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The Language of the Harappans: From Akkadian to Sanskrit
The Language of the Harappans: From Akkadian to Sanskrit
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About the Book

Since the formulation of Indo-European theory in the 19th c., Sanskrit has been considered the language brought over by the Aryas. This raised the question after the discovery of the Harappan culture: what was the language of the Harappans? This book tries to answer this question.

The Rigveda and the Vedic literature have also been considered the Aryan cultural heritage because in Rigveda clan name of the Aryas remained little known. Having shown that the Asuras and their allies fought with the Aryan migrants and that the Asuras were the Harappans, the author goes on to identify the language spoken and written bt them. With ample language data, analysed with comparative method, the process of linguistic change from the language of Asuras viz Akkadian to Sanskrit is traced in detail. This work, along with her other works, completes the picture and generates a fresh understanding of the complex pattern of prehistory of Indian languages and Indian culture on rational and logical basis. It throws light on many unanswered questions.

About the Author

(Ms) Malati J. Shendge, a well-known Indologist, has already given us three books, viz.,'The Civilized Demons: The Harappans in Rigveda' (1977),' rigveda, the original meaning and its recovery' (1990),' The Aryas: Facts without Fancy and Fiction' (1994), and several articles in learned journals. With this book she completes the presentation of the new approach to the understanding of Indian protohistory.

 

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements   ix
Prefatory Note   xi
List of Illustrations   xviii
Abbreviations   xix
I Introductory 1
II The Background 3
  1. The problem of the Harappan language and the script 3
  2. The ethnic identity of the Harappans 4
III The Formative Elements of the Harappan Culture 7
  1. Current hypothesis 7
  2. Current evidence 9
  3. Discussion 17
  4. an alternative hypothesis and evidence for it 19
IV The Harappan and the Akkadian Chronology 41
  1. The arrival of the Harappans in the Indus Valley 41
  2. The Antecedents of the Harappans in West Asia 44
V The Language of the Harappan Script 49
  1. The Harappan script and the present hypothesis 49
  2. The proto-Dravidian hypothesis examined 51
  3. The problem of retroflex consonants 54
  4. The checks on the hypothesis 55
  5. The invalidity of the formation of proto-Aryan in West Asia 56
VI The Emergence of the Rgvedic Language 69
  1. The authorship of the Rgveda 69
  2. Did the Asura language survive? 70
  3. The name of the Asura language 73
  4. The nature of linguistic change 76
  5. Why are these words not considered loans? 80
VII The President material and its Relevance to Indo-European Studies 83
  1. The Indo-European linguistics 83
  2. The influence on the dialects 87
  3. The comparison with Greek and Akkadian words 93
  4. The Biblical Tradition 96
  5. Observations on comparisons 98
VIII Patterns of Phonological Change 105
  1. The identifiable phonological and semantic features of Rgvedic lexemes 106
  2. The change from Akkadian to Sanskrit 108
  3. The basis for a genetic relationship 111
  4. Sumerian, Akkadian and Sanskrit phonologies 114
  5. Phonological changes 115
  6. Phonological analysis 121
IX The List of Sanskrit and Akkadian Correspondences 201
  I. Names of deities 202
  II. Names of Asuras Killed by Indra 206
  III. Names of the Rgvedic poets, grammarians, and clans 207
  IV. Names (or titles) of the Asura functionaries 215
  V. General words 220
X Some Additional Words 253
  I. Kinship terms 254
  II Names of body parts 256
  III. Names of animals 260
  IV. Food items 261
  V. Miscellaneous 261
  VI. Some Marathi words with Akkadian and Sumerian correspondences 264
XI Conclusion 269
Appendix: The decree of thong, spur and whip
Horse domestication in proto-historic times
271
List of Words   291
Index   295

Sample Pages

















The Language of the Harappans: From Akkadian to Sanskrit

Item Code:
IDH148
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1987
Publisher:
ISBN:
8170173256
Size:
9.7" X 7.1"
Pages:
338(B & W Figure)
Price:
$50.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
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About the Book

Since the formulation of Indo-European theory in the 19th c., Sanskrit has been considered the language brought over by the Aryas. This raised the question after the discovery of the Harappan culture: what was the language of the Harappans? This book tries to answer this question.

The Rigveda and the Vedic literature have also been considered the Aryan cultural heritage because in Rigveda clan name of the Aryas remained little known. Having shown that the Asuras and their allies fought with the Aryan migrants and that the Asuras were the Harappans, the author goes on to identify the language spoken and written bt them. With ample language data, analysed with comparative method, the process of linguistic change from the language of Asuras viz Akkadian to Sanskrit is traced in detail. This work, along with her other works, completes the picture and generates a fresh understanding of the complex pattern of prehistory of Indian languages and Indian culture on rational and logical basis. It throws light on many unanswered questions.

About the Author

(Ms) Malati J. Shendge, a well-known Indologist, has already given us three books, viz.,'The Civilized Demons: The Harappans in Rigveda' (1977),' rigveda, the original meaning and its recovery' (1990),' The Aryas: Facts without Fancy and Fiction' (1994), and several articles in learned journals. With this book she completes the presentation of the new approach to the understanding of Indian protohistory.

 

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements   ix
Prefatory Note   xi
List of Illustrations   xviii
Abbreviations   xix
I Introductory 1
II The Background 3
  1. The problem of the Harappan language and the script 3
  2. The ethnic identity of the Harappans 4
III The Formative Elements of the Harappan Culture 7
  1. Current hypothesis 7
  2. Current evidence 9
  3. Discussion 17
  4. an alternative hypothesis and evidence for it 19
IV The Harappan and the Akkadian Chronology 41
  1. The arrival of the Harappans in the Indus Valley 41
  2. The Antecedents of the Harappans in West Asia 44
V The Language of the Harappan Script 49
  1. The Harappan script and the present hypothesis 49
  2. The proto-Dravidian hypothesis examined 51
  3. The problem of retroflex consonants 54
  4. The checks on the hypothesis 55
  5. The invalidity of the formation of proto-Aryan in West Asia 56
VI The Emergence of the Rgvedic Language 69
  1. The authorship of the Rgveda 69
  2. Did the Asura language survive? 70
  3. The name of the Asura language 73
  4. The nature of linguistic change 76
  5. Why are these words not considered loans? 80
VII The President material and its Relevance to Indo-European Studies 83
  1. The Indo-European linguistics 83
  2. The influence on the dialects 87
  3. The comparison with Greek and Akkadian words 93
  4. The Biblical Tradition 96
  5. Observations on comparisons 98
VIII Patterns of Phonological Change 105
  1. The identifiable phonological and semantic features of Rgvedic lexemes 106
  2. The change from Akkadian to Sanskrit 108
  3. The basis for a genetic relationship 111
  4. Sumerian, Akkadian and Sanskrit phonologies 114
  5. Phonological changes 115
  6. Phonological analysis 121
IX The List of Sanskrit and Akkadian Correspondences 201
  I. Names of deities 202
  II. Names of Asuras Killed by Indra 206
  III. Names of the Rgvedic poets, grammarians, and clans 207
  IV. Names (or titles) of the Asura functionaries 215
  V. General words 220
X Some Additional Words 253
  I. Kinship terms 254
  II Names of body parts 256
  III. Names of animals 260
  IV. Food items 261
  V. Miscellaneous 261
  VI. Some Marathi words with Akkadian and Sumerian correspondences 264
XI Conclusion 269
Appendix: The decree of thong, spur and whip
Horse domestication in proto-historic times
271
List of Words   291
Index   295

Sample Pages

















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