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Books > Hindu > Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas (Literary Works On Rgvedic Dialogue Hymns)
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Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas (Literary Works On Rgvedic Dialogue Hymns)
Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas (Literary Works On Rgvedic Dialogue Hymns)
Description
About The Book

Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas depend upon several ballads consisting of the dialogues classified into different types relating to love story, narrative poems, heroic akhyana etc.They are also taken as literary works to glean the origin of ancient epics and dramas.Several hymns are full of deep thought in relation of human life, spiritual outlook, historical personages and so on.The peculiarities in the ballads are noted as a prologue with a prayer to gods, concluding speech with blessing, climax on either comedic or tragic affair, artistic perception, literary excellence etc.

The Author has assumed such topics in the Samvada Suktas of the Rgveda with observations of Scholars, both eastern and western containing dialogue forms possessed by the Seer Poets for their contributions in literary and cultural works during the Aryan period to glean the origin of epics and dramas at a glance of their achievement.

About The Author

The Author at the M.A Examination in Sanskrit with specialization in Veda obtained third position in the first class from the University of Calcutta In l973. He excelled himself .by obtaining Ph.D Degree from the same University hi 1989 on the dissertation Pãnini and pratisakhya also published: Other Publications including five books and research articles in reputed journals credited him as a contribution of wisdom in Vedic Iore. Three tit1es in Panini, Rgveda and Suklayajurveda have been offered to him.

The Author distinguished himself by supervising four M. Phil candidates. He put fourteen years’ service to his credit as à Lecturer aid Reader in Sanskrit a the Gobardanga Hindu Co1Ige. He also served Rabindra Bharati University as Reader in Vedic Studies for seven years. He is now a Reader in Sanskrit at Jadavpur University, Calcutta

Preface

The Rgvedic dialogue hymns are hereby taken at a glance on the literary works to glean the origin of ancient epics and dramas. There are several ballads containing the form of dialogue consisting of some hymns broken in various types viz, love story, narrative poem, heroic akhyãna. In the Rgveda Samhitã most of the Samvãda Süktas relate to the human life. Several hymns are full of deep thought in relation to the spiritual outlook. Such the narrative hymns relate to personal life. So according to the subject matter the dialogue hymns are classified into several groups to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics at the literary achievement.

The study of such the hymns classified into several groups may be confined in order to find some sorts of artistic skill by the Vedic Seer Poets possessed in their creation of epic and dramatic works at the same time.

There is an enumeration of individual ballads which are classified in some groups to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics with a hint that there are discussions on the traditional idea of Vedic akhyänas (myths), Itihäsas (narratives), Puränas (legends), Gäthäs (narasamsi and raibhi) etc and also on the importance of dialogue. There is a discussion of several controversial topics i.e.-(i) interpretation of Vrsakapi if a man-ape or favourite person or son of Indra (ii) identity of Parsu-Mãnavi (iii) Mudgalani’ s charioteering if a comic picture of horse chariot race, and case of Vispala if a mare or queen of king khela (iv) interpretation of RV X. 85.13 if a slaughter of cows to entertain the guests along with aghas or dowries (vahatu); agha> magha if a case of deliberate attempt to alter the reading of the said verse ; wedding taking place at the arjunis later known Phalgunis etc, if cows to be driven away at the constellations.

The topics enumerate specially the epic elements, dramatic elements found in the Samväda Suktas with the observation of Winternitz, Oldenberg and also Max Muller. There are detailed discussions in enumerating the value and weight of special portion of the verse under the prominent speeches in regard to social religious and daily life of the early Aryans. Some hymns serve parts of poetic art through their flowery language to describe similes and metaphors. Some sorts of artistic skill are possessed in the literary works of the Vedic seer Poets. Poems as the dialogue hymns are of frequent occurrences in Indian literature. They have already influenced poetic and dramatic poems consisting chiefly of conversations found in the Mahbhãrata, Purãnas and also the post-Vedic literature. The dialogue as a discourse, episode and legend is referred to in the Brãhmanas, Aranyakas and the Upanisads. The most endeared philosophical discourse is found in the CU VI.2 to relate the conversation between Aruni Uddãlaka and his son Svetaketu. There is also a reference to the Brhadäranyakopanisad to encounter with Yãjnavalkya in discourse with Brahman by the famous Philosopher Gargi. The references of such the legends are regarded in the Brãhmana literature in respect of myths etc.

The peculiarities in the Rgvedic ballads are manifold viz. Prologue with a prayer to gods, concluding speech later known Bharatavãkya with blessing, Characteristic status acknowledged socially like us as Seer Poets, comedic or tragic climax, artistic perception in the apt application of similes etc as ornamentation of hymns, traits of high literary excellence in some descriptions viz. Indrãni’s personal beauty (RV X.86.6,8), Urvasi (IV X.95. 1, 10) etc., Rhetoric i.e. Previous affairs of wooing in the legends of Pururavas and Urvasi (RV X.95.8,9), expression of deep pathos i.e. - bereavement of warrior in the Mudgala-hymn (RV X.102) etc.

In summing up such the observations it may be assumed that the peculiarities in the Vedic ballads as the dialogue forms contain the contributions of the Rgvedic Seer Poets in literary and cultural works in ancient Aryan Civilization gleaning the origin of ancient epics and dramas at a glance of their achievements.

Introduction

In the Rgveda we find several ballads composed in the form of dialogue such as (1) X. 95 - Pururavas and UrvaT (2) X. l0-Yama and Yami (3) III. 103 - Visvämitra and two rivers (4) X. 108 - Saramä and Pani (5) X. 86 - Indra, Indrãni and Vrsäkapi (6) I. 179 - Agastya, Lopamudra and disciple (7) IV. 18 - Vãmadeva, Indra and Aditya; and also in the form of monologue (8) such as X. 40 - marriage hymn of Ghosã, X.34 - Gambler’s hymn, sarcastic hymn i.e. VII.103 - Frog Song; (9) in the form of narrative i.e.- X. 102 - cow victory hymn, Indra süktas I. 32, V. 32, VIII. 96, X. 67 etc. Oldenberg calls these hymns as Akhyäna hymns.

These dialogue hymns and ballads are classified into several groups according to their subject matter so as to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics such as (i) Vedic ballad poetry love stories and union through marriage (ii) Narrative poems relating to personal life (iii) Heroic narratives (iv) Misc. Poems.

In order to trace the origin of dramas and epics we are to go through these dialogue hymns or ballad poetry and other hymns having diversified elements serving some parts of drama or an epic though these are not categorically designated as dialogue hymns or ballads proper. Some verses of monologue such as gambler’s song X. 34, marriage hymns of Ghosä X. 40, so-called sarcastic verse i.e. - Frog Song VII. 103 are worthy of being valued as works of poetic art generally mingled with some pearls of lyric poetry appealing to us through their fine comprehension of the beauties and artistic skill, and flowery language to describe similes and metaphors to serve for the ornamentation of some fragments of dramatic and epic poetry.

There are discussions on the traditional idea of Vedic Akhyänas (myths), Itihãsas (narratives), Puränas (legends), Gathãs (Närasamsi and Raibhi), Anväkhyana, Rk and Gãthã as forms of verse, and their distinction.

The importance of dialogue as a method of expressing and interpreting some items of discourse, episodes and legends is generally accepted in the Brãhmanas, Aranyakas and Upanisads. References of such dialogues on narratives are also discussed. Moreover in every hymn discussed, there is enumeration of the value of special portion of the verse under the prominent speeches in relation with social, religious and daily life of the Early Aryans.

Controversial Topics
While going through the contents of Vedic verses we occasionally come across obscure and unintelligible Rks of which we have confused interpretation by scholars. Amidst such diverse views we are in a fix to find out the clear one.

(i) We may cite for instance about the interpretation of the term ‘Vrsakapi’ in Rv X. 86 i.e. - dialogue hymn between Indra, Indrani and Vrsakapi. Macdonell and keith in the ‘Vedic Index’ - P 1, P 136 following Oldenberg and Geldner interpret Vrsakapi to he the ‘Manape’ referring to St. ‘2’, but there are ample traces in St. 13, 14, 18- 22 in the verse to prove that Vrsakapi is not a ‘man-ape’, but a son or at least a favourite person to Indra. There is an explanation on Rv X. 86 where Indra called Vrakapi’s wife as her daughter-in-law who would cook bulls for Indra.

(ii) In the Vedic Index (P1, P 504) the authors state about the identity of Parsu-Manavi; but who is meant, is quite impossible to say. We are to refer katyayana’s Varttika No. ‘2’ on the rule of Pãnini. ‘atasca’ in IV. 1. 177 to interpret her as a feminine, Princess of the Parsus also supported by another rule ‘parsvadiyaudheyadihyo nanau’ (Pa. V. 3. 117).

(iii) Macdonell and keith ( Vedic Index PT, P 54) quote Geldner’s view “a comic picture of horse chariot race in the Mudgala hymn”. We may refute it on the ground that Mudgala hymn, RvX. 102 is not at all a horse chariot race as conjectured by Geldner, and even it does not depict a comic picture. It is a heroic act of victory by a brave woman charioteer Mudgalani, Indrasenã by name to drive her husband’s chariot through the battlefield when a bull and a log (club) are harnessed to the chariot for want of horses (mares) in his encounter against king Subharva in order to win victory for cows. The act of Indrasenã’s charioteering is most vividly depicted. The rapid movement of the chariot is beautifully indicated by the sight of fluttering of her clothends in the air, when the harnessed bull cannot be restrained as it rushes towards the enemies in the battlefield. Mudgala falls down unconscious in the battlefield, but his brave widow comes out victorious with her triumphant booty.

This sort of controversies is most confusing to decisive conclusion about instances of woman’s heroic deeds. One of them is the bravery of Mudgalani, and the other case of Vispala, wife of king khela whom the Asvins gave iron leg (Rv I. 112.10 ; I 116.15. I. 118. 8 ; X. 39. 8) which she lost in a battle. According to Sayana she later captured a large booty. She is stated to be the wife of king khela whereas according to the European Scholars she is mere a mare, and king khela is designated as Vivasvant. But this idea is quite absurd.

(iv) Macdonell and keith in vedic Index P.1, P 483 interpret Rv X. 85.13 as “A cow or cows were slain for entertainment of the guests”.

But it is the most confused interpretation along with aghas as the contents in stanzas X. 85. 13,14,20,38 indicate dowry system prevalent in the early Aryan custom of marriage. Even St. 13 indicates no cow- slaughtering for the guests, but it describes the driving of the cows belonging to the items of the dowry and their acceptance by the bridegrooms i.e. - the Asvins amidst applause of the gods present at the time of departure of Surya for her husband’s abode : St. 12-’ano manasmayam Suryarohat prayati patim’ l3-”SUryayã vabatuh prãgãt savitã yamavasrjat aghasu hanyante gãvo’ rjunyoh paryyuhyate”.

Sayana interprets that at the time of departure the things as vahatu termed by ‘kanyãpriyartham dãtavyah’2’ which Surya has given to Suryã, are driven as so carried in advance. Here the term ‘hanyante’ is misinterpreted as slain. At the time of rising of the star : naksatra ‘magha’ i.e. - agha the cows belonging to the dowries are carried. The dowries are carried at the time of rising of the two naksatras viz Arjunis i.e. - two Phalgunis. The things given to Surya are accepted as the dowries being also admitted by all the gods in St. 14. Such presentations are borne to the abode of bridegroom.

(v) In interpreting the term ‘agha’ Macdonell and keith state that in the wedding hymn of Rv X. 85.13 the cows are slain in the aghas, and the wedding takes place at the Arjunis.

They mention AV XIV. 1.13 as having ordinary maghas, but affirm their conviction as it is impossible to resist the conclusion that the reading of the Rgveda was deliberately altered because of the connection of the slaughter of kine with sin i.e. - agha possibly too, with a further desire to emphasize the contrast with aghnya, a name for cow.

They also refer to the formula in the TB 111.1.4.8 in this connection as svãhã to the maghas, svãhã to the anaghas.

It is not a fact that there has been a deliberate attempt to alter the reading of the Rv X. 85.13 on the term ‘agha’ for the term ‘magha’ as clearly evident from the text of Sakalya’s padapatha. There is the word as ‘agha’. In the original text of the Rgveda of which Sayana comments, there is ‘aghã’. Thence Sayana interprets ‘agha’ as same as ‘magha’. Moreover, the contention of the scholars that there has been a deliberate alteration of the term ‘agha’ for ‘magha’ on the ground that there is the connection of the slaughter of kine with sin i.e.— agha and a desire to emphasize the contrast with aghnya, a name for cow; is not correct. This reason for the suspicion of alteration of the term does not at all arise as cow—slaughter for food. It was not a sin during the Rgvedic Period. Moreover ‘agha’ is not derived from ‘agha’ i.e.— sin.

The 1v X. 86.14 as “uksno hi me pancadasa sakam pacanti vimsatim, utahamadmipiva idubha kuksi prananti me visvasmadindra Uttarah” indicates the beef as an item of food during the Aryan period. Prohibition of cow-slaughter as a sin was not prevalent. But such restriction of slaughtering was a later sanction.

(vi) The view that wedding takes place at the Arjunis, is not corroborative from the contents of Rv X.85.13 ‘aghasu hanyante gavo rjunyoh paryuhyate.

At the time of departure towards husband’s abode the things as vahatu on the dowry system which Surya has given to Surya, are driven i.e. hanyante in advance, Here the word ‘hanyante literally means ‘slain’. It should be interpreted as driven as the sense implied in the context. Sayara is inclined to accept this view. The dowries are carried at the time of rising of the two naksatras, Arjunis i.e.—phalgunis. If we are to follow Sayara, we are to say that this passage does not indicate that marriage ceremony is held at the Arjunis.

(vii) In the Vedic Index (P1, P 409; FN7) it is mentioned that even in Rv X.85.2 Soma on the lap of the naksatras is referred to as stars would do; but the hymn refers to two of the later naksatras, ‘lunar mansions’ may well be meant. It is also stated that with aghas and arjunis in Rv X.85.13 the case is different. It seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called maghas and phalgunis. The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the 1gveda and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sürya, has no claim to great age. Here the scholars’ diverse views suffer from the self-contradiction. They say that the term ‘agha’ is a deliberate altered term used for ‘maghã’ and at the same time they suggest that they are probably ‘aghä’ and ‘arjuni’ the later lunar mansions called ‘magha’ and ‘phalguni’ respectively. They admit that they occur in the wedding hymn of Surya, which has no claim to great age. Their inference that Rv X.85 has no claim to a great age, indicates that during the Rgvedic age, ‘agha’ is known as a naksatra which in the later Samhitäs and the Atharvaveda is mentioned as ‘magha’, a naksatra among 27 or 28 naksatras mentioned in the list found in TS IV. 4.10.1-3 and elsewhere KS XXXIX.13; MS II. 13.20 ; 28 stars in TB 1.5.1.1-5 and AV XIX.7.1.

In RV 1162.18 34 ribs of the Mva are enumerated as moon, Sun, 5 planets and 27 naksatras. Whitney in the Oriental and Linguistic Essays, 2.350 adopted determination of the naksatras on the SuryaSiddhãnta in which maghas, the bounties are the Sickle or te Leonis. The variants ‘anagha’, the ‘sinless one’ etc refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. ‘phalguni’ is a double constellation as ‘purve’ and ‘uttare’. Weber says that the word denotes like ‘Arjuni,’ a variant in TV X.85.13 as a bright coloured constellation. All these show that Rgvedic seer poet Surya gives us astronomical knowledge in the marriage hymn X.85.

Contents

Preface1-IV
Introduction1-6
Samvada Suktas7-14
Chapter I : Dialogue Hymn of Pururavas and Urvasi (X.95)15-23
Chapter II : Dialogue of Yama and Yami (X.10)24-27
Chapter III: Marriage Hymn (X.85)28-31
Chapter IV: Marriage Hymn of Ghosa (X.40)32-33
Chapter V : Gambler's Song (X.34)34-37
Chapter VI : Frog Song (VII.103)38-41
Chapter VII : River Songs (III.33)42-46
Chapter VIII : Vrsakapi Hymn (X.86)47-51
Chapter IX : Famous Account of Cow victory (X.102)52-54
Chapter X : Samvada Sukta of Pani and Sarama (X.108)55-58
Chapter XI : Flight of Agni to escape from drudgery (X.51-52)59-61
Chapter XII : Indra Suktas (Several hymns62-69
Conclusion70-71
Bibliography72
Abbreviation

Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas (Literary Works On Rgvedic Dialogue Hymns)

Item Code:
NAD890
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1998
Publisher:
Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar
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8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
75
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Weight of the Book: 197 gms
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Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas (Literary Works On Rgvedic Dialogue Hymns)

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About The Book

Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas depend upon several ballads consisting of the dialogues classified into different types relating to love story, narrative poems, heroic akhyana etc.They are also taken as literary works to glean the origin of ancient epics and dramas.Several hymns are full of deep thought in relation of human life, spiritual outlook, historical personages and so on.The peculiarities in the ballads are noted as a prologue with a prayer to gods, concluding speech with blessing, climax on either comedic or tragic affair, artistic perception, literary excellence etc.

The Author has assumed such topics in the Samvada Suktas of the Rgveda with observations of Scholars, both eastern and western containing dialogue forms possessed by the Seer Poets for their contributions in literary and cultural works during the Aryan period to glean the origin of epics and dramas at a glance of their achievement.

About The Author

The Author at the M.A Examination in Sanskrit with specialization in Veda obtained third position in the first class from the University of Calcutta In l973. He excelled himself .by obtaining Ph.D Degree from the same University hi 1989 on the dissertation Pãnini and pratisakhya also published: Other Publications including five books and research articles in reputed journals credited him as a contribution of wisdom in Vedic Iore. Three tit1es in Panini, Rgveda and Suklayajurveda have been offered to him.

The Author distinguished himself by supervising four M. Phil candidates. He put fourteen years’ service to his credit as à Lecturer aid Reader in Sanskrit a the Gobardanga Hindu Co1Ige. He also served Rabindra Bharati University as Reader in Vedic Studies for seven years. He is now a Reader in Sanskrit at Jadavpur University, Calcutta

Preface

The Rgvedic dialogue hymns are hereby taken at a glance on the literary works to glean the origin of ancient epics and dramas. There are several ballads containing the form of dialogue consisting of some hymns broken in various types viz, love story, narrative poem, heroic akhyãna. In the Rgveda Samhitã most of the Samvãda Süktas relate to the human life. Several hymns are full of deep thought in relation to the spiritual outlook. Such the narrative hymns relate to personal life. So according to the subject matter the dialogue hymns are classified into several groups to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics at the literary achievement.

The study of such the hymns classified into several groups may be confined in order to find some sorts of artistic skill by the Vedic Seer Poets possessed in their creation of epic and dramatic works at the same time.

There is an enumeration of individual ballads which are classified in some groups to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics with a hint that there are discussions on the traditional idea of Vedic akhyänas (myths), Itihäsas (narratives), Puränas (legends), Gäthäs (narasamsi and raibhi) etc and also on the importance of dialogue. There is a discussion of several controversial topics i.e.-(i) interpretation of Vrsakapi if a man-ape or favourite person or son of Indra (ii) identity of Parsu-Mãnavi (iii) Mudgalani’ s charioteering if a comic picture of horse chariot race, and case of Vispala if a mare or queen of king khela (iv) interpretation of RV X. 85.13 if a slaughter of cows to entertain the guests along with aghas or dowries (vahatu); agha> magha if a case of deliberate attempt to alter the reading of the said verse ; wedding taking place at the arjunis later known Phalgunis etc, if cows to be driven away at the constellations.

The topics enumerate specially the epic elements, dramatic elements found in the Samväda Suktas with the observation of Winternitz, Oldenberg and also Max Muller. There are detailed discussions in enumerating the value and weight of special portion of the verse under the prominent speeches in regard to social religious and daily life of the early Aryans. Some hymns serve parts of poetic art through their flowery language to describe similes and metaphors. Some sorts of artistic skill are possessed in the literary works of the Vedic seer Poets. Poems as the dialogue hymns are of frequent occurrences in Indian literature. They have already influenced poetic and dramatic poems consisting chiefly of conversations found in the Mahbhãrata, Purãnas and also the post-Vedic literature. The dialogue as a discourse, episode and legend is referred to in the Brãhmanas, Aranyakas and the Upanisads. The most endeared philosophical discourse is found in the CU VI.2 to relate the conversation between Aruni Uddãlaka and his son Svetaketu. There is also a reference to the Brhadäranyakopanisad to encounter with Yãjnavalkya in discourse with Brahman by the famous Philosopher Gargi. The references of such the legends are regarded in the Brãhmana literature in respect of myths etc.

The peculiarities in the Rgvedic ballads are manifold viz. Prologue with a prayer to gods, concluding speech later known Bharatavãkya with blessing, Characteristic status acknowledged socially like us as Seer Poets, comedic or tragic climax, artistic perception in the apt application of similes etc as ornamentation of hymns, traits of high literary excellence in some descriptions viz. Indrãni’s personal beauty (RV X.86.6,8), Urvasi (IV X.95. 1, 10) etc., Rhetoric i.e. Previous affairs of wooing in the legends of Pururavas and Urvasi (RV X.95.8,9), expression of deep pathos i.e. - bereavement of warrior in the Mudgala-hymn (RV X.102) etc.

In summing up such the observations it may be assumed that the peculiarities in the Vedic ballads as the dialogue forms contain the contributions of the Rgvedic Seer Poets in literary and cultural works in ancient Aryan Civilization gleaning the origin of ancient epics and dramas at a glance of their achievements.

Introduction

In the Rgveda we find several ballads composed in the form of dialogue such as (1) X. 95 - Pururavas and UrvaT (2) X. l0-Yama and Yami (3) III. 103 - Visvämitra and two rivers (4) X. 108 - Saramä and Pani (5) X. 86 - Indra, Indrãni and Vrsäkapi (6) I. 179 - Agastya, Lopamudra and disciple (7) IV. 18 - Vãmadeva, Indra and Aditya; and also in the form of monologue (8) such as X. 40 - marriage hymn of Ghosã, X.34 - Gambler’s hymn, sarcastic hymn i.e. VII.103 - Frog Song; (9) in the form of narrative i.e.- X. 102 - cow victory hymn, Indra süktas I. 32, V. 32, VIII. 96, X. 67 etc. Oldenberg calls these hymns as Akhyäna hymns.

These dialogue hymns and ballads are classified into several groups according to their subject matter so as to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics such as (i) Vedic ballad poetry love stories and union through marriage (ii) Narrative poems relating to personal life (iii) Heroic narratives (iv) Misc. Poems.

In order to trace the origin of dramas and epics we are to go through these dialogue hymns or ballad poetry and other hymns having diversified elements serving some parts of drama or an epic though these are not categorically designated as dialogue hymns or ballads proper. Some verses of monologue such as gambler’s song X. 34, marriage hymns of Ghosä X. 40, so-called sarcastic verse i.e. - Frog Song VII. 103 are worthy of being valued as works of poetic art generally mingled with some pearls of lyric poetry appealing to us through their fine comprehension of the beauties and artistic skill, and flowery language to describe similes and metaphors to serve for the ornamentation of some fragments of dramatic and epic poetry.

There are discussions on the traditional idea of Vedic Akhyänas (myths), Itihãsas (narratives), Puränas (legends), Gathãs (Närasamsi and Raibhi), Anväkhyana, Rk and Gãthã as forms of verse, and their distinction.

The importance of dialogue as a method of expressing and interpreting some items of discourse, episodes and legends is generally accepted in the Brãhmanas, Aranyakas and Upanisads. References of such dialogues on narratives are also discussed. Moreover in every hymn discussed, there is enumeration of the value of special portion of the verse under the prominent speeches in relation with social, religious and daily life of the Early Aryans.

Controversial Topics
While going through the contents of Vedic verses we occasionally come across obscure and unintelligible Rks of which we have confused interpretation by scholars. Amidst such diverse views we are in a fix to find out the clear one.

(i) We may cite for instance about the interpretation of the term ‘Vrsakapi’ in Rv X. 86 i.e. - dialogue hymn between Indra, Indrani and Vrsakapi. Macdonell and keith in the ‘Vedic Index’ - P 1, P 136 following Oldenberg and Geldner interpret Vrsakapi to he the ‘Manape’ referring to St. ‘2’, but there are ample traces in St. 13, 14, 18- 22 in the verse to prove that Vrsakapi is not a ‘man-ape’, but a son or at least a favourite person to Indra. There is an explanation on Rv X. 86 where Indra called Vrakapi’s wife as her daughter-in-law who would cook bulls for Indra.

(ii) In the Vedic Index (P1, P 504) the authors state about the identity of Parsu-Manavi; but who is meant, is quite impossible to say. We are to refer katyayana’s Varttika No. ‘2’ on the rule of Pãnini. ‘atasca’ in IV. 1. 177 to interpret her as a feminine, Princess of the Parsus also supported by another rule ‘parsvadiyaudheyadihyo nanau’ (Pa. V. 3. 117).

(iii) Macdonell and keith ( Vedic Index PT, P 54) quote Geldner’s view “a comic picture of horse chariot race in the Mudgala hymn”. We may refute it on the ground that Mudgala hymn, RvX. 102 is not at all a horse chariot race as conjectured by Geldner, and even it does not depict a comic picture. It is a heroic act of victory by a brave woman charioteer Mudgalani, Indrasenã by name to drive her husband’s chariot through the battlefield when a bull and a log (club) are harnessed to the chariot for want of horses (mares) in his encounter against king Subharva in order to win victory for cows. The act of Indrasenã’s charioteering is most vividly depicted. The rapid movement of the chariot is beautifully indicated by the sight of fluttering of her clothends in the air, when the harnessed bull cannot be restrained as it rushes towards the enemies in the battlefield. Mudgala falls down unconscious in the battlefield, but his brave widow comes out victorious with her triumphant booty.

This sort of controversies is most confusing to decisive conclusion about instances of woman’s heroic deeds. One of them is the bravery of Mudgalani, and the other case of Vispala, wife of king khela whom the Asvins gave iron leg (Rv I. 112.10 ; I 116.15. I. 118. 8 ; X. 39. 8) which she lost in a battle. According to Sayana she later captured a large booty. She is stated to be the wife of king khela whereas according to the European Scholars she is mere a mare, and king khela is designated as Vivasvant. But this idea is quite absurd.

(iv) Macdonell and keith in vedic Index P.1, P 483 interpret Rv X. 85.13 as “A cow or cows were slain for entertainment of the guests”.

But it is the most confused interpretation along with aghas as the contents in stanzas X. 85. 13,14,20,38 indicate dowry system prevalent in the early Aryan custom of marriage. Even St. 13 indicates no cow- slaughtering for the guests, but it describes the driving of the cows belonging to the items of the dowry and their acceptance by the bridegrooms i.e. - the Asvins amidst applause of the gods present at the time of departure of Surya for her husband’s abode : St. 12-’ano manasmayam Suryarohat prayati patim’ l3-”SUryayã vabatuh prãgãt savitã yamavasrjat aghasu hanyante gãvo’ rjunyoh paryyuhyate”.

Sayana interprets that at the time of departure the things as vahatu termed by ‘kanyãpriyartham dãtavyah’2’ which Surya has given to Suryã, are driven as so carried in advance. Here the term ‘hanyante’ is misinterpreted as slain. At the time of rising of the star : naksatra ‘magha’ i.e. - agha the cows belonging to the dowries are carried. The dowries are carried at the time of rising of the two naksatras viz Arjunis i.e. - two Phalgunis. The things given to Surya are accepted as the dowries being also admitted by all the gods in St. 14. Such presentations are borne to the abode of bridegroom.

(v) In interpreting the term ‘agha’ Macdonell and keith state that in the wedding hymn of Rv X. 85.13 the cows are slain in the aghas, and the wedding takes place at the Arjunis.

They mention AV XIV. 1.13 as having ordinary maghas, but affirm their conviction as it is impossible to resist the conclusion that the reading of the Rgveda was deliberately altered because of the connection of the slaughter of kine with sin i.e. - agha possibly too, with a further desire to emphasize the contrast with aghnya, a name for cow.

They also refer to the formula in the TB 111.1.4.8 in this connection as svãhã to the maghas, svãhã to the anaghas.

It is not a fact that there has been a deliberate attempt to alter the reading of the Rv X. 85.13 on the term ‘agha’ for the term ‘magha’ as clearly evident from the text of Sakalya’s padapatha. There is the word as ‘agha’. In the original text of the Rgveda of which Sayana comments, there is ‘aghã’. Thence Sayana interprets ‘agha’ as same as ‘magha’. Moreover, the contention of the scholars that there has been a deliberate alteration of the term ‘agha’ for ‘magha’ on the ground that there is the connection of the slaughter of kine with sin i.e.— agha and a desire to emphasize the contrast with aghnya, a name for cow; is not correct. This reason for the suspicion of alteration of the term does not at all arise as cow—slaughter for food. It was not a sin during the Rgvedic Period. Moreover ‘agha’ is not derived from ‘agha’ i.e.— sin.

The 1v X. 86.14 as “uksno hi me pancadasa sakam pacanti vimsatim, utahamadmipiva idubha kuksi prananti me visvasmadindra Uttarah” indicates the beef as an item of food during the Aryan period. Prohibition of cow-slaughter as a sin was not prevalent. But such restriction of slaughtering was a later sanction.

(vi) The view that wedding takes place at the Arjunis, is not corroborative from the contents of Rv X.85.13 ‘aghasu hanyante gavo rjunyoh paryuhyate.

At the time of departure towards husband’s abode the things as vahatu on the dowry system which Surya has given to Surya, are driven i.e. hanyante in advance, Here the word ‘hanyante literally means ‘slain’. It should be interpreted as driven as the sense implied in the context. Sayara is inclined to accept this view. The dowries are carried at the time of rising of the two naksatras, Arjunis i.e.—phalgunis. If we are to follow Sayara, we are to say that this passage does not indicate that marriage ceremony is held at the Arjunis.

(vii) In the Vedic Index (P1, P 409; FN7) it is mentioned that even in Rv X.85.2 Soma on the lap of the naksatras is referred to as stars would do; but the hymn refers to two of the later naksatras, ‘lunar mansions’ may well be meant. It is also stated that with aghas and arjunis in Rv X.85.13 the case is different. It seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called maghas and phalgunis. The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the 1gveda and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sürya, has no claim to great age. Here the scholars’ diverse views suffer from the self-contradiction. They say that the term ‘agha’ is a deliberate altered term used for ‘maghã’ and at the same time they suggest that they are probably ‘aghä’ and ‘arjuni’ the later lunar mansions called ‘magha’ and ‘phalguni’ respectively. They admit that they occur in the wedding hymn of Surya, which has no claim to great age. Their inference that Rv X.85 has no claim to a great age, indicates that during the Rgvedic age, ‘agha’ is known as a naksatra which in the later Samhitäs and the Atharvaveda is mentioned as ‘magha’, a naksatra among 27 or 28 naksatras mentioned in the list found in TS IV. 4.10.1-3 and elsewhere KS XXXIX.13; MS II. 13.20 ; 28 stars in TB 1.5.1.1-5 and AV XIX.7.1.

In RV 1162.18 34 ribs of the Mva are enumerated as moon, Sun, 5 planets and 27 naksatras. Whitney in the Oriental and Linguistic Essays, 2.350 adopted determination of the naksatras on the SuryaSiddhãnta in which maghas, the bounties are the Sickle or te Leonis. The variants ‘anagha’, the ‘sinless one’ etc refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. ‘phalguni’ is a double constellation as ‘purve’ and ‘uttare’. Weber says that the word denotes like ‘Arjuni,’ a variant in TV X.85.13 as a bright coloured constellation. All these show that Rgvedic seer poet Surya gives us astronomical knowledge in the marriage hymn X.85.

Contents

Preface1-IV
Introduction1-6
Samvada Suktas7-14
Chapter I : Dialogue Hymn of Pururavas and Urvasi (X.95)15-23
Chapter II : Dialogue of Yama and Yami (X.10)24-27
Chapter III: Marriage Hymn (X.85)28-31
Chapter IV: Marriage Hymn of Ghosa (X.40)32-33
Chapter V : Gambler's Song (X.34)34-37
Chapter VI : Frog Song (VII.103)38-41
Chapter VII : River Songs (III.33)42-46
Chapter VIII : Vrsakapi Hymn (X.86)47-51
Chapter IX : Famous Account of Cow victory (X.102)52-54
Chapter X : Samvada Sukta of Pani and Sarama (X.108)55-58
Chapter XI : Flight of Agni to escape from drudgery (X.51-52)59-61
Chapter XII : Indra Suktas (Several hymns62-69
Conclusion70-71
Bibliography72
Abbreviation
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