical approach to the subject of intonation. Significant laboratory studies in India, however, have been prevented simply by the absence in India of electronic sound equipment and pitch measuring devices of suitable quality. This present study, for example, could not have been undertaken without the Strobotuner and a loop-repeating system involving two Revox tape recorders, none of which is presently available at the various research institutions in India. More important, however, is the belief among Indian scholars that an attempted empiricism is already implicit in the works of Bharata and other Sanskrit writers. Closely tied to this belief is the assumption that these ancient treatises are still relevant to modern performance practice, and that further empirical studies, therefore, would continue to substantiate traditional views.

The only published documented empirical study to date in which pitches have been measured in a contemporary performance context is that of Jairazbhoy and Stone (1963). Due to the methodology of their experiment, which required the arduous task of counting by hand each individual wave peak: to determine pitch frequency, the number of measured pitches was necessarily rather small. Furthermore, the limited sample made it impossible to investigate correlations between pitch and melodic context. Using somewhat different laboratory procedures, the present author has been able to compile a much larger body of data, thus making it possible to extend the investigation to a consideration of the influence of melodic context on pitch. It should not be necessarily assumed that the laboratory results presented here are a reflection of North Indian music practice in general, although this may be the case.

Since the sample studied is still relatively small, these results indicate directions or tendencies rather than established theses.

Contents

Forewordv
List of Tablesx
List of Figuresx
Acknowledgementsxi
Introduction1
Notes to the Introduction2
Part IAn Historical Review of Intonation Theories
IAncient and Medieval Treatises5
aThe Natyasastra of Bharata-Muni5
bThe Dattilam of Dattila9
cThe Brhaddesi Mahatma9
dThe Naradisiksa of Narada10
eThe Sangitaratnakara of Sarngadeva11
fThe Ragatarangini of Locana-Kavi14
gThe Sadragacandrodaya of Pundarika Vithala14
hThe Ragavibodha of Somanatha14
iThe Chaturdandi Prakasika of Venkatamakhi15
jThe Sangitaparijata of Ahobala Pandit16
kThe Hrdayakautaka and the hrdayaprakasa of Hrdaya Narayana17
lThe Raga Tattva-Vibodha of Pandita Srinivasa23
mThe anupa-Ankusa of Pandit Bhavabhatta24
Summary24
Notes to Chapter I24
IIModern Theories concerning the Origin of the Twenty-Two Srutis25
AThe Divisive Theory of Fox-Strangways26
BThe Cyclic theory of Kolinski28
CThe Vedic theory of Bake and Jairazbhoy30
Summary33
Notes to Chapter II33
IIIModern Interpretations and Expansions of the Sruti System34
ADeval34
BClements34
CDanielou35
D Bose41
ELobo52
FOther Modern Writers in Defense of the Sruti System (Goswami, Prajnanananda, and Modak)57
Summary59
Notes to Chapter III59
IVNon-Sruti Interpretations of Intonation62
ABhatkhande64
BTelang65
CPopley66
DRanade66
EBake68
FSanyal69
GRoy69
HRatanjankar69
IPowers70
JJairazbhoy71
KKaufmann75
L Sinha76
MDeva77
NModak79
Summary80
Notes to Chapter IV80
Part IILaboratory Measurements of Intonation in Practice
vLaboratory Procedures85
AEquipments85
BMethodology86
CDifficulties of Pitch Measurements90
D Sample Selection90
EEquipments and Data Reliability91
Notes to Chapter V93
VIDiscussion of The Laboratory Data94
APitch Consistency94
BComparison of Laboratory Result with Theoretical Values109
CPitch Variation and Immediate Melodic Context122
D Pitch Variation and General Melodic Context136
ESummary of Laboratory Results137
Notes to Chapter VI140
General Summary and Conclusion140
Appendices
ATransliteration and pronunciation144
BDefinitions of Acoustical Terms148
CGeneral Comments on the Recorded Examples152
DGraphs of Fourteen Examples of the Ga in Darbari157
ETranscriptions166
Bibliography213
Index220













Intonation in North Indian Music - A Select Comparison of Theories with Contemporary Practice (An Old and Rare Book)

Item Code:
NAN116
Cover:
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Edition:
1982
Language:
English
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9.5 inch X 7.0 inch
Pages:
237
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Weight of the Book: 495 gms
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$50.00
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About the Book

There is probably no aspect of North Indian classical music which illustrates better the divergence of theory and practice than the subject of intonation which is represented by the technical term, sruti. Many musicologists have obviously felt this to be a fundamental element of music theory and have devoted much effort and a great many words to the clarification of this issue. Part of the reason for this is undoubtedly the fact that the subject is open to differing interpretation, but it is equally obvious that there is something about microtonality which attracts the scholar, if not the traditional musician.

The difference between theory and practice is exemplified by the two terms, sruti and sur. The former, as usually defined, refers to a theoretical tuning frame- work and pressupposes that Indian music is composed of steady, discrete tones. The latter refers to performance practice, where specific surs may be oscillated, made weaker or stronger, sustained or cut short, merged with other tones, ornamented in particular ways - all in response to the exigencies of the rag, the specific phrase and the context within the performance. Whereas intonation is the main quality of sruti, it is only one of the variables in sur and it is thus not entirely surprising that an examination of sur in performance with just this parameter in view does not reveal a grear deal of consistency.

A multiplicity of theoretical views on intonation in North Indian music are seen in numerous works on the subject. Documented empirical studies concerning the pitch aspect of contemporary performance are, on the other hand, sorely lacking; hence the need for the present study and others like it. The theoretical writings are all based (to varying extents) on Bharata's Natyasastra.Despite the great quantity of published material, however, the rationale for and nature of Bharata's system of 22 srutis still remain debatable questions. Were these Srutis equal or unequal in size ? Did they result from a conscious division of the octave, or rather from a desire to describe larger intervals in a numerical fashion ? Were these large intervals derived from divisive or cyclical tuning procedures on instruments, or from (less precise) physiological aspects of vocal production ? Ware the vinas in Bharata's time bow-hares Or lutes? Was his concept of svara a note or an interval ? What was the relationship, if any, between Bharata's system and the tradition from ancient to modern times, or did various changes occuring before the seventeenth century result in a break in this tradition ? What was the influence, if any, of the drone and the harmonic series ?

Although an extensive body of theoretical literature has been written on intonation in North-Indian music, there is a surprising lack of published laboratory studies. Until very recently, theoretical writings on music in India have for the most part avoided the empirical approach. Indian scholars have traditionally been preoccupied with interpretations of the ancient Sanskrit treatises, rather than investigations of actual performance practice. Theoreticians in India throughout the centuries have attempted to reconcile discrepencies between ancient theory and contemporary practices, but have done so through further reinterpretations of the treatises rather than analysis of the performed music.

The only published documented empirical study to date in which pitches have been measured in a contemporary performance context, is that of Jairazbhoy and Stone (1963). Due to the methodology of their experiment, which required the arduous task of counting by hand each individual wave peak to determine pitch frequency, the n umber of measured pitches was necessarily rather small. Furthermore, the limited sample made it impossible to investigate correlations between pitch and melodic context. Using somewhat different laboratory procedures, the present author has been able to compile a much larger body of data, thus making it possible to extend the investigation to a consideration of the influence of melodic context on pitch.

Perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from this very important study is the flexibility of Indian music within a relatively tight framework On both the macro and micro levels. On the macro level, no two performances are the same, yet two performances of a single rag will sham some features and reveal structural relationships that are deeper than any single performance. On the micro level, the precise way of rendering a sur, including its intonation, will vary from one performance to another and yet reveal the same kind of structural affinities with another performance of that rag.

About the Author

Mark Levy was born in Chicago. Illinois (U.S.A.) in 1946. After studying Western music at the University of Chicago, he pursued ethno- musicology at the University of California at Los Angeles, specializing in Indian music under the guidance of Nazir Jairazbhoy. He received additional training in Indian music at the Centre for World Music in Berkeley, California. In addition to his Indian interests, Mr. Levy is an accomplished performer and scholar of Balkan folk music, and is currently completing his Doctoral dissertation on Bulgarian music. He has taught at the University of California at Los Angeles and Santa Cruz. the Center for World Music, and Portland State University, and is presently employed by the Russian and East European Studies Center at the University of Oregon in Eugene.

Foreword

There is probably no aspect of North Indian classical music which illustrates better the divergence of theory and practice than the subject of intonation which is r presented by the technical term, sruti. Many musicologists have obviously felt this to be a fundamental element of music theory and have devoted much effort and a great many words to the clarification of this issue. Part of the reason for this is undoubtedly the fact that the subject is open to differing interpretation, but it is equally obvious that there is something about microtonality which attracts the scholar, if not the traditional musician. Bare Ghulam All Khan, one of the most famous singers of the modern era, during an interview in 1963, became quite impatient with my persistent questions about srutis and said, "sruti ko choro, sur ko to pakro" [‘Leave (the matter of) sruti, at least grasp the sur (svara, note)']. It is interesting to speculate on this difference in approach. To a traditional musician, intonation of a sur is governed by a specific context of performance, i.e., a particular rag and a particular phrase within that rag. Few musicians have an interest in the intonation of a sur in the absract or in the general theories that result from this kind of examination. This is, of course, the domain of the musicologist, but performance practice is extremely difficult to analyze at this degree of detail. Even with the most advanced electronic equipment there remain areas of ambiguity, as will be evident from this exceptional work by Mark Levy.

The difference between theory and practice is exemplified by the two terms, sruti and sur. The former, as usually defined, refers to a theoretical tuning framework and presupposes that Indian music is composed of steady, discrete tones. The latter refers to performance practice, where specific surs may be oscillated, made weaker or stronger, sustained or cut short, merged with other tones, ornamented in particular ways-all in response to the exigencies of the rag, the specific phrase and the context within the performance. Whereas intonation is the main quality of sruti, it is only one of the variables in sur and it is thus not entirely surprising that an examination of sur in performance with just this parameter in view does not reveal a great deal of consistency.

Perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from this very important study is the flexibility of Indian music within a relatively tight framework on both the macro and micro levels. On the macro level, no two performances are the same, yet two performances of a single rag will share some features and reveal structural relationships that are deeper than any single performance. On the micro level, the precise way of rendering a sur, including its intonation, will vary from one performance to another and yet reveal the same kind of structral affinities with another performance of that rag. Levy's graphic analysis of the komal Ga (minor third) of the rag Darbari in fourteen different examples, performed by several different musicians, shows the difference of detail quite clearly, nevertheless, none of these would be mistaken for the komal Ga as used, for instance, in the rag Kafi. There are, of course, many notes in rags which are not treated in any special way, just as there are phrases in rags which are ambiguous in terms of rag identity. Further analyses at this level of detail might well reveal that the treatment of many sur in specific contexts can be circumscribed by a perimeter within which the performer is permitted improvisational freedom, paralleling on this micro level, the kind of improvisation which is a characteristic feature of rag performance.

Mark Levy is, at present, a Ph.D. candidate in Ethnomusicology at the University of California at Los Angles and is in the process of completing his doctoral dissertation on Bulgarian music. This extraordinarily systematic and detailed work on intonation in Indian music was completed to satisfy the requirements for his M.A. thesis. In my opinion, it is a most important contribution to Indian music studies since it brings together nearly all the important theories and ideas on intonation and puts them to empirical test using sophisticated electronic tools. I do not believe that Mark Levy has arrived at .the final answer on this subject, but his painstaking research will surely suggest profitable directions for further scholarly endeavour.

Introduction

These quotations from two contemporary Indian authors, although somewhat exaggerated, clearly reflect the diversity of opinion expressed in the great body of theoretical writings concerning intonation in Indian music. The present work has two primary goals: (1) to compile; discuss, and evaluate the most significant ancient and modern theories of intonation in North Indian classical music and (2) to explore their relevance to contemporary North Indian classical performance practice based on my own interval measurements of recorded performances by some of North India's leading vocal and instrumental musicians.

Although an extensive body of theoretical literature has been written on intonation in North Indian music, there is a surprising lack of published laboratory studies. Until very recently, theoretical writings on music in India have for the most part avoided the empirical approach. Indian scholars have traditionally been preoccupied with interpretations of the ancient Sanskrit treatises, rather than investigations of actual performance practice. Furthermore, unlike Arabic and Chinese theoretical writings on music, these treatises have generally avoided any detailed mathematical calculations and interval ratios based on string or pipe lengths. Theoreticians in India throughout the centuries .have attempted to reconcile discrepancies between ancient theory and contemporary practices, but have done so through further reinterpretations of the treatises rather than analysis of the performed music.

In recent times, due to increased contact with the West, there has been some tendency among Indian scholars to assume a more empirical approach to the subject of intonation. Significant laboratory studies in India, however, have been prevented simply by the absence in India of electronic sound equipment and pitch measuring devices of suitable quality. This present study, for example, could not have been undertaken without the Strobotuner and a loop-repeating system involving two Revox tape recorders, none of which is presently available at the various research institutions in India. More important, however, is the belief among Indian scholars that an attempted empiricism is already implicit in the works of Bharata and other Sanskrit writers. Closely tied to this belief is the assumption that these ancient treatises are still relevant to modern performance practice, and that further empirical studies, therefore, would continue to substantiate traditional views.

The only published documented empirical study to date in which pitches have been measured in a contemporary performance context is that of Jairazbhoy and Stone (1963). Due to the methodology of their experiment, which required the arduous task of counting by hand each individual wave peak: to determine pitch frequency, the number of measured pitches was necessarily rather small. Furthermore, the limited sample made it impossible to investigate correlations between pitch and melodic context. Using somewhat different laboratory procedures, the present author has been able to compile a much larger body of data, thus making it possible to extend the investigation to a consideration of the influence of melodic context on pitch. It should not be necessarily assumed that the laboratory results presented here are a reflection of North Indian music practice in general, although this may be the case.

Since the sample studied is still relatively small, these results indicate directions or tendencies rather than established theses.

Contents

Forewordv
List of Tablesx
List of Figuresx
Acknowledgementsxi
Introduction1
Notes to the Introduction2
Part IAn Historical Review of Intonation Theories
IAncient and Medieval Treatises5
aThe Natyasastra of Bharata-Muni5
bThe Dattilam of Dattila9
cThe Brhaddesi Mahatma9
dThe Naradisiksa of Narada10
eThe Sangitaratnakara of Sarngadeva11
fThe Ragatarangini of Locana-Kavi14
gThe Sadragacandrodaya of Pundarika Vithala14
hThe Ragavibodha of Somanatha14
iThe Chaturdandi Prakasika of Venkatamakhi15
jThe Sangitaparijata of Ahobala Pandit16
kThe Hrdayakautaka and the hrdayaprakasa of Hrdaya Narayana17
lThe Raga Tattva-Vibodha of Pandita Srinivasa23
mThe anupa-Ankusa of Pandit Bhavabhatta24
Summary24
Notes to Chapter I24
IIModern Theories concerning the Origin of the Twenty-Two Srutis25
AThe Divisive Theory of Fox-Strangways26
BThe Cyclic theory of Kolinski28
CThe Vedic theory of Bake and Jairazbhoy30
Summary33
Notes to Chapter II33
IIIModern Interpretations and Expansions of the Sruti System34
ADeval34
BClements34
CDanielou35
D Bose41
ELobo52
FOther Modern Writers in Defense of the Sruti System (Goswami, Prajnanananda, and Modak)57
Summary59
Notes to Chapter III59
IVNon-Sruti Interpretations of Intonation62
ABhatkhande64
BTelang65
CPopley66
DRanade66
EBake68
FSanyal69
GRoy69
HRatanjankar69
IPowers70
JJairazbhoy71
KKaufmann75
L Sinha76
MDeva77
NModak79
Summary80
Notes to Chapter IV80
Part IILaboratory Measurements of Intonation in Practice
vLaboratory Procedures85
AEquipments85
BMethodology86
CDifficulties of Pitch Measurements90
D Sample Selection90
EEquipments and Data Reliability91
Notes to Chapter V93
VIDiscussion of The Laboratory Data94
APitch Consistency94
BComparison of Laboratory Result with Theoretical Values109
CPitch Variation and Immediate Melodic Context122
D Pitch Variation and General Melodic Context136
ESummary of Laboratory Results137
Notes to Chapter VI140
General Summary and Conclusion140
Appendices
ATransliteration and pronunciation144
BDefinitions of Acoustical Terms148
CGeneral Comments on the Recorded Examples152
DGraphs of Fourteen Examples of the Ga in Darbari157
ETranscriptions166
Bibliography213
Index220













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Charles (Rudra)
I just wanted to say that this is I think my 3rd (big) order from you, and the last two times I received immaculate service, the books arrived well and it has been a very pleasant experience. Just wanted to say thanks for your efficient service.
Shantala, Belgium
Thank you so much EXOTIC INDIA for the wonderfull packaging!! I received my order today and it was gift wrapped with so much love and taste in a beautiful golden gift wrap and everything was neat and beautifully packed. Also my order came very fast... i am impressed! Besides selling fantastic items, you provide an exceptional customer service and i will surely purchase again from you! I am very glad and happy :) Thank you, Salma
Salma, Canada.
Artwork received today. Very pleased both with the product quality and speed of delivery. Many thanks for your help.
Carl, UK.
I wanted to let you know how happy we are with our framed pieces of Shree Durga and Shree Kali. Thank you and thank your framers for us. By the way, this month we offered a Puja and Yagna to the Ardhanarishwara murti we purchased from you last November. The Brahmin priest, Shree Vivek Godbol, who was visiting LA preformed the rites. He really loved our murti and thought it very paka. I am so happy to have found your site , it is very paka and trustworthy. Plus such great packing and quick shipping. Thanks for your service Vipin, it is a pleasure.
Gina, USA
My marble statue of Durga arrived today in perfect condition, it's such a beautiful statue. Thanks again for giving me a discount on it, I'm always very pleased with the items I order from you. You always have the best quality items.
Charles, Tennessee
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