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The Ragas of Northern Indian Music
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The Ragas of Northern Indian Music
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Foreword

The raga-s of which notations appear in this book conform to the Benares Musical Tradition. They have been noted as played on the North Indian Vina by the late Shivendranath Basu of Benares and with his kind help and advice. They often differ slightly from those noted by Bhatkhande and other modern compilers who belong to other schools (gharana-s).

About the Book

The first part of the book traces the history of Indian music and the continuity of its theory and practices for more than two thousand years. It is based on many years' research into the vast ancient Sanskrit literature of music. These valuable technical treatises, which lie in the form of scarcely catalogued manuscripts throughout the public and private libraries of India, had hitherto remained unemplored. Part two transcribes and studies in detail 50 typical Raga-s. Each is preceded by a Sanskrit poem in translation which depicts the atmosphere; then follows an analysis of the scale, covering its intervals and expression, a study of the theme with its characteristic motives and finally a typical development.

The present work is based on the author's two-volume Northern Indian Music Published in London (but not America) some ten years but, but long out of print and much sought after by students. It was described by Colin Mason in the Manchester Guardian as "of immense value to any practical musician" and "an invaluable addition to the very scanty literature of fascinating and neglected subject". This new version contains a number of additional Raga-s; the earlier text has been extensively revised and many music examples redrawn for greater clarity and accuracy. Some abridgement has taken place, but only of material which appeared originally for the benefit of Indian readers unfamiliar with Western staff notation, those able to read Sanskrit, and specialists in Sanskrit literature.

The book provides modern composers outside India with source of new inspiration and enables practicing musicians to play and study some of the endlessly variegated modes for which Indian music is unique.

About the Author

Alain Danielou is Director of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies and Documentation, Berlin, and adviser for Oriental Music to the International Music Council (UNESCO). Born in Paris, he pursued scientific and artistic studies before specializing in musicology. He traveled extensively in North Aftrica, the Middle East, China and Japan and then settled in India, where he studied Indian Music and philosophy, Hindi and Sanskrit, and made a unique collection (over 800) of Sanskrit manuscripts on music. In 1949 he was appointed Research Professor of Music at Benares Hindu University and in 1954 became Director of the Adyar Library and Research Center in Madras. In 1959 he returned to Europe, joining the Ecole Francaise d' Extreme Orient in Paris, and subsequently became Director of Studies of the Centre d'Etudes de Musique Orientale of Paris. He has written extensively in both French and English on Oriental Music and on many aspects on Indian history and culture, and has also published two novels. He is the general editor of the three UNESCO collections of records: "Anthology of the Orient" (Barenreiter Musicaphon), "Musical Sources" (Philips, Holland) and "Musical Altas" (EMI, Italy).

 

CONTENTS

FOREWORD   X
PART I
INDIAN MUSICAL THEORY

CHAPTER I THE HISTORY OF INDIAN MUSIC 1
  The four schools (mata-s) 4
  The Sanskrit writers on music 6
  First period (Puranic-Vedic-Epic) 7
  The second (Buddhist) period 14
  The third (Medieval) period 15
  The fourth (Modern) period 17
  The chief writers of the fourth (Modern) period 18
CHAPTER II BASES OF MELODIC STRUCTURES 2I
  The nature of sound 21
  The Tonic or drone 22
  The tonic or drone 23
  The three main octaves (saptaka-s) 24
  The seven notes (svara-s) 24
  The intercalary notes 26
  The intervals (shruti-s) 27
  The measurement of the shruti-s 29
  The notation of the shruti-s 31
  The expression of the shruti-s 38
  A suggested interpretation of the families of intervals (shruti-jati-s) 44
  Flats and sharps 49
  The scale 50
  The three basic scales (grama-s) 52
  Modal scales (murch hana-s) 54
  Class (jati) 55
  Mode-types (thata-s) 56
  Group 60
  Graha, amsha, nyasa 60
  The predominant note or sonant (vad) 61
  The consonant (samvadi) 62
  The assonant (anuvadi) 63
  The dissonant (vivadi) 63
CHAPTER III RHYTHM 65
  Tempo (laya) 65
  Rhythm (tala) 66
  The main rhythms (tala-s) 67
  Syncopation 74
CHAPTER IV MELODIC DEVELOPMENT 75
  Melodic movement (varna) 75
  Melodic Figures (tana-s) 76
  Ascent and descent (aroha, avaroha) 77
  Ornaments (Alamkara) 77
  Grace (gamaka) 80
  The four phase in the development of a raga 86
  Style of music 86
  Styles of singing or playing 88
CHAPTER V THE RAGA-S 91
  The number of raga-s 92
  Moods, colour and notes 92
  The description of raga-s in verse and pictures. 93
  Tuning of the instruments 94
  Theme (rupa) and outline 95
  Time of play 95

 

PART II
NOTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RAGA-S

CHAPTER I EARLY MORNING RAGA-S 99
  1. Lalita (at dawn) 101
  2. Vibhasa (at sunrise) 105
  3. Bhairava group (after sunrise) 109
        Yogiya 110
              Yogiya I 111
              Yogiya II 112
        Prabhat 113
        Shiva Bhairava 116
        Ananda Bhairava 119
        Bangala Bhairava 122
        Bhairava 122
        Ramakali 128
        Gunakali 131
  4. Todi., group I (first quarter of the day) 135
        Gurjari 136
        Mukhari 139
        Lachari Todi 142
        Todi 145
        Vilasakhani Todi 145
  5. Todi, group II (Yavanapuri) (first quarter of the day) 151
        Gandhari 152
        Deshi 155
        Pathamanjari 158
        Yavanapuri 164
        Asavari 164
CHAPTER II LATE MORNING RAGA-S 167
  6. Bhairavi group (second quarter of the day) 169
        Rewa i 170
        Dhani 173
        Shat 176
        Bhairavi 179
        Bhupala 182
        Samanta 185
  7. Bilaval group (second quarter of the day) 189
        Bilaval 190
        Lach'ha Bilaval 193
        Kakubha Bilaval 196
        Alhaiya Bilaval 199
CHAPTER III NOON AND AFTERNOON RAGA-S 203
  8. Saranga group (noon) 205
        Saranga 206
        Madhyamadi Saranga 209
        Brindabani Saranga 212
        Gauda Saranga 215
  9. Shri group (last quarter of the day) 219
        Dhanashri 220
        Malavashri 223
        Shri 226
        Bhimapalashri 229
        Multani 232
  10. Nata (in the afternoon) 235
CHAPTER IV EVENING RAGA-S 239
  11. Pilu (at the end of the day) 240
  12.   Puravi group 243
        Marava 244
        Puravi 247
        Rat Puriya 250
  13. Dipaka (after sunset) 253
CHAPTER V RAGA-S OF THE EARLY NIGHT 257
  14. Kalyana group (night, first watch) 259
        Yaman-Kalyana 260
        Tilaka Kamoda 263
        Gopi Kambhoji 266
        Yaman 269
        Kamoda 272
        Chhayanata 274
        Kedara 277
        Bhupali 280
  15. Khammaja group (night, first quarter) 283
        Durga 284
        Hambir 287
        Khammaja 290
CHAPTER VI RAGA-S OF THE DEEP OF NIGHT 293
  15. Kanada group (second qurter of the night) 295
        Suha 296
        Sindhura 298
        Sahana 301
        Kafi 304
        Sinddha Kafi 307
        Kanada 310
        Bageshri 314
        Jayajavanti 317
        Bahar 320
CHAPTER VII RAGA-S OF MIDNIGHT AND LATE 323
  17. Malakosha (at night) 324
  18. Bihaga 327
  19. Paraj group (after midnight) 331
        Paraj 332
        Sohini 334
  20. Shankara (at the end of the night) 337
  21. Kalingada (before dawn) 340
CHAPTER VIII SEASONAL RAGA-S 343
  22. Spring raga-s 345
        Hindola 346
        Vasanta 349
        Panchama 352
  23. Raga-s of the rainy season 355
        Miyan Mallar 356
        Desha Mallar 359
        Gauda Mallar 362
        Surat Mallar 365
        Shuddha Mallar 368
        Megha Mallar 371
BIBLIOGRAPHY   375
DISCOGRAPHY   397

Sample Pages


The Ragas of Northern Indian Music

Item Code:
IMD33
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2010
ISBN:
812150225-x
Language:
English
Size:
8.8" X 5.8"
Pages:
413
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 655 gms
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$38.50   Shipping Free
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Foreword

The raga-s of which notations appear in this book conform to the Benares Musical Tradition. They have been noted as played on the North Indian Vina by the late Shivendranath Basu of Benares and with his kind help and advice. They often differ slightly from those noted by Bhatkhande and other modern compilers who belong to other schools (gharana-s).

About the Book

The first part of the book traces the history of Indian music and the continuity of its theory and practices for more than two thousand years. It is based on many years' research into the vast ancient Sanskrit literature of music. These valuable technical treatises, which lie in the form of scarcely catalogued manuscripts throughout the public and private libraries of India, had hitherto remained unemplored. Part two transcribes and studies in detail 50 typical Raga-s. Each is preceded by a Sanskrit poem in translation which depicts the atmosphere; then follows an analysis of the scale, covering its intervals and expression, a study of the theme with its characteristic motives and finally a typical development.

The present work is based on the author's two-volume Northern Indian Music Published in London (but not America) some ten years but, but long out of print and much sought after by students. It was described by Colin Mason in the Manchester Guardian as "of immense value to any practical musician" and "an invaluable addition to the very scanty literature of fascinating and neglected subject". This new version contains a number of additional Raga-s; the earlier text has been extensively revised and many music examples redrawn for greater clarity and accuracy. Some abridgement has taken place, but only of material which appeared originally for the benefit of Indian readers unfamiliar with Western staff notation, those able to read Sanskrit, and specialists in Sanskrit literature.

The book provides modern composers outside India with source of new inspiration and enables practicing musicians to play and study some of the endlessly variegated modes for which Indian music is unique.

About the Author

Alain Danielou is Director of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies and Documentation, Berlin, and adviser for Oriental Music to the International Music Council (UNESCO). Born in Paris, he pursued scientific and artistic studies before specializing in musicology. He traveled extensively in North Aftrica, the Middle East, China and Japan and then settled in India, where he studied Indian Music and philosophy, Hindi and Sanskrit, and made a unique collection (over 800) of Sanskrit manuscripts on music. In 1949 he was appointed Research Professor of Music at Benares Hindu University and in 1954 became Director of the Adyar Library and Research Center in Madras. In 1959 he returned to Europe, joining the Ecole Francaise d' Extreme Orient in Paris, and subsequently became Director of Studies of the Centre d'Etudes de Musique Orientale of Paris. He has written extensively in both French and English on Oriental Music and on many aspects on Indian history and culture, and has also published two novels. He is the general editor of the three UNESCO collections of records: "Anthology of the Orient" (Barenreiter Musicaphon), "Musical Sources" (Philips, Holland) and "Musical Altas" (EMI, Italy).

 

CONTENTS

FOREWORD   X
PART I
INDIAN MUSICAL THEORY

CHAPTER I THE HISTORY OF INDIAN MUSIC 1
  The four schools (mata-s) 4
  The Sanskrit writers on music 6
  First period (Puranic-Vedic-Epic) 7
  The second (Buddhist) period 14
  The third (Medieval) period 15
  The fourth (Modern) period 17
  The chief writers of the fourth (Modern) period 18
CHAPTER II BASES OF MELODIC STRUCTURES 2I
  The nature of sound 21
  The Tonic or drone 22
  The tonic or drone 23
  The three main octaves (saptaka-s) 24
  The seven notes (svara-s) 24
  The intercalary notes 26
  The intervals (shruti-s) 27
  The measurement of the shruti-s 29
  The notation of the shruti-s 31
  The expression of the shruti-s 38
  A suggested interpretation of the families of intervals (shruti-jati-s) 44
  Flats and sharps 49
  The scale 50
  The three basic scales (grama-s) 52
  Modal scales (murch hana-s) 54
  Class (jati) 55
  Mode-types (thata-s) 56
  Group 60
  Graha, amsha, nyasa 60
  The predominant note or sonant (vad) 61
  The consonant (samvadi) 62
  The assonant (anuvadi) 63
  The dissonant (vivadi) 63
CHAPTER III RHYTHM 65
  Tempo (laya) 65
  Rhythm (tala) 66
  The main rhythms (tala-s) 67
  Syncopation 74
CHAPTER IV MELODIC DEVELOPMENT 75
  Melodic movement (varna) 75
  Melodic Figures (tana-s) 76
  Ascent and descent (aroha, avaroha) 77
  Ornaments (Alamkara) 77
  Grace (gamaka) 80
  The four phase in the development of a raga 86
  Style of music 86
  Styles of singing or playing 88
CHAPTER V THE RAGA-S 91
  The number of raga-s 92
  Moods, colour and notes 92
  The description of raga-s in verse and pictures. 93
  Tuning of the instruments 94
  Theme (rupa) and outline 95
  Time of play 95

 

PART II
NOTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RAGA-S

CHAPTER I EARLY MORNING RAGA-S 99
  1. Lalita (at dawn) 101
  2. Vibhasa (at sunrise) 105
  3. Bhairava group (after sunrise) 109
        Yogiya 110
              Yogiya I 111
              Yogiya II 112
        Prabhat 113
        Shiva Bhairava 116
        Ananda Bhairava 119
        Bangala Bhairava 122
        Bhairava 122
        Ramakali 128
        Gunakali 131
  4. Todi., group I (first quarter of the day) 135
        Gurjari 136
        Mukhari 139
        Lachari Todi 142
        Todi 145
        Vilasakhani Todi 145
  5. Todi, group II (Yavanapuri) (first quarter of the day) 151
        Gandhari 152
        Deshi 155
        Pathamanjari 158
        Yavanapuri 164
        Asavari 164
CHAPTER II LATE MORNING RAGA-S 167
  6. Bhairavi group (second quarter of the day) 169
        Rewa i 170
        Dhani 173
        Shat 176
        Bhairavi 179
        Bhupala 182
        Samanta 185
  7. Bilaval group (second quarter of the day) 189
        Bilaval 190
        Lach'ha Bilaval 193
        Kakubha Bilaval 196
        Alhaiya Bilaval 199
CHAPTER III NOON AND AFTERNOON RAGA-S 203
  8. Saranga group (noon) 205
        Saranga 206
        Madhyamadi Saranga 209
        Brindabani Saranga 212
        Gauda Saranga 215
  9. Shri group (last quarter of the day) 219
        Dhanashri 220
        Malavashri 223
        Shri 226
        Bhimapalashri 229
        Multani 232
  10. Nata (in the afternoon) 235
CHAPTER IV EVENING RAGA-S 239
  11. Pilu (at the end of the day) 240
  12.   Puravi group 243
        Marava 244
        Puravi 247
        Rat Puriya 250
  13. Dipaka (after sunset) 253
CHAPTER V RAGA-S OF THE EARLY NIGHT 257
  14. Kalyana group (night, first watch) 259
        Yaman-Kalyana 260
        Tilaka Kamoda 263
        Gopi Kambhoji 266
        Yaman 269
        Kamoda 272
        Chhayanata 274
        Kedara 277
        Bhupali 280
  15. Khammaja group (night, first quarter) 283
        Durga 284
        Hambir 287
        Khammaja 290
CHAPTER VI RAGA-S OF THE DEEP OF NIGHT 293
  15. Kanada group (second qurter of the night) 295
        Suha 296
        Sindhura 298
        Sahana 301
        Kafi 304
        Sinddha Kafi 307
        Kanada 310
        Bageshri 314
        Jayajavanti 317
        Bahar 320
CHAPTER VII RAGA-S OF MIDNIGHT AND LATE 323
  17. Malakosha (at night) 324
  18. Bihaga 327
  19. Paraj group (after midnight) 331
        Paraj 332
        Sohini 334
  20. Shankara (at the end of the night) 337
  21. Kalingada (before dawn) 340
CHAPTER VIII SEASONAL RAGA-S 343
  22. Spring raga-s 345
        Hindola 346
        Vasanta 349
        Panchama 352
  23. Raga-s of the rainy season 355
        Miyan Mallar 356
        Desha Mallar 359
        Gauda Mallar 362
        Surat Mallar 365
        Shuddha Mallar 368
        Megha Mallar 371
BIBLIOGRAPHY   375
DISCOGRAPHY   397

Sample Pages


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