Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Your Cart (0)
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Language and Literature > The Maoists in India: Tribals Under Siege
Displaying 1459 of 4529         Previous  |  NextSubscribe to our newsletter and discounts
The Maoists in India: Tribals Under Siege
The Maoists in India: Tribals Under Siege
Description

 

Back of the Book

In east-central India, nearly one hundred thousand Indian paramilitary forces are at war with thousands of Maoist guerrillas consisting primarily of tribal youth and children.

Caught in the crossfire are millions of poor tribals. Already hundreds have died in the conflict, thousands are in jail, several others have fled from homes, and malnutrition has reached sub-Saharan dimensions. What is the political meaning of these developments from the perspective of the Left? How do we appraise a formidable armed conflict in the context of a supposedly pluralist parliamentary democracy? How credible is a proclaimed resistance, which places large numbers of impoverished people in the crossfire? What options, if any, are now available to save the tribals from mounting catastrophe? This book attempts to address these questions. Since the basic thrust of the book is to articulate the urgent humanitarian cause of saving tribal lives, it is to be viewed as a political work, primarily.

About the Author

Nirmalangshu Mukherji is professor of Philosophy in Delhi University. He studies the structure of language as it relates to general properties of the human mind. He also writes on justice and human rights. His publications include The Cartesian Mind: Reflections on Language and Music, The Primacy of Grammar and December 13: Terror over Democracy. He also co-edited Noam Chomsky’s Architecture of Language.

Introduction

The word tribal is used in the subtitle of this book for familiarity. The indigenous people of Indian are commonly called adivasis, ‘ancient inhabitants,’ in many Indian languages; it does not have racist tone that the English word tribal has come to acquire. Gandhi called them girijans, ‘hill people’, which is inaccurate. From now onwards, I will use the word adivasi to denote my topic.

In this work, adivasis are viewed as (Indian) citizens, period. They are not discussed in term of their ancient culture, what they worship, and other forms of ‘ethnic’ distinction. There is no separate call to ‘protect’ their unique identity or to ‘preserve’ their special habitat. The ‘sociology’ and ‘anthropology’ of adivasis are not my topics. Adivasis are discussed because they are under attack by the Indian state and an insurgent group. Their democratic rights including right to livelihood – which they share with all people independently of ethnic categories – are seriously threatened in the context of an unfolding insurgency launched by the Communist Party of India (Maoist) or CPI (Maoist).

A Moist party may be formally viewed as a communist organization that subscribes to the doctrines of Marx, Lenin and Mao Zedong (MLM). Given their loyalty to these classical doctrines, Maoist parties typically reject both (Post-Stalin) Russian and (post-Mao) Chinese from of communism. Broadly speaking, these are widely viewed as egalitarian doctrines based on the enlightened principles of justice, equality, and freedom. Even if many commentators on the Left, especially in the West, view Leninism and Maoism as regressive doctrines by now, they continue to inspire a range of struggles for a just society across the world, For example, Maoists in India seek to create a paradise on earth.. where no person shall go hungry; where no one shall oppress another, where there shall be no discrimination based on caste, religion or sex; where a new socialist human being will be born in whom greed, selfishness, ago, competitiveness will be replaced by selflessness, modesty and cooperation and where a concern for other will take precedence over concern for oneself.

In any case, the salience of MLM is not under discussion here for it is a different matter how organizations which call themselves ‘Marxist’ or ‘Maoist’ behave on the ground, and what their presence means to the impoverished people they profess to liberate. History is replete with instances in which demonic, fundamentalist, reactionary, fascist, as well as progressive forces being their career with elaborate promises for the poor and the attendant visions of a just society. The Nazi movement called itself ‘National Socialist’ and it emerged from ghettos of the poor, not from corporate headquarters. For this reason I will seldom engage theoretically with the classical doctrines themselves in this work; I will also largely ignore the intricate polemical debates around these classical doctrines that occur relentlessly in MLM party documents and journals.

Most Maoist organizations believe in an armed protracted war to seize state power to establish what Mao called a ‘new democratic’ order. In most developing countries with a large peasant population, the protracted war is supposed to be in the form of an agrarian revolution. Since the aim is to seize state power by force, most Maoist groups shun any form of electoral politics to access existing states power, although some also advocate participation in elections as a temporary tactic to reach the people. It is not surprising that when something as momentous as emergence of communist China happens in history – followed by heroic resistance put up by people of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos with direct assistance from Chinese communists – it will inspire a variety of radical minds in the world.

There are literally hundreds of Maoist organizations operating across the world. In Europe, there are Maoist forums in the Netherlands, Germany, France, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Belgium, Britain, Portugal, Serbia, Austria, Poland, Slovenia, Greece and Finland, among others. In fact, there are several Maoist groups in most countries. In Latin America, Maoist groups are Present in Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, Equador, Dominican Republic, Peru and others, with several groups in most countries. There are Maoist groups in US, Russia, Canada, New Zealand and Japan. Many countries in Africa and West Asia, including Morocco, Turkey, Iraq and Iran have Maoist groups. Maoist groups are present in other parts of Asia as well including India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, the Philippines and Bangladesh.

The organizational strength and reach of these groups vary considerably. However, with the exception of Maoist organizations in India, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines and a few others, most of these groups appear to be small intellectual forums with insignificant penetration among people. There is little reason to believe that Maoist groups have played any noteworthy role in some of the recent and spectacular mass resistance movement in West Asia, Europe, Latin America and Africa. Even with respect to older resistance movements such as the fierce and controversial Revolutionry Armed Forces of Colombia – Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia in Spanish, FARC for short – it is questionable if it belongs to the Maoist fraternity. FARC also started out decades ago as a guerrilla movement under the banner of the Communist Party of Colombia (Marxist-Leninist), but it is unclear if ever adopted the Maoist doctrine. In fact, after nearly fifty years of operations, its adherence even to the classical Marxist doctrine has become questionable. Similar remarks apply to many armed insurgencies elsewhere.

Nonetheless, especially after the emergence of the neo-liberal are, the pot-war ‘Bretton Woods’ world order is beginning to show signs of deep crisis, forcing vast sections of populations across the world into an increasingly desperate state even in erstwhile affluent zones. In the absence of avenues for peaceful and sustained resistance movement, Maoist and other militant forces can begin to play a more prominent role in these circumstances. Perhaps this explains the impressive, though largely dormant, proliferation of Maoist groups across the world in the last two decades.

On paper, most Maoist groups advocate very similar ideology and programme of action; only a detailed examination of their practice can reveal their specific political character. Labels such as ‘Leninist’ and ‘Maoist’ ultimately get their meaning, if any, only in the concrete context of people’s lives. No doubt, in some cases, as in contemporary Nepal and the Philippines, Maoist organizations were able to organise genuine people’s movements when they learned to adjust to the vastly changed world scenario after the Chinese revolution.

For example, the Communist party of Nepal (Maoist) launched a peasant-based civil war more or less on classical Chinese lines against a ruthless monarchy and its royal army. However, as soon as the monarchy was defeated, the Maoist party there halted their armed insurgency and cooperated with rest of the political organizations, including some right-wing ones, to establish genuine republicanism based on universal franchise. In the Philippines, a Maoist movement has continued for many years with widespread support and involvement of people against a token republic that subscribes to what Noam Chomsky (2011) has characterized as ‘the Philippine model’ favoured by the US developing countries.

Chomsky points out that model is ‘in place in the Philippines’ which is ‘the one US neo-colony that is still run virtually the same way it was run one hundred years ago – same elite elements, same brutal constabulary, different names – with the US in the background, but not very far; Since these contexts leave little room for peaceful mass resistance, an armed struggle to enforce a drastic change in governance appears to be justified to that extent.

An armed struggle is no picnic for the masses. In every armed struggle mindless violence and atrocities are committed on unarmed people. This applies also to armed struggles in Nepal, the Philippines, Peru and Colombia which seem to have some salient features (Prashad, 2010). Also, armed struggles that appear to be uplifting from a distance, such as the ones led by the legendary Che Guevara in Bolivia and Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam might actually contain brutal elements that go against the very principles of resistance. Within this somber perspective, however, it seems that, in some cases, an armed struggle might actually signal a historical step forward for the concerned people.

Contents

 

Introduction

1

1

Dark Clouds over Dandakaranya

13

2

Fragile Democracy

39

3

Role of Intellectuals

74

4

Arms over people

113

5

Forms of Resistance

142

6

Quest for Peace

183

 

Appendix I: Interview with Ganapathy, General Secretary of CPI (Maoist), 2009 

215

 

Appendix II: Sanhati Statement against the Government of India's Planned Military offensive in Adivasi-populated Regions

229

 

Notes

232

 

Abbreviations

252

 

References

255

 

Glossary

264

 

Acknowledgements

267

 

Index

269

Sample Pages
















The Maoists in India: Tribals Under Siege

Item Code:
NAF595
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2013
ISBN:
9789381506264
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 Inch X 5.5 Inch
Pages:
285
Other Details:
Weight of the book: 275 gms
Price:
$25.00
Discounted:
$20.00   Shipping Free
You Save:
$5.00 (20%)
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
The Maoists in India: Tribals Under Siege

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 2362 times since 23rd Mar, 2016

 

Back of the Book

In east-central India, nearly one hundred thousand Indian paramilitary forces are at war with thousands of Maoist guerrillas consisting primarily of tribal youth and children.

Caught in the crossfire are millions of poor tribals. Already hundreds have died in the conflict, thousands are in jail, several others have fled from homes, and malnutrition has reached sub-Saharan dimensions. What is the political meaning of these developments from the perspective of the Left? How do we appraise a formidable armed conflict in the context of a supposedly pluralist parliamentary democracy? How credible is a proclaimed resistance, which places large numbers of impoverished people in the crossfire? What options, if any, are now available to save the tribals from mounting catastrophe? This book attempts to address these questions. Since the basic thrust of the book is to articulate the urgent humanitarian cause of saving tribal lives, it is to be viewed as a political work, primarily.

About the Author

Nirmalangshu Mukherji is professor of Philosophy in Delhi University. He studies the structure of language as it relates to general properties of the human mind. He also writes on justice and human rights. His publications include The Cartesian Mind: Reflections on Language and Music, The Primacy of Grammar and December 13: Terror over Democracy. He also co-edited Noam Chomsky’s Architecture of Language.

Introduction

The word tribal is used in the subtitle of this book for familiarity. The indigenous people of Indian are commonly called adivasis, ‘ancient inhabitants,’ in many Indian languages; it does not have racist tone that the English word tribal has come to acquire. Gandhi called them girijans, ‘hill people’, which is inaccurate. From now onwards, I will use the word adivasi to denote my topic.

In this work, adivasis are viewed as (Indian) citizens, period. They are not discussed in term of their ancient culture, what they worship, and other forms of ‘ethnic’ distinction. There is no separate call to ‘protect’ their unique identity or to ‘preserve’ their special habitat. The ‘sociology’ and ‘anthropology’ of adivasis are not my topics. Adivasis are discussed because they are under attack by the Indian state and an insurgent group. Their democratic rights including right to livelihood – which they share with all people independently of ethnic categories – are seriously threatened in the context of an unfolding insurgency launched by the Communist Party of India (Maoist) or CPI (Maoist).

A Moist party may be formally viewed as a communist organization that subscribes to the doctrines of Marx, Lenin and Mao Zedong (MLM). Given their loyalty to these classical doctrines, Maoist parties typically reject both (Post-Stalin) Russian and (post-Mao) Chinese from of communism. Broadly speaking, these are widely viewed as egalitarian doctrines based on the enlightened principles of justice, equality, and freedom. Even if many commentators on the Left, especially in the West, view Leninism and Maoism as regressive doctrines by now, they continue to inspire a range of struggles for a just society across the world, For example, Maoists in India seek to create a paradise on earth.. where no person shall go hungry; where no one shall oppress another, where there shall be no discrimination based on caste, religion or sex; where a new socialist human being will be born in whom greed, selfishness, ago, competitiveness will be replaced by selflessness, modesty and cooperation and where a concern for other will take precedence over concern for oneself.

In any case, the salience of MLM is not under discussion here for it is a different matter how organizations which call themselves ‘Marxist’ or ‘Maoist’ behave on the ground, and what their presence means to the impoverished people they profess to liberate. History is replete with instances in which demonic, fundamentalist, reactionary, fascist, as well as progressive forces being their career with elaborate promises for the poor and the attendant visions of a just society. The Nazi movement called itself ‘National Socialist’ and it emerged from ghettos of the poor, not from corporate headquarters. For this reason I will seldom engage theoretically with the classical doctrines themselves in this work; I will also largely ignore the intricate polemical debates around these classical doctrines that occur relentlessly in MLM party documents and journals.

Most Maoist organizations believe in an armed protracted war to seize state power to establish what Mao called a ‘new democratic’ order. In most developing countries with a large peasant population, the protracted war is supposed to be in the form of an agrarian revolution. Since the aim is to seize state power by force, most Maoist groups shun any form of electoral politics to access existing states power, although some also advocate participation in elections as a temporary tactic to reach the people. It is not surprising that when something as momentous as emergence of communist China happens in history – followed by heroic resistance put up by people of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos with direct assistance from Chinese communists – it will inspire a variety of radical minds in the world.

There are literally hundreds of Maoist organizations operating across the world. In Europe, there are Maoist forums in the Netherlands, Germany, France, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Belgium, Britain, Portugal, Serbia, Austria, Poland, Slovenia, Greece and Finland, among others. In fact, there are several Maoist groups in most countries. In Latin America, Maoist groups are Present in Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, Equador, Dominican Republic, Peru and others, with several groups in most countries. There are Maoist groups in US, Russia, Canada, New Zealand and Japan. Many countries in Africa and West Asia, including Morocco, Turkey, Iraq and Iran have Maoist groups. Maoist groups are present in other parts of Asia as well including India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, the Philippines and Bangladesh.

The organizational strength and reach of these groups vary considerably. However, with the exception of Maoist organizations in India, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines and a few others, most of these groups appear to be small intellectual forums with insignificant penetration among people. There is little reason to believe that Maoist groups have played any noteworthy role in some of the recent and spectacular mass resistance movement in West Asia, Europe, Latin America and Africa. Even with respect to older resistance movements such as the fierce and controversial Revolutionry Armed Forces of Colombia – Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia in Spanish, FARC for short – it is questionable if it belongs to the Maoist fraternity. FARC also started out decades ago as a guerrilla movement under the banner of the Communist Party of Colombia (Marxist-Leninist), but it is unclear if ever adopted the Maoist doctrine. In fact, after nearly fifty years of operations, its adherence even to the classical Marxist doctrine has become questionable. Similar remarks apply to many armed insurgencies elsewhere.

Nonetheless, especially after the emergence of the neo-liberal are, the pot-war ‘Bretton Woods’ world order is beginning to show signs of deep crisis, forcing vast sections of populations across the world into an increasingly desperate state even in erstwhile affluent zones. In the absence of avenues for peaceful and sustained resistance movement, Maoist and other militant forces can begin to play a more prominent role in these circumstances. Perhaps this explains the impressive, though largely dormant, proliferation of Maoist groups across the world in the last two decades.

On paper, most Maoist groups advocate very similar ideology and programme of action; only a detailed examination of their practice can reveal their specific political character. Labels such as ‘Leninist’ and ‘Maoist’ ultimately get their meaning, if any, only in the concrete context of people’s lives. No doubt, in some cases, as in contemporary Nepal and the Philippines, Maoist organizations were able to organise genuine people’s movements when they learned to adjust to the vastly changed world scenario after the Chinese revolution.

For example, the Communist party of Nepal (Maoist) launched a peasant-based civil war more or less on classical Chinese lines against a ruthless monarchy and its royal army. However, as soon as the monarchy was defeated, the Maoist party there halted their armed insurgency and cooperated with rest of the political organizations, including some right-wing ones, to establish genuine republicanism based on universal franchise. In the Philippines, a Maoist movement has continued for many years with widespread support and involvement of people against a token republic that subscribes to what Noam Chomsky (2011) has characterized as ‘the Philippine model’ favoured by the US developing countries.

Chomsky points out that model is ‘in place in the Philippines’ which is ‘the one US neo-colony that is still run virtually the same way it was run one hundred years ago – same elite elements, same brutal constabulary, different names – with the US in the background, but not very far; Since these contexts leave little room for peaceful mass resistance, an armed struggle to enforce a drastic change in governance appears to be justified to that extent.

An armed struggle is no picnic for the masses. In every armed struggle mindless violence and atrocities are committed on unarmed people. This applies also to armed struggles in Nepal, the Philippines, Peru and Colombia which seem to have some salient features (Prashad, 2010). Also, armed struggles that appear to be uplifting from a distance, such as the ones led by the legendary Che Guevara in Bolivia and Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam might actually contain brutal elements that go against the very principles of resistance. Within this somber perspective, however, it seems that, in some cases, an armed struggle might actually signal a historical step forward for the concerned people.

Contents

 

Introduction

1

1

Dark Clouds over Dandakaranya

13

2

Fragile Democracy

39

3

Role of Intellectuals

74

4

Arms over people

113

5

Forms of Resistance

142

6

Quest for Peace

183

 

Appendix I: Interview with Ganapathy, General Secretary of CPI (Maoist), 2009 

215

 

Appendix II: Sanhati Statement against the Government of India's Planned Military offensive in Adivasi-populated Regions

229

 

Notes

232

 

Abbreviations

252

 

References

255

 

Glossary

264

 

Acknowledgements

267

 

Index

269

Sample Pages
















Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Related Items

Hindu Kingship, Ethnic Revival, and Maoist Rebellion in Nepal
by Marie Lecomte-Tilouine
Paperback (Edition: 2013)
Oxford University Press
Item Code: NAL611
$35.00$28.00
You save: $7.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Jangalnama Travels in a Maoist Guerilla Zone Satnam
by Vishav Bharti
Paperback (Edition: 2010)
Penguin Books
Item Code: IHL344
$22.50$18.00
You save: $4.50 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Hello Bastar (The Untold Story of India's Maoist Movement)
by Rahul Pandita
Paperback (Edition: 2011)
Tranquebar Press
Item Code: NAG499
$20.00$16.00
You save: $4.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Maoist and Other Armed Conflicts
Item Code: NAB983
$25.00$20.00
You save: $5.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Days and Nights in The Heartland of Rebellion
by Gautam Navlakha
Paperback (Edition: 2012)
Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAH106
$21.00$16.80
You save: $4.20 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Raj Lives India in Nepal
by Sanjay Upadhya
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
Vitasta Publishing Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAG899
$40.00$32.00
You save: $8.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
THE DANCING DEMOCRACY: THE POWER OF THE THIRD EYE
Item Code: IDG103
$18.00$14.40
You save: $3.60 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Towards a Democratic Nepal: Inclusive Political Institutions for a Multicultural Society
by Mahendra Lawoti
Paperback (Edition: 2004)
Sage Publications
Item Code: IDE595
$30.00$24.00
You save: $6.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences
by David N. Gellner
Paperback (Edition: 2008)
Social Science Press
Item Code: NAG493
$20.00$16.00
You save: $4.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Contesting Nation (Gendered Violence in South Asia: Notes on The Postcolonial Present)
Item Code: NAF894
$50.00$40.00
You save: $10.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Captive Imagination: Letters from Prison
by Varavara Rao
Hardcover (Edition: 2010)
Penguin Viking
Item Code: IHL455
$27.00$21.60
You save: $5.40 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Sacrificing People (Invasions of a Tribal Landscape)
by Felix Padel
Paperback (Edition: 2011)
Orient Blackswan Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAJ240
$36.00$28.80
You save: $7.20 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Social and Political Thought in Modern India
Paperback (Edition: 2004)
Indira Gandhi National Open University
Item Code: NAF536
$25.00$20.00
You save: $5.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Our Moon Has Blood Clots (The Exodus of The Kashmiri Pandits)
by Rahul Pandita
Hardcover (Edition: 2013)
Random House India
Item Code: NAF124
$30.00$24.00
You save: $6.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now

Testimonials

Very grateful for this service, of making this precious treasure of Haveli Sangeet for ThakurJi so easily in the US. Appreciate the fact that notation is provided.
Leena, USA.
The Bhairava painting I ordered by Sri Kailash Raj is excellent. I have been purchasing from Exotic India for well over a decade and am always beyond delighted with my extraordinary purchases and customer service. Thank you.
Marc, UK
I have been buying from Exotic India for years and am always pleased and excited to receive my packages. Thanks for the quality products.
Delia, USA
As ever, brilliant price and service.
Howard, UK.
The best and fastest service worldwide - I am in Australia and I put in a big order of books (14 items) on a Wednesday; it was sent on Friday and arrived at my doorstep early on Monday morning - amazing! All very securely packed in a very strong cardboard box. I have bought several times from Exotic India and the service is always exceptionally good. THANK YOU and NAMASTE!
Charles (Rudra)
I just wanted to say that this is I think my 3rd (big) order from you, and the last two times I received immaculate service, the books arrived well and it has been a very pleasant experience. Just wanted to say thanks for your efficient service.
Shantala, Belgium
Thank you so much EXOTIC INDIA for the wonderfull packaging!! I received my order today and it was gift wrapped with so much love and taste in a beautiful golden gift wrap and everything was neat and beautifully packed. Also my order came very fast... i am impressed! Besides selling fantastic items, you provide an exceptional customer service and i will surely purchase again from you! I am very glad and happy :) Thank you, Salma
Salma, Canada.
Artwork received today. Very pleased both with the product quality and speed of delivery. Many thanks for your help.
Carl, UK.
I wanted to let you know how happy we are with our framed pieces of Shree Durga and Shree Kali. Thank you and thank your framers for us. By the way, this month we offered a Puja and Yagna to the Ardhanarishwara murti we purchased from you last November. The Brahmin priest, Shree Vivek Godbol, who was visiting LA preformed the rites. He really loved our murti and thought it very paka. I am so happy to have found your site , it is very paka and trustworthy. Plus such great packing and quick shipping. Thanks for your service Vipin, it is a pleasure.
Gina, USA
My marble statue of Durga arrived today in perfect condition, it's such a beautiful statue. Thanks again for giving me a discount on it, I'm always very pleased with the items I order from you. You always have the best quality items.
Charles, Tennessee
TRUSTe
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2017 © Exotic India