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Item Code: IMD29

by Adya Rangacharya

Hardcover (Edition: 2014)

Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN 9788121506809

Language: (English Translation with Critical Notes)
Size: 8.8" X 5.8"
Pages: 416
Weight of the Book: 655 gms
Price: $40.00
Discounted: $30.00   Shipping Free
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From the Jacket :

The Natyasastra is probably one of the earliest and certainly one of the best treatises on Indian Dramaturgy. At the same time, the book available now is not an early one but may be as late as the seventh or eighth century AD. The authorship is traditionally ascribed to Bharata, the Sage.

The eminence of Natyasastra is not that it was the first book on the subject but that it was the first book on the subject but that it was the first comprehensive treatise on Dance, Drama and Music. Like the Mahabharata, Natyasastra too boasts that "What is found here may be found elsewhere. But what is not here cannot be found anywhere".

To confer upon it prestige as the sole authority, it was described as the fifth Veda - a Veda Accessible to all the castes of society. The essential elements of stage-craft have been described by the Natyasastra thousands of years ago.

The question arises, naturally, whether such a treatise can serve any purpose of our time. This was the very question which the author set about to explore in the present translation and his notes on each chapter amply demonstrate how latest problems of actors and directors have been anticipated and resolved in it.



This is a translation of thirty-six chapters of Bharata's Natyasastra - Sanskrit treatise ascribed to Bharata. At the same time, this is not a translation of each and every verse. The reason for this is that the texts are rambling repetitive, contradictory and even of doubtful meaning. Word to word translation of each and very verse would not convey any idea of the importance of this first and the most ancient Indian work on dramaturgy. I have consulted the text published by Dr. Ghosh and the various reading and tried to give the correct meaning. At the same time, in certain contexts (particularly about the movements of hands, feel etc.), I have translated almost each and very verse, so that the reader may find how scrupulous, deep and detailed the book is. There is one thing to be remembered in connection with such books in Sanskrit. No writers are as interested in details, divisions, sub-divisions and even sub-sub-divisions, as our Sanskrit writers on technical subjects are. I have added notes to each chapter in which I have discussed and/or explained complicated ideas or irrelevant passages, etc. If, in some cases, I have given a free translation, it is only with the intention of saving the reader from getting confused.

Personally, I feel happy for two reasons: it was a long-felt wish of mine to study critically, to translate and to edit the Natyasastra. When thirty years ago, I resigned from my academic position as teacher of Sanskrit in a college, I had to give up my ambition. Now, the second reason: through gave it up, my wife who shared my ambition, kept it alive, often to my annoyance. Now, I am thankful to the publishers who approached me with the proposal of translating this work and who were kind to accept my method of translation as mentioned above.

Almost a thousand years ago a write called Dhananjaya wrote a treatise called Dasarupaka (ten forms of plays). He did what I originally intended to do, viz. abridge the work only as far as it concerned drama. Let me conclude with his works.

It was God Brahma who extracted from the four Veda-s their essence and created the Natyasastra out of it; it was the sage Bharata who put it into practice; and it was God Siva and his consort Parvati who (respective) contributed the Tandava and the Lasya dances. Against this galaxy of authors, who contributing my little mite to revel the excellence of the work.

It is for research to deciders to decide if that 'little mite' of mine has been worth its while.


About The Natyasastra

The Natyasastra is probably of the earliest and certainly one of the best treatises on Indian dramaturgy. At the same time, the book of 36 (or37) chapter available now, is not early one, but may be as late as the seventh or eighth century AD.

The authorship is traditionally ascribed to Bharata, who was considered to be a sage. But even that may be doubted. The original work, the text says in its first chapter, was composed by God Brahma for the celestial immortals rules by Indra. In the last chapter, it is said that for the terrestrial world, it was (re-) composed or edited by Kahala, Vatsys, Sandiya and Dattila, who are mentioned both as the sons and disciples of Bharata. But these are only names; nothing more is known about them.

There is, however, evidence to show that dramaturgy was studied even before Panini, the grammarian (third century BC.). Panini refers to Nata-sutra-s–aphoristic guides for nata-s–by two persons, Silalin and Krsasva. Thus is the only mentio of these two writers of aphorisms on dramaturgy. For this reason, Bharata's Natyasastra may as well be a Sastra on dramaturgy for Bharata-s, i.e. actors, instead of, of Bharata–a sage-writer.

But the Indian tradition has always persisted in ascribing the authorised of any first work on any subject, starting with Veda-s, either to God or to a traditional sage. (or, it may be quite likely that the first authorship itself conferred the little of rsi or muni on the author.)

Though the treatise was, now and then, referred to by the later commentators on Sanskrit Dramas, the original text was not available till about a hundred years ago. And even then it book almost three quarters of a century for the whole text to be made available.

Another work called Dasarupaka (tenth century) mentions Bharata as a muni who produced the first play based on God Brahma's Natyaveda, it does not mention the name Natyasastra, though the author says he is abridging Bharata's work in his (Bharata's) own words.

In 1865, Fitz Edward Hall of U.S.A. discovered seven to eight chapters (17-22 and 24) of Natyasastra and published them as an Appendix to Dasarupaka. In 1874, the German scholar Haymann published an article on them. The interest created induced the French scholar Paul Reynaud to published a critical edition of chapter XVIII. Four years later, in 1884, he followed it with critical editions of chapters XV and XVI. Then in 1888, chapter XXVIII was published in France. It was only in 1926, that too after an edition 30 years ago by K.P. Parab, that for the first time in India, the Gaekwad Oriental Series, Baroda undertook a critical edition; but it published only the first seven chapters. This was followed by the Benaras and the Nirnayasagar edition with different readings as footnotes. The Gaekwad Oriental Series published, in 1936, eleven further chapters as volume II. And finally, volume III, containing chapters 19-27, was published in 1954.

In spite of all these results, the final text is contradictory, repetitive and incongruent; there are lacunae too, but, what is wore, there are words and passage that are almost impossible to understand. Often times, the text of one recension has not only more verses, or less, but verses which, though broadly looking the same, have entirely different words. It is not only modern scholars who suffer this inability to understand; even almost a thousand years ago, a commentator called Abhinavagupta, very able and very erudite, displayed this tendency. In chapter II, for instance, where the types and construction of theatre-houses are described, there is one part of it which the text calls mattavarani and Abhinavagupta has more than one interpretation. The gods of eight quarters are, placed on eight sides to protect the theater. In mattavarani. Indra, the master or the patron of the show, is seated. But why is it called mattavarani, a word which means 'intoxicated elephant'? In the old architecture, the plinth had, often times, four corners of the plinth were based. Does mattavarani mean some special seat on the back of the elephant for the patron? ( a kind of royal box). We do not know. Similarly, the word dwibhumi (lit. two grounds) in connection with the theatre, where Abhinavagupta is on imagination spree.

Another example, both of confusion and contradiction, is the description of three kinds of theatre-houses; the oblong, the square, and the triangular. Does Bharata suggest that the theatre-house should have that shape, or only stage is to have it? Normally, the theatre-house is supposed to be of these three types. But, as has been pointed out in the translation, there is a context in which, instead of the rangamandapa or the natyagrha (bout used by him to mean a theater-house), it is the ranga, the stage itself, which is presumed to be vikrsta (oblong) or caturasra (square) or tryasra (triangular). If this is correct, then it only means that the audience sits in front or all rounds or in front and on two sides. In spite of all the elaborate description of the construction of a theatre, its walls and its roof, in a later chapter where he talk of the success of a production, he mentions, among other things, ants and beasts as audience squatted on the ground (hence-ants) and there were no walls to prevent beasts from intruding. This kind of an open auditorium still obtains for our village shows.

In the first chapter, the book being with the origin of drama and narrates how and why Bharata produced the first play. The sixth chapter begins with the sages asking Bharata five questions: what is rasa? What are Bhava-s? And what is a sangraha, a nirukta and a karika? And Bharata, concluding his brief reply, says, 'This is, in a sutra form, the entire information about natya'. The topics of the first five chapters are also included. Because of this, one is tempted to ask–is this the beginning of the book? Are the earlier chapters, like, the last one, added to give Bharata the credit of a pioneer? The word sutra style and then Kohala and others gave it the present form? Originally, the open field was used as the auditorium; in the course of time, a dwibhumi (meaning, either the stage was a raised platform and the audience sat on the lower level, or, the auditorium' itself had two levels) was thought of; later, a building with four walls came. And each change was incorporated in the book.

That the text, as we have it now, underwent changes may be seen from another circumstance. In one instance, the death of a hero is prohibited on the stage. But the dramatist Bhasa has his hero dead ('goes to heaven' says the stage direction) on the stage. Does it mean, it was written before Bharata? But, the book mentions a sthapaka and a sthapana (prologue) which occurs only in Bhasa. The Natyasastra further says that sthapaka and sutradhara are one and the same. Dose it mean that this portion was added after Bhasa's time? Characters in a play should not be many, says Bharata. But all earlier drama critics have characterised Bhasa's plays as bahubhumika, having many characters. We also find what are obvious references to plays of Kalidasa and Sudraka's play Mrcchakatikam. Similarly, the geography of the country (as Avanti, Magadhi, Odra, etc.) as well as reference to a number of dialects and, further, the rule that the actors in their costumes and language should conform to the part of the country in which they are performing–all these suggest a later period.*

The eminence of the Natyasastra, therefore, lies not in the fact that it was the first book on the subject, but that, it was the first comprehensive treatise. Like the Mahabharata which encompassed all earlier stories and philosophies, the Natyasastra too boasts that 'what ifs found here may be found elsewhere, but what is not here cannot be found anywhere'.

It the book started with simple sutra-s, and if, from time to time, new experiences and knowledge made additional passages necessary, the contradictions, the confusions and the incongruities may, to a large extent, be reconciled.

As a matter of fact, the very epithet of 'Veda', assumed for an advantage, to confer upon the work prestige of sole authority, turned put to be a handicap. The lengths to which some commentators went to justify the epithet unintelligible verbiage ('somehow'), often appears ludicrous. Plays were written to conform to the 'rules' of Bharata, and naturally they failed to reflect contemporary social and historical developments. Outstanding playwrights like Kailidasa and Bhavabhuti managed to introduce contemporary significance, but their attempts did not establish a new trend. Although the spoken language changed in the course of time, playwrights continued the use of Bharata's Sanskrit and Prakrt. Bharata himself had said that 'dress and speech should conform to the regional usage of the spectators; the actors and producers should observe the local modes of speech and manners and conform to them and not necessarily to what I have described'. But such sage advice from Bharata himself went unheeded. Blind faith, in the words like 'Veda', and in the authority of rsi-s, resulted in our stage getting stuck in a rut, like our society as a whole.

The question naturally arises whether the study of such a treatise can serve any purpose in our age. Certainly, I may say, it does serve a purpose. Firstly, this Natyasastra remains the origin of our dramatic tradition. That traditional stage had been an attraction for our people for over thousand of years. Drama represents the ways of the world, the picture of our people's speech and manners; it is the Veda accessible to all the castes in society. However, unlike the four Veda-s, it is not confined to the realm of wisdom alone; it provides entertainments too. A dramatist, a popular theme, actors-actresses-director-producer, and the audience – these are the four essential ingredients of the theatre. There should be no weakness in any of these. The playwright should have the capacity to grasp the speech and manners of the people and represent them in an interesting way. The story should hold the attention of the audience. Physical fitness, control over voice, clarity of speech and pronunciation are the indispensable requirements for an actor. And lastly, the audience should be one accustomed to understanding, appreciation and enjoyment of the performance. These have been described as the essential elements of stage creft, thousands of years ago, by the Natyasastra. It needs to be emphasised in the present day context, that the auditorium should be such as to enable all the spectators to see and hear the actor directly. When we build vast auditoria and depend on loud speakers to convey words from the stage, we only exhibit our ignorance of the essential theatre.

A study of this treatise is essential for our scholars, no less than for our amateurs. We must give due credit to the European scholars who discovered, edition and translated this treatise. They were the first to appreciate its value. Since they had no intimate knowledge of our tradition, they were sometimes led astray in their critical opinions. They believed, for instance, without sufficient grounds, that our theatre tradition was derived from the Greeks, and therefore they assigned the Natyasastra to the fifth or the sixth century AD. Our scholars, on the other hand, thought that an earlier date conferred greater prestige and assigned to it the centuries before Christ, from the second to the fifth. But in this haggling for dates, none of them seems to have taken note of the elementary fact that crimes came before the Penal Code, language came before grammar and drama came into existence before the Natyasastra.

It has now become necessary to promote a critical study of this treatise, to screen the divergent readings and arrive at a consistent and authoritative text. It is also necessary to understand the various symbols in it. For example, when it says the Brahma was the author of the Natyasastra, it means that the theatre and men's interest in it have always been there. When it says that the production of the first play took place in the Court of Indra and that Indra occupied a prominent place in the auditorium, it means that play were performed in summer before the commencement of the rains. When it says that the sons of Bharata ridiculed the sages and were therefore cursed to be born as Sudra-s, it means that drama was the profession of castes considered as occupying a lower place in society. From sentences like 'May the king rule forever'- common in the closing prayers of Sanskrit plays – one can clearly infer that at the time of Bharata's Natyasastra, the theatre enjoyed royal patronage. The rituals prescribed for the worship of the stage and its presiding deity, and the use of the epithet acarya' for the drama teacher, show the importance of the Brahmin's role in the theatre. The association of other caste in the production is shown by the functions assigned to the smith, the chapter, the painter, etc., in fitting up the stage. No wonder Bharata describes drama and the Natyasastra, as sarva varnika – the concern of all caste. His statement, that the general way of life had been overwhelmed by vulgarity and in order to cleanse it, Indra requested Brahma to create the Natyasastra society. These ate the lines on which this treatise has to be studied. Mere declaration of the holiness of the Natyasastra as a handiwork of Bharatamuni, and a result to apply common standards of textual criticism, cannot lead to any kind of a critical study. The fixing of an agreed authoritative text in the first place would be a great convenience for future studies.

Of the many who wrote commentaries on the Natyasastra, the following deserve to be mentioned: Udbhata (seventh century), Lollata (mid-eight century) Sankuka (AD 813), Kirtidhara (ninth or tenth century) and Abhinavagupta (eleventh century). The last mentions two others: Bhattayantra and Bhattnayaka. There were all men of learning and some of them were philosophers too; but we cannot say whether any of them had direct experience of the theatre. They were mostly engaged in refuting one another. Their commentaries supply valuable information on many subjects, but their omission to say much about their contemporary life creates problem for us when study them after eight centuries.

I have made considerable use of Abhivanagupta's commentary and the edition of Dr. Manomohan Ghosh. I do not aspire for a place in the company of such learned ancients and modern specialists. As Kalidasa said in the introductory verse in the Raghuvamsa, 'the admirable qualities of those kings have prompted me to attempt this epic'; so, only my life-long love of the theatre and interest in such studies have prompted me to attempt this tradition. An important work like this deserves almost a life-loge study. I hope someone will feel sufficiently provoked by the guesswork of translators like myself to arrive at what the Natyasastra was originally like.

About The Author:

Adya Rangacharya (1904-84), was born in Agarkhed, district Bijapur. He has his education at Bombay and London Universities. His writings were original and prolific, which made him a trend-setter among Kannada and Indian writers. His works include twelve novels and a number of scholarly book on the Theatre, on Sankrit drama and the Bhagavadgita; but it was as a dramatist that he made his mark (47 full-length and 68 one-act plays).

Besides the translation of Natyasastra his other works in English are: Drama in Sanskrit Literature, Indian Theatre, Introduction to Bharata's Natyasastra, and Introduction to the Comparative Philology and Indo-Aryan Languages.


Preface xv
About the Natyasastra xvii
Acknowledgment xviv
The Origin of Natya
Origin of Natyasastra 1-20
Bharata's collaboration 21-41
Kaisiki Vrtti 42-51
The first performance 52-63
The first disturbance 64-75
The first natyavesman 76-97
Eulogy of natya 98-129
The Natyagrha
The natyavesman 1-6
The three type 7-11
The table of measure units 12-16
The middle one for the mortal characters 17-23
Choice of site and foundation 24-28
Different parts of stage 33-35
Walls and Pillars 43-63
The mattavarani(-s) 63-67
The rangasirsa and the rangapitha 68-85
The caturasra stage 89-100
The tryasra stage 101-5
Worship of the Stage and of the Gods
Warming of the Natyagrha 1-3
Gods to be invoked 4-9
Prayer to the god 10-13
Lighting the lamp 14-16
Installation of the deities 17-32
Worship of the full jar and jarjara 71b-89
Illumination of the stage 90-93
Good and evil results 94-102
Tandava Nrtya
Brahma's play performed 1-4
Siva invited to witness the show 5-16
The angahara-s 18-29
The karana-s 30-62
The karana-s described 63-70
The anghara-s 171-246
The recaka-s 247-56
Pindi-bandha-s 256-65
Dance and music 266-307
Sukumara (graceful dance) 308-29
Prayer to the god 10-13
The purvaranga 1-4
The origin and details of purvaranga 5-12
Outside the curtain 13-16
Explanation of various terms 17-30
Definition of various terms 14-30
Asravana Bahirgita 31-45a
Purpose of purvaranga 45b-58
Utthapani dhruva 59-70
The second Parivarta 71-77a
The third Parivarta 77b-84s
Wielding the jarjara 84b-89a
Salutation to gods 89b-101a
Caturthakara 101b-105a
Jarjara sloka 105a-30a
Caturasra purvaranga 130b-43
The tryasra purvaranga 144-54
Citra purvaranga 155-65
The purvaranga of the playwright 166-74
Rewards of the purvaranga 174b-179
The sage's questions 1-3
Bharata's reply 4-8
Characteristics of sangraha 9-13
Sangraha of rasa and bhava 14-22
Sangraha of acting 23-30
Rasa-krika-nirukti 31-33
Relation between rasa and bhava 34-38
Origin, colour and deities of rasa 39-45
The bhava-s 46-76
Srngara rasa 46-48
Hasya rasa 49-61
Karuna rasa 62-63
Raudra rasa 64-66
Vira rasa 67-68
Bhayanaka rasa 69-72
Bibhatsa rasa 73-74
Adbhuta rasa 75-76
Explanation of bhava-s 1-3
Vibhava and anubhava 4-5
Sthayi bhava 6-8
The characteristic of Sthayi bhava 9-27
Vyabhicari bhava-s 93-106
Acting of the Subordinate Parts of the Body
The Sages' question 1-4
The meaning of Abhinaya and its forms 5-10
Threee kinds of Angika abhinaya 11-15
Head 16-37
Eyes 38-115
Nose 116-31
Cheeks 132-36
Lips 137-42
Chin 146-57
Painting of the Face 149-65
Abhinaya, the neck 166-77
Abhinaya of the Hands and of the Major Limbs
Hastabhinaya 1-3
Mudra-s shown by one hand 4-126a
Mudra with both hands 126-56
Mudra-s with proper gestures 157-73
The chest 1-9
The sides 10-17
Abhinaya of the belly 17b-20a
Abhinaya of kati (hip) 20-26
Abhinaya of things 27-33a
Abhinaya of shanks 33-40a
Abhinaya of foot 40b-54
Performance of Cari-s
Cari-s 1-7
Two kinds of cari-s 8-13
Earthly cari-s 14-29a
Aerial (Akasiki) cari-s 29b-46
Combining movements of the hands and feet 47-50
The sthana-s 51-71
Nyaya-s 72-86a
Some general suggestions 86b-101
Mandala-s 1-5
The Akasiki mandala-s 6-4
The earthly mandala-s 42-65
The Stage Walk of Characters
Rules for entry of characters 1-8
Tempo of the stage walk 8b-12
Description of the stage walk 13-23
Bharata's reply to a question 24-28a
Different walks for different conditions 28-39
Gaits in various rasa-s 40-75
Srngara rasa 40-47
The Raudra and Bibhatsa rasa-s 48-55
Vira rasa 56-58
Hasya and Karuna rasa 59-69
Bhayanaka rasa 70-75
The gaits of different characters, and in different situations 76-119
Gaits of women 120-47
Gaits suited to characters 148-55
Sitting postures, seats and sleeping postures 56-228
Regional Styles and Nature of Plays
Different area of the stage 1-8
Entry and exit of character 9-25
The locale of gods and danava-s 26-35
Pravrtti (styles of production) 36-54
Types of production and plays 55-60
Lokadharmi and Natyadharmi plays 61-77
Verbal Representation and Prosody
The importance of words in drama 1-3
Constituents of vocal abhinaya 4-7
Consonants and vowels 8-20
Words 21-38
Rhythmic metres 39-51
Metrical Patterns
The metres 1-14
Poetic Concepts: Projection in Acting
Rules on the Use of Languages
Four kinds of languages 25-44
The dialects 45-61
Modes of address 1-20
Modes of address regarding women 21-29
Names of characters 30-38
Distinctive features of Pathya 39-40
The six anga-s 61-68
Drawn-out syllables 69-78
Ten Kinds of Plays
Ten kinds of plays 1-9
Nataka 10-14
Prakarana 48-62
Samavakara 63-77
Ihamrga 78-83
Dima 84-88
Vyayoga 89-93
Anka 94-96
Prahasana 102-8
Bhana 109-11
Vithi 112-30; 150
The Plot
Iti-vrtta 1-6
The five avastha-s 7-14
Necessity of Sandhi-s 16-19
The five Arthaprakrti-s 20-25
The five sandhi-s 26-43a
Sandhi-s in different types of plays 43b-46
Sandhyantra-s 47-50
Anga-s 51-68
Definition of the anga-s 69-104
The five structural devices 105-12
Concluding remarks 113-16
The origin of vrtti-s 1-19
The Four vriti-s 20-24
(20-21 interpolations); Bharati vrtti 25-37
Sattvati vrtti 37-47
Kaisiki vrtti 48-54
Arabhati vrtti 55-62
Application of vrtti-s to rasa-s 63-65
Aharya Abhinaya
Aharya abhinaya 1-3
Four kind of nepathya 4-8
Alankara-s 9-14
Ornaments for men 15-20
Ornaments for women 21-41
Rules regarding use of ornaments 42-48
Ornaments for celestial and other females 49-61
Costumes and ornaments for women of different regions and in different condition 62-71
Make-up 72-89
Make-up for different characters 90-108
Beards and moustaches 109-16
Costumes for different occasions 117-33
Head-gear 135-52a
Summing-up 152b-56
Sanjiva 157-59a
Weapons 159b-69
Jarjara and Dandakstha 170-82a
Making of head-gear 183b-192
Accessories and Properties 193-214
Suggestions 220-23
Prayer to the god 10-13
Samanya Abhinaya
Samanya abhinaya 1-8 & 10-11
The natural and invloluentary graces of women 12-21 & 24-29
Acting emotions of a man 30-39
Acting through body 40-48
Forms of verbal representation 59-72
Abhyantara and bahya 73-79
Representation of sensory reactions and feelings 80-93
Desire, the source of all feelings 94-98
The different natures of women 99-147
Erotic behaviour 148-58
Sign of love in women 158-68
The ten stages of love in women 169-91
Rules for men 193-200
(193-96) interpolations); Secret lovers (kings) 201-9
Eight kinds of heroines 210-20
Acting of these heroines 221-31
Union of lovers 232-38
Certain prohibitions 238-41
Awaiting and welcoming a lover 242-58a
Speaking to the lover 258b-62a
Jealousy and fear 262b-70
Treating of a guilty lover 271-88
Singing for Srngara 288b-90
Certain prohibitions when showing the erotic on the stage 291-96
Addressing a loved person 297-307
Addressing a unloved person 308-19
Regarding celestial women 320-28
Men and Women - Outward Characterisation
Vaisika 1-8
Characteristic of a female messenger 9-18a
Different natures of women 18b-27
Winning back a woman 28-35
The three kinds of woman 36-42
Women's youthful enjoyment 43-53
Amorous dealings of men 54-63
Ways of dealing with women 64-73
Courtesans 74-79
Acting - Miscellaneous
Citrabhinaya(1); Gestures for natural phenomena 2-8
Indicating anything pleasant or unpleasant 9-11
Gesture for garlands audible and visible objects, etc. 12-18
Gesture for numbers 19-22
Gestures for banners, memory, the past, etc. 23-26
Gesture for seasons 27-42
Natural postures of men and women 43-48
Expressing aunubhava-s of men and women 49-63
Certain stage conventions 82b-100
Success of the Production
Two kinds of siddhi (success) 1-3
Human success 4-15a
Faults or mishaps in a production 18b-37
Three kinds of success 38-49
About spectators 50-62
Competitions 63-82a
Time of performance 91-98
Conclusion 99-104
Instrumental Music
Type of instrument 1-7
Gandharva music 8-20
The svara-s (21-23 and prose); Grama (24-26 and prose); Murchana-s (27-33 and prose); The tana-s (33 and Prose); The Sadharana svara (33 & 36 and prose); Jati-s 37-65
Amsa-s 66-73
The ten characteristics of jati-s 74-100
The Nyasa and Apanyasa 101-51
Stringed Instruments
Application of jati to rasa 1-16
Varna and alankara 17-22
Alankara-s 23-43
The characteristics of alankara-s 44-70
Songs and their characteristics 103-12
Dhatu-s 76a-102
Virtti-s 102-3
Three kinds of Vina playing 103-12
The karana-s of Vipanci 113-21
The bahirgita-s 122-56
Hollow Instruments
Svara and sruti 1-4
Sruti-s and the placing of fingers 5-9
Svara-sadharana and kakali 10-13
Rules of Tala
Tala 1-7
Two types of tala 8-13
Capaputa 14-16
Tala of six syllables 17-25
The Caturasra Tryasra 26-34
The hand and finger movements (pata) 35-42
Udghatta tala 43-48
Method of showing tala 49-61
The asarita-s 62-73
Vardhamana (origin) 74-81
The characteristics of Vardhamana 82-87
Layantara and the three asarita-s 88-94
The limbs of the asarita 95-97
Vardhamana and Layantara 98-102
The short asarita 103-8
Mukha (Upohana) 109-12
Gana-s 113-18
Asarita concluded 119-35
Vardhamana, its limbs and their tala-s 136-45
The tala-s of the limbs 146-67
The general rules of medium and long asarita-sa 168-97
Songs and vastu 198-202
Vidari and vastu 203-4
Use of the limbs 205-6
Vrtta 207-8
Use of the Vidhari-s 209-19
Seven kinds of songs 220-45
The tala of vastu-s in songs 246-356
The Aparantaka 274-92
Uillopyaka 293-314
Prakari 315-22
Ovenaka 323-38
Rovindaka 339-49
Uttara 350-56
More details of the songs 357-89
The lasya-s 427-29
The varieties of lasya 430-79
Geyapada 435-44
Sthitapathya 445
Asinapathya 446-51
Puspagandika 452-56
Pracchedaka 457-63
Trimudhaka 463-67
Saindhavaka 467-71
Dvimudhaka 471-73
Uttamottamaka 473-67
Uktapratyukta 476-79
The importance of tala 480-83
Laya-s 484-88
Yati-s 489-93
The three pani-s 493-502
The Dhruva Songs
The dhruva songs 2-3
The limbs of the dhruva songs 4-8
The seven limbs of the dhruva 9-18
The Avasaniki dhruva 18-23
Type of dhruva 24-30
The Nibaddha and Anibaddha pada-s 31-36
The vrtta-s of dhurva-s 37-48
Description of the vrtta-s 49-270
Distribution of the gana-s and matra-s 271-80
The gana-s of the division 281-88
The gana-mitra-s of the Druta dhruva 288-302
The Sirsaka-s 303-20
The vrtta-s of the Narkuta (ka) class 321-48
The vrtta-s for the Khanjaka 348-54
The minor dhruva-s 355-59
The five aspects of dhruva-s 360-64
The five occasions 365-70
The occasions and rasa-s of the dhruva-s 371-83
Six types of dhruva-s and their use 384-406
The subject of dhruva-s 407-21
Dhruva-s suggesting time and movement 422-31
The vrtta-s for dhruva-s 432-39
The language of dhruva-s 440-57
The procedure of dhruva song 458-70
The rules about the graha-s 471-80
About songs 481-94
The qualities of singers and instrument player 495-98
The vina player 499-500
The flute player 501-2
Performance of men and women 503-11
Varied characteristics 512-24
The Avanaddha Instruments
The Avanaddha instrument 1-3
The invention of Avanaddha instrument 4-17
Use of these instruments 18-22
Details of the instruments 23-30
The svara-s 31-35
Rules of Puskara instrument 36-39
Details of these 40
The syllable sounds in the Puskara-s 41-42
The five kind of Paniprahata-s 43
The four marga-s 44-54
The playing of the Dardura and the Panava 55-77
The combined playing of the three Puskara instruments 78-91
The karana-s of the three Puskara-s 92-93
The three yati-s 94-101
The three marjana-s 102-10
Marjana of the Vamaka and the Urdhvaka with earth 111-17
The three samyoga-s 117
The three gata-s 118-20
The eight samya-s 121-29
The eighteen jati-s 130-69
Playing of the gata-s in the dhruva-s 170-79
The order of playing 180-86
Playing of Puskara-s in dance 187-97
The twenty prakara-s 198-221
The seating of the singers and the instrument players 222-26
The performance of the purvaranga (227 and prose); Playing for walking and other movements 228-32
Playing for female characters (81, 232-35 and prose); Playing of interludes (antaravadya) 233-35
Playing for the Prasadiki and other dhruva 235-37
Udghatya 238
The concluding (prose and sloka 239-41); Special characteristics of the instruments 242-50
The qualities of hide 251-54
The preparing of the instruments 254-58
The installing of the instruments 259-84
Various details 285-301
Types of Characters
Types of characters 1-3
Superior female characters 10-14
Two kinds of characters: external and internal 29-30
Female characters the harem 31-34
Female attendants in the harem 54-66
Qualities of servants employed in harems 66-81
External characters 82-98
Distribution of Roles
Distribution of roles 1-4
Gods, raksasa-s and kings 5-11
Amatya-s and army chief 12-13
Kancukin 14
Distribution of minor roles 15-24
Manner of entry and impersonation 24-27
Three way of impersonation 28-32
Suitability of women for roles 33-46
Two type of productions 47
Impersonation of king 57-59
Qualities of a director 65-75
Qualities of vita, sakara, jester, etc 76-83
Other members of a theatre group 88-108
Descent of Drama on Earth
The questions of the sages 1-15
Bharata's reply 16-29
Regarding purification 30-31
How drama came to earth 32-35
The sages' curse 36-42
Nahusa' role in this 52-70
The conclusion (mangala) 71-82
I. A Critical Epilogue 346
II. Thoughts on the Theory of Rasa 356
III. Natyamandapa 372
IV. A Note on 'Some Details' 379

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