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Books > Ayurveda > Susruta Samhita: Ancient Indian Surgery (3 Big Volumes)
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Susruta Samhita: Ancient Indian Surgery (3 Big Volumes)
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Susruta Samhita: Ancient Indian Surgery (3 Big Volumes)
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About the Book

 

Susruta, the Father of Surgery, wrote his samhita (treatise) about 2500 years ago in Sanskrit at Varanasi, India and classified it into six as "A.I.S." series in 10 Vols. in a very authoritative, scientific, literal, research oriented, syntax interpretation using modern medical terminology alongwith original Sanskrit Text by a team of dedicated workers from the Institute of Medical Sciences, B.H.U.

The present volume deals with the first twenty seven chapters of Sutra-sthana of Susruta Samhita. It contents chapters on the origin of the Medical Science (Ayurveda), Seasonal regiment, the varieties of blunt instruments, and the application of sharp instruments, the principles of experimental surgery, description of blood, techniques of ear puncture and plastic surgery, the unripe and ripe abscesses, the classification of diseases and the eight surgical procedures.

 

About the Author

 

Dr. G. D. Singhal, M.B.B.S., M.S., F.R.C.S., VAIDYA KIRTI (Hon Causa, Sri Lanka), was born at Allahabad in 1932, and had medical education at Lucknow, Edinburgh and Toronto. He was Ex-Professor of Surgery & Head of the Dept. Banaras Hindu University, a Paediatric Surgeon and Historian of Medicine, was a recognised writer of research-oriented authentic books on Ayurveda in English, using modern medical terminology.

Dr. Singhal, was trained in India, U.K. and Canada. He had a vast teaching and research experience. He had over 200 publications in Surgery, Paediatric Surgery and History of Medicine, including 15 Books on Ayurveda.

Dr. S. N. Tripathi, B.A., A.B.M.S., H.P.A., Ph.D. (Ayurveda, Kayacikitsa, B.H.U.), was born at Varanasi in 1932. He was Head of the Dept. Kaya-Chikitsa (B.H.U.) and was awarded gold medals and cash prizes for research.

Dr. G. N. Chaturvedi, A.B.M.S. (B.H.U.), was born in Brahmin Ayurvedic Physician family, at Ghazipur in 1932, and stood first with distinctions in eight subjects and two gold medals. He was Professor and Head of the Dept. of Kaya-cikitsa, Institute of Medical Sciences, B.H.U. He has written commentary on Caraka Samhita and many other books and monographs.

Excerpts from Review:

 

Foreword

The Progress of medical science is a series of observations and discoveries, noted, lost, relearned, and often forgotten. Such is the case of ancient Indian medicine, art and science, highly developed and frequently transmitted by precepts alone for over twenty-five hundred years. Classic Indian medical writings, although known, have not been previously available to those who did not understand the complexities of Sanskrit. The translations of the Susruta by Dr. G. D. Singhal and his colleagues at the Banaras Hindu University appear to provide the first organized and systematic approach to translating this vast amount of medical knowledge into modern terms and expressions. This has been a long and difficult attempt by a number of scholars to translate these ancient verses into modern language without losing the detail and accuracy of the original text. Each chapter is initially summarized and referenced verse. Each verse is presented first in the original Sanskrit and followed by an English translation and in some cases an interpretation. Abundant foot notes and references to Indian terms are included for clarity. It is an easily readable translation. It would appear that attention to detail has provided an accurate account of the original text.

These translations are of immense historical significance for they provide insights into a highly developed medical practice of many centuries ago which parallel and possibly precede medical thoughts of the oriental and Near Eastern cultures. These writings vividly portray Vedic physicians who developed a very systematic classification of diseases and a very detailed set of therapeutics.

This particular book represents only a portion of the Susruta which in its entirety likely represents the largest and most detailed ancient surgical treatise. I would hope that this translation would stimulate other medical scientists to study in more detailed Ayurvedic medicine. Dr. Singhal has suggested research problems at the end of each chapter in anticipation that these ancient Indian concepts might be put into perspective with further modern investigations. This book opens new doors into medical history and should stimulate a surge of investigation into the ancient practices described in these writings. Dr. Singhal and his colleagues are to be commended for presenting these translations to the English speaking world.

 





Vol-2

 

Foreword

I was privileged to read through a substantial portion of Dr. G. D. Singhal and Dr. L.V. Guru's work, 'Anatomical and Obstetric Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery', before it was published.

So far there has been only one English translation of Susruta Samhita available in India, that by Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna. This work had been out of print for nearly half a century. A recent reprint is now available without any change whatsoever in the original version. Not only is the language of this translation archaic and unnatural ,but, in many cases, the interpretation of technical terms is faulty, confusing, misleading and unfair to Susruta , e. g. rendering of dosa as 'fault', vata as 'wind', etc.

Being free from these defects of the earlier effort, Dr. G. D. Singhal and Dr. L.V. Guru's English rendering of the ancient Sanskrit text of Susruta Samhita is not only more faithful, but lucid and clear, and more in tune with modern style and trends. Thus the publication removes a lacuna from the existing English literature on Ayurveda. Dr. Singhal and Dr. Guru are experienced teachers of modern medicine and Ayurveda respectively, and the present work does them credit.

Students, teachers and research workers who find it difficult to study and familiarise themselves with Dhanwantari's teachings, as recorded by Susruta, due to their inability to read and understand Sanskrit, will find this book a welcome solution to their problem. I commend Dr. Singhal and Dr. Guru's excellent book to this group of scholars in particular and other English-knowing Vaidyas in general.

 

Vol-3

 

Foreword

I am very happy to send this Foreword to my friend, Dr. G.D. Singhal of India (whom I first met in London, U.K. in Sept. '72 at the 23rd International Congress of History of Medicine) for his book 'Ophthalmic and Otorhino-laryngological Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' based on Salakya-tantra portion of Susruta Samhita, the classical Ayurvedic surgical treatise.

Susruta Samhita has been available in the ancient Arab World as Kitabe Susruda. But till today, so far as I know, no authentic version of this classic has been presented to the West. The attempt of Dr. Singhal and his colleagues from the famous Banaras Hindu University to present the 2500 years old Sanskrit Susruta Samhita into a modern encyclopaedic, monumental work of Ancient Indian Surgery series of 12 volumes in more than 5000 pages as its only authoritative scientific, research-oriented syntax interpretation in an easily understandable, lucid style is highly commendable. The four line Gists in Introduction and a Summary in running English at the beginning and a list of Suggested Research Problems at the end of each chapter add to the utility and glamour of the books.

I am surprised to find that the West knows more about Dr. Singhal's work compared to the recognition given to him in his own country. I know this unique work will make all those whose name appears in the book immortal, even though vested interests may not allow proper utilisation of the talents of this excellent team of translators, editors and commentators from Varanasi, the same town where Susruta originally wrote his treatise.

It is my opinion that this work is indispensable for all Historians of Medicine, even remotely interested in the field. No medical institution in any part of the world should remain without a copy of this remarkable work which will give a new direction to the History of Medicine and Surgery. The work deserves the highest laurels and awards. The world will remain for ever grateful to Dr. Singhal and his colleagues for showing this light from the East.

I wish it was somehow made possible through some international agency for Dr. Singhal to travel to all the Universities of the world giving lectures on Ancient Indian Surgery and its contributions to the surgery of the world.

On the whole, I am confident this pioneering work will enable one day Dr. Singhal achieve his cherished dream of getting Susruta of India recognized as the Father of Surgery.

I am grateful that Dr. Singhal requested me to write this Forword for his next volume and am proud to send these few lines of appreciation. May be India and the world will recognize this work thoroughly after a few generations when its full impact has been felt in changing the world History of Medicine putting India's and Susruta's name in glittering letters on each page.

 

British Journal of Surgery, London, U.K.
  an authentic scientific version...a fascinating work...a readable book with a compelling charm...
Dr. Roland Folse, Chairman, Dept. Surgery, Illinois, U.S.A.
  ...the first organised and systematic approach to translating the largest and most detailed ancient surgical treatise...
Prof. Boris D. Petrov, Semashko Institute, Moscow, U.S.S.R.
  ...For the first time the unique experience of traditional Indian medicine and the famous treatise of Susruta in such details and so perfectly scientifically interpreted......
Dr. P. S. Hunt, Monash Dept. of Surgery, Melbourne, Australia
  ...These volumes should be available in all medical libraries.
Dr. Glen W. Davidson, Southern, Illinois University, U.S.A.
  ...really impressive...the first time we were aware of the extremely rich history of Ayurvedic surgery.

 

CONTENTS
(Volume I-Fundamental & Plastic Surgery Considerations in AIS)

 

The Fundamental and Plastic Surgery Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' contains Chapters 1-27 of Sutra-sthana, the first canto of Susruta Samhita. The remaining chapters 28-46 of Sutra-sthana are contained in the next volume on 'Pharmaceutical Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery'.
The salient features of the 27 chapters in this book are as follows:  
CHAPTER 1  
It deals with the introduction of Susruta, the student, to the teacher, Lord Dhanvantari and beginning of the teaching discourse. General introduction of the subject and the eight divisions of Ayurveda have been given. The four aspects of Ayurvedic treatment, the human being, the disease, the remedy and the timely activity have been considered. Broad subdivisions of the treatise have been given. (9-36)
CHAPTER 2  
It deals with the premedical tests employed for the selection of the students, their enrollment by initiation with a Vedic ceremony, the reciprocal code of conduct employed between the teacher and the taught, as also with the enumeration of the unsuitable times and places for study. (37-48)
CHAPTER 3  
It deals with the classification of the treatise in the 6 cantos and enumeration of all the 186 chapters in them. Emphasis has been laid for the surgeon to learn both theoretical knowledge and practical experience equally well. (49-74)
CHAPTER 4  
It emphasizes two important methods of study of the medical science in ancient India, viz., (1) by trying to understand the 'depth of meaning' of the subject intelligently, and (2) by knowing about the related sciences in addition to the basic speciality. (75-84)
CHAPTER 5  
Though entitle 'Preoperative Arrangements', it deals in addition with the details of the preoperative, operative and postoperative measures of an abscess drainage. (85-101)
CHAPTER 6  
It deals with the factors of time and seasons in relation to Ayurveda. The effects of seasonal variations on bodily humours have also been dealt with. (103-123)
CHAPTER 7  
It deals with all aspects of the 101 blunt instruments used in Ayurveda. (125-138)
CHAPTER 8  
It deals with all aspects of the 20 sharp instruments used in Ayurveda. (139-151)
CHAPTER 9  
It deals with the Ayurvedic concepts of experimental surgery and the different operative precedures advised to be practised on various easily obtainable objects. (153-161)
CHAPTER 10  
It outlines the conditions before medical practice could be started, external appearances and behaviour of the doctor during visits, and the methodology of history taking and examination of the patient to arrive at a diagnosis and prognosis. (163-172)
CHAPTER II  
It deals with the pharmacology and therapeutics of ksaras (the caustics). (173-190)
CHAPTER 12  
It deals with all aspects of the fire-cautery treatment and with the classification and management of burns. It also deals with smoke poisoning and heat-stroke, frost bite, sunstroke and lightning burn. (191-208)
CHAPTER 13  
It deals with all aspects of leeches and with their therapeutic application in the human beings. (209-223)
CHAPTER 14  
It deals with the formation, circulation and functions of blood. Features of normal blood and that deranged by the dosas, and all aspects of surgical blood-letting have also been discussed. (225-245)
CHAPTER 15  
It describes all the dosas, abatus and malas-their normal features, as well as the features and the management of the their increase or decrease. It also deals with the Ayurvedic concept of bala (ojasa, natural immunity), obesity and asthenia. (247-273)
CHAPTER 16  
It deals with the method of piercing children's ear lobules for ornamental purposes, of the fifteen methods of plastic repair of the split ear lobule and with certain other specialised procedures like raising a check flap for this and also with ten ear and ear lobule diseases. It also describes the technique of rhinoplasty along with its pre and post-operative care and the principles of harelip surgery. (275-298)
CHAPTER 17  
It deals with the six types of inflammations; if properly treated all inflammations would lead to suppuration. The three types of abscesses-unripe, ripening and ripe, and their pathogenesis, complications and principles of management have been described. (299-312)
CHAPTER 18  
It deals with the general considerations of pastes to be applied over the wounds and inflammations (the specific pastes having been considered with individual diseases), fourteen methods of bandaging (which closely compare with some of the modern methods of bandaging), and with all aspects of bandages in general. (313-330)
CHAPTER 19  
It deals with the 'do's' and 'don'ts' for the traumatised patient. (331-344)
CHAPTER 20  
It deals with the salutary and unsalutary diets and regimen for the patient, the harmful dietary combinations and the effects of winds blowing from different directions. (345-360)
CHAPTER 21  
It deals with the physiological and the pathological concepts of the dosas (humours), the vata, pitta, kapha and sonita, in the human body and their significance in relation to wounds. (361-383)
CHAPTER 22  
It deals with a vivid and picturesque description of the local features of ulcers. (385-397)
CHAPTER 23  
It classifies in a general way the sites and natures of the curable, relievable and incurable lesions, particularly the ulcerative lesions. (399-411)
CHAPTER 24  
It deals broadly with the classification of diseases according to the site and the nature of the lesion concerned. (413-426)
CHAPTER 25  
It deals with the indications of the eight types of the surgical procedures, with a detailed discussion of suturing, and a broad outline of the complications from surgery. (427-442)
CHAPTER 26  
It deals with the types, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of the foreign bodies lodged in the body. (443-456)
CHAPTER 27  
It deals with the fifteen methods of removal of the two (loose and fixed) types of foreign bodies. (457-472)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume II-Pharmaceutical Considerations in AIS)

 

The 'Pharmaceutical Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' contains Chapters 28-46 of Sutra-sthana, the first canto of Susruta Samhita. The remaining chapters 1-27 of Sutra-sthana are contained in the 'Fundamental & Plastic Surgery Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery'.  
The salient features of the chapters in this book are:  
Chapter 28  
It deals with the recognition, importance and avoidance of bad omens and fatal signs in a wound. (1-10)
Chapter 29  
It deals with the inauspicious and the auspicious messengers, patients, dreams and the omens during the physician's visit to see the patient. (11-32)
Chapter 30  
It deals with the features of the pathological functioning of the five special sensory organs. (33-42)
Chapter 31  
It deals with the signs and symptoms in the patient which forecast his imminent death. (43-54)
Chapter 32  
It deals with the premonitary changes and other signs indicating a fatal outcome. (55-64)
Chapter 33  
It deals with the associated complications of the eight serious diseases and certain other conditions, which in the absence of the rasayana treatment, have an inevitably fatal outcome and thus become untreatable. (65-75)
Chapter 34  
It deals with the measures to be taken for the protection of the king and his well-equipped army in a camp by the surgeon. (77-87)
Chapter 35  
It deals with the prognostic factors such as the life expectancy, age, general health, season, etc. which have to be considered before commencing the treatment. (89-112)
Chapter 36  
It deals with all aspects of the soil from which medicinal herbs were to be collected for preparing useful drugs. (113-123)
Chapter 37  
It classifies the drugs and measures for the treatment of inflammations, abscesses and wounds. (125-137)
Chapter 38  
It deals with the drugs and their properties classified into 37 groups. (139-157)
Chapter 39  
It lists the dosa-eliminating and dosa-alleviating drugs and their dosage schedules. (159-169)
Chapter 40  
It deals at length with the discussion regarding the supremacy of the dravya (drugs), their rasa ( tastes), guna (properties), virya (potencies) and the vipaka (the final taste after digestion) (171-184)
Chapter 41  
It deals with all aspects of the interrelation between the drugs and their source of origin in the five basic principles, the pancamahabhutas. (185-195)
Chapter 42  
It deals with the origin, classification, interrelation with the dosas, actions and properties of the tastes along with a list of substances and drugs belonging to each of the six tastes. (197-211)
Chapter 43  
It describes the six special emetic drugs along with the details of their mode of usage. (213-222)
Chapter 44  
It deals with the root, the bark, the fruit and the latex purgative preparations. (223-244)
Chapter 45  
It deals with the medicinal aspects of ten liquid substances viz. water, milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, ghrta, oil, honey, sugarcane juice, wine and urine. (245-302)
Chapter 46  
It deals with all aspects of dietetics including the classification, properties and indications of all types of foods, vegetables, meats and drinks, etc. and with the causes, types and the management of indigestion. (303-424)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume III-Diagnostic Considerations in AIS)

 

Nidana-Sthana or the Section on Diagnostic Considerations consists of sixteen chapters. All these deal with the aetiology and signs and symptoms of the various important surgical diseases. The management of these various diseases has been dealt with in the first half of Cikitsa-Sthana (S.S. IV), the section on treatment.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows:  
Chapter 1 It deals with the locations and functions of the five types of vatas in the body in health and the clinical features of the diseases produced by their vitiation alone or in association with other dosas. (Pages 7-32)
Chapter 2 It deals with the aetiology, anatomical considerations, pathogenesis and prognosis of anal piles. It also deals with the diagnosis of fleshy protuberant lesions (resembling piles) in other areas of the body. (Pages 33-48)
Chapter 3 It deals with the anatomical and physiological considerations of urinary bladder, the aetiology, pathogenesis, premonitary symptoms, clinical features and complications of the four types of vesical calculi and of seminal concretions and urinary gravel. (Pages 49-62)
Chapter 4 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of the five types of fistula-in-ano. (Pages 63-74)
Chapter 5 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, complications and prognosis of the seven major and eleven minor skin diseases (including leprosy) and the three types of leucoderma. It also describes the modes of spread of contagious diseases. (Pages 75-92)
Chapter 6 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and complications of the twenty urinary abnormalities. Clinical features and prognosis of the ten types of associated boils have also been given. (Pages 93-108)
Chapter 7 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and prognosis of eight types of abdominal enlargements including intestinal obstruction, perforation, splenomegaly and ascites. (Pages 109-120)
Chapter 8 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of various forms of foetal malpresentations and mentions Caesarian section to save the child. (Pages 121-132)
Chapter 9 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of external abscesses of six types, internal abscesses including puerperal sepsis and acute osteomyelitis, differentiating features of a gaseous abdominal swelling and an intra-abdominal abscess. (Pages 133-146)
Chapter 10 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and prognosis of various types of cellulitis and sinuses as well as those of some breast diseases. (Pages 147-160)
Chapter 11 It deals with the etiology, clinical features and prognosis of various types of glandular swellings, lymphadenitis, tumours and goitres. (Pages 161-172)
Chapter 12 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of various types of scrotal and inguinoscrotal swellings, venereal and allied diseases and elephantiasis. (Pages 173-184)
Chapter 13 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of forty-four miscellaneous diseases mostly of skin and its appendages, lymph nodes and external urogenital organs. (Pages 185-204)
Chapter 14 It deals with the etiology and clinical features of the infective and traumatic lesions of penis caused by the local applications of watermoss to elongate it. (Pages 205-214)
Chapter 15 It deals with the etiology, clinical and prognostic features of fractures and dislocations. (Pages 215-226)
Chapter 16 It deals with etiology, classification and clinical features of the diseases of the oral cavity including those of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate and throat. (Pages 227-250)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume IV-Anatomical & Obstetric Considerations in AIS)

 

This (Sarira-Sthana) section on Anatomical and Obstetric Considerations consists of ten chapters. These deal with the foetal development, sex differentiation in the foetus, philosophical viewpoints about the soul and the origin of Universe, different body layers and body parts such as the muscles, joints, bones, arteries, veins, etc., and the care of the pregnant and the newborn.  
The salient features of these chapters are:  
Chapter 1. Indian philosophical viewpoint regarding the origin of Universe in general and living beings in particular has been dealt with in this chapter along with its applied aspects to Ayurveda (Pages 5-20)
Chapter 2. It deals with the normal and abnormal features of seminal discharge and menstrual flow, treatment of their disorders, regimen for begetting a male or a female child, impotents and certain aspects of foetal abnormalities. (Pages 21-42)
Chapter 3. It deals with conception, monthwise development of the foetus, sex differentiation, ante-natal care, pregnancy longngs and related aspects. (Pages 43-64)
Chapter 4. It deals with the formation of the seven layers of the skin, the seven internal supporting layers and of all the hollow and solid viscera. It also describes the physio-pathological aspects of sleep and various classifications of the constitutions of human beings. (Pages 65-96)
Chapter 5. It deals with the steps of foetal development, enumeration of the anatomical parts of the body and their subdivisions of muscles, joints, bones, etc., and with the importance and method of dissecting a cadaver. (Pages 97-122)
Chapter 6. It describes the 107 vulnerable areas (marmans), their classifications, enumeration, description, importance and effects of injury. (Pages 123-152)
Chapter 7. It deals with the distributions and classifications of the 700 veins of the body, the principal and dosa-carrying veins and with the veins which have been contraindicated for venepuncture. (Pages 153-168)
Chapter 8. It deals with venepuncture, its indications, contraindication, technique, pre and post operative care, good and bad bleedings and with all other aspects of venepuncture. (Pages 169-191)
Chapter 9. It deals with the anatomical and physiological considerations of the dhamanis and strotasas and their differentiation from the siras. (Pages 191-206)
Chapter 10. It deals with all aspects of ante-natal, natal and post-natal care of the mother and also with the care of the new born. (Pages 207-241)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume V-Operative Considerations in AIS)

 

This 'Operative Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' (Vol. 5 of the Ancient India Surgery series) is bases on Chapters 1 to 23 of Cikitsa-sthana, the fourth canto of Susruta Samhita.  
These chapters mainly deal with the management of diseases, the diagnosis of which has already been described is the 'Diagnostic Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' (Vol. 3 of the Ancient Indian Surgery series by Singhal, G. D., Singh, L. M. & Singh, K. P.). Vol. 3 and 5 are thus complimentary to each other and make a set of diagnosis and management of important diseases.  
The remaining Chapter 24 to 40 of Cikitsa-sthana, of Susruta Samhita are included in the next volume 'Non-operative Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' by Singhal, G. D., Singh, R. H. & Shukla, K. P.  
The salient features of the chapters included in this book are:  
Chapter 1  
It deals with the aetiology and clinical features, etc., of wounds and ulcerative lesions and their management by the sixty therapeutic procedures. (1-45)
Chapter 2  
It deals with the classification, clinical features and the management of the traumatic wounds. (47-72)
Chapter 3  
It deals with the general and the local management of the skeletal and the joint injuries. (73-93)
Chapter 4  
It deals with the eliminative therapies and other measures for the treatment of vatika diseases, either generalised or localised, due to vitiated Vata alone or in association with the other dosas (95-109)
Chapter 5  
It deals with all aspects of the management of the serious vatika diseases, such as vata-rakta (gout), apatanaka (convulsions), hemiplegia, wry neck, epileptic fits, facial paralysis, earache,tune (bladder pain), pratituni (proctalgia), prostatic enlargements, and adhyavata. The drug guggulu, as a specific fat reducing agent, has been described. (111-137)
Chapter 6  
It deals with the four types of the management of piles, viz. medicinal, chemical cautery, fire cautery an surgery, along with their indications, techniques and complications. (139-158)
Chapter 7  
It deals with the medicinal and surgical management of the various types of the urinary calculi and gravel. (159-175)
Chapter 8  
It deals with the surgical and medicinal management of the fistula-in-ano. (177-193)
Chapter 9  
It deals with the management of the various skin diseases including leprosy, ringworm and leucoderma. (195-217)
Chapter 10  
It deals with the various pharmacological preparations used for managing leprosy, abnormal urinary discharges, kaphaja diseases, general anasarca and obesity. (219-233)
Chapter 11  
It deals with the management of the various types of urinary abnormalities, including diabetes, chyluria, hematuria, etc. (235-247)
Chapter 12  
It deals with the management of boils occuring as a complication of the urinary abnormalities, including madhumeha (diabetes mellitus). (249-260)
Chapter 13  
It deals with the management of glycosuria (diabetes mellitus) by silajatu and leprosy, etc. by hydnocarpus oil. (261-273)
Chapter 14  
It deals with the surgical and the medical management of the eight different diseases manifested by the common presenting symptom of abdominal enlargement, e.g. splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, intestinal obstruction and perforation, etc. (275-292)
Chapter 15  
It deals with the manipulative, surgical and general management of foetal malpresentations, with or without obstructed labour and with the care after delivery. (293-308)
Chapter 16  
It deals with the management of external as well as internal abscesses and of osteomyelitis. (309-321)
Chapter 17  
It deals with the management of the various types of cellulitis including erysipelas, sinuses and breast abscesses. (323-338)
Chapter 18  
It deals with the management of the glandular swellings including cysts, lymphadenopathy, tumours and goitres. (339-355)
Chapter 19  
It deals with the surgical and the medical management of the various types of the scrotal swellings, venereal diseases and elephantiasis. (357-375
Chapter 20  
It deals with the management of the various unclassified minor diseases, mostly of the skin and its appendages. (377-394)
Chapter 21  
It deals with the management of the diseases of the penis caused by unhygienic practices or by local applications of water-moss, etc., designed to increase its length. (395-404)
Chapter 22  
It deals with the management of the diseases of the oral cavity, including those of the lips, gums, teeth, the tongue and the palate. (405-426)
Chapter 23  
It deals with the management of the various types of general anasarca. (427-438)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume VI-Non-Operative Considerations in AIS)

 

Cikitsa-sthana, the fourth canto of Susruta Samhita contains 40 chapters, first 23 of which deal mainly with the management of surgical diseases described in Nidana-Sthana, the second canto of Susruta Samhita;, the latter chapters (24 to 40) deal with the very important concepts of Ayurveda, mainly on four aspects, viz. prevention of diseases, rejuvenation therapy, aphrodisiacs and pancakarma procedures.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows:  
Chapter 1 (S. S. IV. 24)  
This chapter describes various rules for personal hygiene and ethics with a view towards prevention of diseases. It includes descriptions regarding tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, care of the eyes and the mouth, use of anointing, massage, bath, exercise, food, sleep, and sexual activities, etc. (9-48)
Chapter 2 (S. S. IV. 25)  
It deals with the management of certain miscellaneous diseases, viz. the diseases of the ear lobule, greying of hairs and pigmentation of the face. (49-64)
Chapter 3(S.S. IV. 26)  
It deals with the aphrodisiac treatments for the sexually weak. (65-78)
Chapter 4 (S.S. IV. 27)  
It deals with the various restorative treatments advocated for alleviation from all types of ailments. (79-92)
Chapter 5 (S.S. IV. 28)  
It deals with the restorative therapies which promote wisdom and longevity. (93-108)
Chapter 6 (S.S. IV. 29)  
It deals with the restorative measures which could prevent old age. (109-126)
Chapter 7 (S.S. IV. 30)  
It deals with the restorative remedies for people whose afflictions have already been removed. (127-142)
Chapter 8 (S.S. IV. 31)  
It deals with the oleation therapy. (143-166)
Chapter 9 (S.S. IV. 32)  
It deals with the sudation therapy. (167-182)
Chapter 10 (S.S. IV. 33)  
It deals with the emetic and purgative treatments as well as the management of their curable complications. (183-204)
Chapter 11 (S.S. IV. 34)  
It deals with the management of the complications of the emetic and the purgative therapies. (205-226)
Chapter 12 (S.S. IV. 35)  
It deals with the specifications of the enema treatments and the nozzles. (227-244)
Chapter 13 (S.S. IV. 36)  
It deals with the complications of the enema treatment caused by an improperly used netravasti (enema pipe). (245-262)
Chapter 14 (S. S. IV. 37)  
It deals with the use of oily enemas and urethral and vaginal irrigations. (263-296)
Chapter 15 (S.S. IV. 38)  
It deals with the schedule of the decoction enema treatment. (297-328)
Chapter 16 (S.S. IV. 39)  
It deals with the management of the side-effects which occur in patients (undergoing eliminative therapy). (329-342)
Chapter 17 (S.S. IV. 40)  
It deals with the therapeutic uses of medicated fumigations, errhines and gargles. (343-372)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume VII-Toxicological Considerations in AIS)

 

This Kalpa-sthana section on Toxicological Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery consists of eight chapters. They deal with the poisoning of the king and with the methods of poisoning, their detection, protection, and treatment, the inanimate poisoning, dusi-visa or slow accumulative poisoning, the animate poisoning by venemous animals, snake, insect and rat bites, etc. and their diagnosis and management.  
The salient features of these chapters are:  
Chapter 1  
This chapter deals with the diverse ways in which a king (or any other person) could be poisoned through the medium of food, drinks or other articles of daily use such as combs, oils, vehicles etc. and with their detection, prophylaxis and treatment. (Pages 5-30)
Chapter 2  
It deals with the classification, sources, types, clinical features, complications and treatment of poisoning by inanimate poisons in general and by dusi visa, the slow acting ones, in particular. (Page 31-50)
Chapter 3  
It deals with the locations, features and management of animate poisoning by venemous animals. It includes chemical warfare poisoning, water poisoning, soil poisoning, food and fodder poisoning and atmospheric poisoning. (Page 51-68)
Chapter 4  
It describes the different types of snakes, features an stages of poisoning by their bites in human beings and in animals. (Page 69-92)
Chapter 5  
It deals with the management of snake bite poisoning in human beings, birds and animals. It also deals with arrow poisoning and the management of poisoning by insect bite and rate bite. (Page 93-120)
Chapter 6  
It deals with four great anti-poisonous recipes capable of treating serious and terminal stages of poisoning. Some of them were for use in the treatment of poisoning of masses of persons, army or cattle. They were to be applied on the drums which when beaten produced sounds having curative effect. (121-132)
Chapter 7  
It deals with 18 types of rats, signs and symptoms produced by their bites and the management thereof. Rat bite poisoning in animals and hydrophobia have also been dealt with. (Page 133-152)
Chapter 8  
It deals with the classification, clinical features, management and prognosis of poisoning by bite, etc. of insects, frogs, flies, mosquitoes, scorpions and spiders etc. ( Page 153-196)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume VIII-Ophthalmic & Otorhinolaryngologial Considerations in AIS)

 

Chapter 1  
It gives the skeletal outline of the contents of Uttara-tantra, anatomical considerations of the eyeball and aetiology, prodromal features and general principles in the management of eye diseases. It then enumerates the seventy-six eye diseases, classified according to the dosas in volved, prognosis and the site of lesion. (1-18)
Chapter 2  
It deals with the clinical features of the nine diseases of the junctional areas of the eye. (19-26)
Chapter 3  
It deals with the nomenclature and clinical features of the twenty-one diseases afflicting the eyelids. (27-38)
Chapter 4  
It deals with the nomenclature and clinical features of the eleven diseases of the white part of the eye. (39-46)
Chapter 5  
It deals with the clinical features and prognosis of the four diseases of the cornea. (47-54)
Chapter 6  
It deals with the nomenclature, clinical features and prognosis of the seventeen generalised eye diseases. (55-66)
Chapter 7  
It deals with the diagnosis of immature and mature cataract and the six other serious diseases afflicting the pupil and the lens. (67-82)
Chapter 8  
It deals with the classification of the surgical treatment applicable to the eye diseases, based upon prognosis. (83-94)
Chapter 9  
It deals with the treatment of vatabhisyanda and other vatika afflictions of the eye. (95-106)
Chapter 10  
It describes the procedures available for the management of pittabhisyanda and pittadbimantha and other curable paittika afflictions of the eye. ... (107-116)
Chapter 11  
It describes the methods of treatment available for the management of Kapbaja abbisyanda and other curable Kapbaja afflictions of the eye. (117-126)
Chapter 12  
It deals with the management of raktabbisyanda and allied eye diseases. (127-144)
Chapter 13  
It deals with all aspects of scraping in eye diseases. (145-154)
Chapter 14  
It deals with the management of the five eye diseases in detail in which incision is indicated. (155-162)
Chapter 15  
It deals with the management of the arman and other eye diseases in which excision is indicated as a method of treatment. (163-174)
Chapter 16  
It deals with the plastic surgery for entropion (paksmakopa) in detail. It also describes the three alternative methods of treatment of the disease, it surgical repair fails. (175-185)
Chapter 17  
It deals with the operative procedures and collyriums for the treatment of cataract and management of other diseases of the pupil and the lens. (183-210)
Chapter 18  
It deals with all aspects of the five, therapeutic external ophthalmic applications, viz. tarpana (lubrication), putapaka (a kind of poultice), ascyotana (eye drops), pariseka (irrigation) and anjana (collyrium). (211-240)
Chapter 19  
It deals with the management of eye injuries and ophthalmia neonatorum. (241-252)
Chapter 20  
It deals with the pathogenesis and clinical features of the twenty-eight ear diseases. (253-262)
Chapter 21  
It deals with the general and local management of the ear diseases. (263-280)
Chapter 22  
It deals with the pathogenesis and clinical features of the thirty-one disease of the nose. (281-292)
Chapter 23  
It deals with the management of the diseases of the nose. (293-302)
Chapter 24  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of pratisyaya (corrhyza) including pinasa. (303-316)
Chapter 25  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of the eleven types of headache and diseases of the head. (317-326)
Chapter 26  
It deals with the management of the eleven types of headache and diseases of the head. (327-340)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume IX-Paediatric & Gynaecological Considerations in AIS)

 

The Kaumdra-tantra (Paediatrics and Gynaecology) and Tantra-bhusana (Aphorisms) sections of Uttara-tantra, the sixth canto of Susruta Samhita consists of 12 and 4 chapters respectively.  
Paediatrics is dealt with in the first eleven chapters (S. S. VI. 27-37). These describe the nine grahas, the superhuman agencies which afflict the children and produce various syndromes, their mythogical origin, mode of affliction, clinical feature and management.  
Gynaecology has been described in the one chapter (S.S. VI. 38) which deals with the 20 gynaecological disorders, their aetiology, diagnosis and management.  
The Aphorisms portion consists of the last four chapters (S.S. VI. 63-66) and compiles the various possible combinations of the tastes and dosas, measures to keep healthy and the maxims; this portion is as an epilogue to the whole treatise.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows:  
Chapter 1 (S.S. VI. 27)  
A Study of the Specific Features of the Nine Grahas  
It deals with the nomenclature, aetiology, clinical features, prognosis and general regimen of afflictions of children with the nine grahas (the superhuman organisms invisibly entering the body of unhygeinically kept children and producing various grave paediatric syndromes (7-19)
Chapter 2 (S.S. Vi. 28)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Skanda Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Skanda graha by measures like vata-eliminating medications, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (21-29)
Chapter 3 (S.S. VI. 29)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Skandapasmara Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted by skandapasmara graha with measures like medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (31-39
Chapter 4 (S. S. VI. 30)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Sakuni Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted by Sakuni graha with such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, fumigations, sacrificial rites, etc. (41-48)
Chapter 5 (S.S. VI. 31)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Revati Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted by Revati graha using such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (49-57)
Chapter 6 (S.S. VI. 32)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Putana Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Putana graha by the use of such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (59-66)
Chapter 7 (S.S. VI. 33)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Andhaputana Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Andhaputana graha by the use of such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, warding-off omens, sacrificial rites, etc. (67-74)
Chapter 8 (S.S. VI. 34)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Sitaputana Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Sitaputana graha by using measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, warding off omens, sacrificial rites, etc. (75-82)
Chapters 9 (S.S. VI. 35)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Mukhamandika Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Mukhamandika Graha using measures as medicated sprinklings, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (83-90)
Chapter 10 (S. S. VI. 36)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Naigamesa Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Naigamesa Graha using such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, anointment, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (91-98)
Chapter II (S. S. VI. 37)  
The Mythological Origin of the Grahas  
It describes the mythological basis of the origin of the grahas. The nine grahas were created by Gods to protect the newly born Guha and were to afflict the children of unpious and unhygienic families as a part of their activities. Skanda has been considered to be the most dreadful graha. (99-109)
Chapter 12 (S.S. VI. 38)  
The Management of the Gynaecological Disorders  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, prognosis and management of the 20 gynaecological disorders, including dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, dyspareunia, prolapse uterus, habitual abortion, sexual insatiability, cervical growth, pinhole cervical os, etc. (111-126)
Chapter 13 (S.S. VI. 63)  
Compilation of the Different Tastes  
It compiles the 63 combinations of 6 tastes in all possible permutations to counteract the 63 possible combinations of dosas. (127-139)
Chapter 14 (S.S. VI. 64)  
Measures to keep Healthy  
It dealt with the measures to keep healthy. Daily regimens to be observed during the different seasons, the twelve types of diet, their effects and indications and the ten suitable times for the administration of medicine in relation to meals have been discussed. (141-165)
Chapter 15 (S.S. VI. 65)  
The Maxims  
It deals with the thirty-two maxims (a general principle serving as a rule or guide) used in Susruta Samhita. Their importance has been given and each one discussed with examples. They help in general in correlating the sentences and clarifying the meaning of the text. They are of invaluable help to the physician in understanding the subject. (167-186)
Chapter 16 (S.S. VI. 66)  
The Compilation of the Different Dosas  
It deals with the compilation of dosas into 62 possible combinations and their relation to dhatus and malas in health and disease. It has also been mentioned that diseases are 1120 and drugs 573 in number. (187-196)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume X-Medical & Psychiatric Considerations in AIS)

 

This book contains 24 chapters of Uttara-tantra, the VIth Canto of Susruta Samhita; the initial 21 chapters are on Kaya-cikitsa or Internal Medicine and the last 3 are on Bhuta-vidya or Psychiatry.  
The Internal Medicine chapters deal mostly on symptoms encountered in surgical practice, as fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, cough, hiccough, loss of appetite, fainting, etc,; each such symptom has been considered in a separate chapter, almost as a disease entity in itself. Other chapters in this portion are purely medical as heart diseases, consumption, alcoholism, asthma, worm infestation, etc. A few chapters are more surgical as retention of urine and obstructive uropathies.  
The chapters on psychiatry deal with afflictions by grahas or superhuman agencies, epilepsy and psychoses.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows: the concerned page numbers are given within brackets.  
Chapter 39  
The Management of Pyrexia  
It deals with fever as a disease. All aspects are discussed including its importance, definition, classification, aetiopathogenesis, prodromal symptoms, clinical features, prognosis and management of different types. Intermittent fever (? Malaria) is dealt at length. (9-85)
Chapter 40  
The Management of Diarrhoea  
It deals with the diagnosis and management of three allied conditions with the common presentation of frequent loose motions, viz. diarrhoea (atisara), dysentery (pravahika) and the malabsorption syndrome (grahani). Special conditions like painful diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and chronic diarrhoeas are also discussed. Many antidiarrhoea recipes are given
A general classification of diseases is also mentioned.
(87-141)
Chapter 41  
The Management of Consumption  
It deals with all aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of consumption of tissues and wasting as a disease. Some of these patients could be of pulmonary tuberculosis. Meat preparations and nutritious diet and various drugs have been mentioned for treatment. (143-163)
Chapter 42  
The Management of Gulma  
It deals with the gulma disease (intra-abdominal localised swellings), basically gaseous in nature and moving within the intestinal tract; it also deals with the various abdominal colics due to lesions other than the gulmas, e.g. ureteric colic, etc. (165-206)
Chapter 43  
Management of the Heart Diseases  
It deals with the pathogenesis, classification, clinical features, complications and treatment of heart diseases. (207-217)
Chapter 44  
The Management of Anaemia (and Jaundice)  
It deals with the aetiopathogenesis, classification, clinical features, complication and management of the conditions presenting with the common symptomatology of 'palor', viz. anaemia and jaundice. (219-236)
Chapter 45  
Management of the Haemorrhagic disorders  
It describes the aetiopathogenesis, two principal types, clinical features, prognosis, complications and the management of the haemorrhagic diseases. (237-256)
Chapter 46  
The Management of Fainting (and Coma)  
It deals with the diagnosis and management of fainting and coma. (257-270)
Chapter 47  
The Management of Excessive Drinking  
It deals with the properties of wine, three stages of intoxication and seven types of diseases due to excessive drinking, including hangover, alcoholic gastritis and chronic alcoholism, and their treatment. (271-301)
Chapter 48  
i>The Management of Thirst  
It gives the aetiopathogenesis, types, prodromal symptoms, clinical features and the management of thirst as a disease. (303-318)
Chapter 49  
The Management of Emesis  
It deals with the diagnosis and management of five types of vomiting. (319-333)
Chapter 50  
The Management of Hiccup  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management of hiccup. (335-348)
Chapter 51  
The Management of Breathlessness  
It deals with all aspects of the diagnosis and management of breathlessness, including asthma. (349-368)
Chapter 52  
The Management of Cough  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, characteristics and management of the five types of cough. (369-388)
Chapter 53  
The Management of Hoarsensess of Voice  
It describes the aetiopathogenesis, types, clinical features, prognosis and management of the hoarseness of voice. (389-399)
Chapter 54  
Management of the Worm Infestations  
It deals with the classification, clinical features and the management of the worm infestations. (401-416)
Chapter 55  
The Management of Udavarta  
It deals with the pathogenesis, clinical features and management of udavartas caused by the suppression of the natural urges. (417-436)
Chapter 56  
The Management of Gastroenteritis,  
It deals with the clinical features and management of gastroenteritis, some forms of intestinal obstruction, paralytic ifeus and chronic constipation. (437-449)
Chapter 57  
The Management of anorexia  
It deals with the five types of anorexia, their clinical features and management. (451-462)
Chapter 58  
Management of the Obstructive Uropathy  
It deals with the clinical features and management of twelve types of obstructive uropathy. (463-483)
Chapter 59  
The Management of Dysuria  
It deals with the classification of dysuira into eight types and their clinical features and management. (485-496)
Chapter 60  
The Management of the Graha (Superhuman Agencies)
Afflictions
 
It deals with the graha (superhuman agencies) afflictions and their management. Concept of microoraganisms is available. Some manifestations could be psychiatric diseases, whose diagnosis and management is also discussed. (497-516)
Chapter 61  
The Management of Epilepsy  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management of epilepsy. (517-531)
Chapter 62  
The Management of Psychoses  
It deals with the aetiology, classification, clinical features and managements of psychoses and some special recipes for their treatment. (533-546)

 

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Susruta Samhita: Ancient Indian Surgery (3 Big Volumes)

Item Code:
IDG232
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2007
ISBN:
8170843759 (Set)
Language:
English
Size:
10 inch x 6.5 inch
Pages:
1975
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Weight of the book is 7.50 Kg
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About the Book

 

Susruta, the Father of Surgery, wrote his samhita (treatise) about 2500 years ago in Sanskrit at Varanasi, India and classified it into six as "A.I.S." series in 10 Vols. in a very authoritative, scientific, literal, research oriented, syntax interpretation using modern medical terminology alongwith original Sanskrit Text by a team of dedicated workers from the Institute of Medical Sciences, B.H.U.

The present volume deals with the first twenty seven chapters of Sutra-sthana of Susruta Samhita. It contents chapters on the origin of the Medical Science (Ayurveda), Seasonal regiment, the varieties of blunt instruments, and the application of sharp instruments, the principles of experimental surgery, description of blood, techniques of ear puncture and plastic surgery, the unripe and ripe abscesses, the classification of diseases and the eight surgical procedures.

 

About the Author

 

Dr. G. D. Singhal, M.B.B.S., M.S., F.R.C.S., VAIDYA KIRTI (Hon Causa, Sri Lanka), was born at Allahabad in 1932, and had medical education at Lucknow, Edinburgh and Toronto. He was Ex-Professor of Surgery & Head of the Dept. Banaras Hindu University, a Paediatric Surgeon and Historian of Medicine, was a recognised writer of research-oriented authentic books on Ayurveda in English, using modern medical terminology.

Dr. Singhal, was trained in India, U.K. and Canada. He had a vast teaching and research experience. He had over 200 publications in Surgery, Paediatric Surgery and History of Medicine, including 15 Books on Ayurveda.

Dr. S. N. Tripathi, B.A., A.B.M.S., H.P.A., Ph.D. (Ayurveda, Kayacikitsa, B.H.U.), was born at Varanasi in 1932. He was Head of the Dept. Kaya-Chikitsa (B.H.U.) and was awarded gold medals and cash prizes for research.

Dr. G. N. Chaturvedi, A.B.M.S. (B.H.U.), was born in Brahmin Ayurvedic Physician family, at Ghazipur in 1932, and stood first with distinctions in eight subjects and two gold medals. He was Professor and Head of the Dept. of Kaya-cikitsa, Institute of Medical Sciences, B.H.U. He has written commentary on Caraka Samhita and many other books and monographs.

Excerpts from Review:

 

Foreword

The Progress of medical science is a series of observations and discoveries, noted, lost, relearned, and often forgotten. Such is the case of ancient Indian medicine, art and science, highly developed and frequently transmitted by precepts alone for over twenty-five hundred years. Classic Indian medical writings, although known, have not been previously available to those who did not understand the complexities of Sanskrit. The translations of the Susruta by Dr. G. D. Singhal and his colleagues at the Banaras Hindu University appear to provide the first organized and systematic approach to translating this vast amount of medical knowledge into modern terms and expressions. This has been a long and difficult attempt by a number of scholars to translate these ancient verses into modern language without losing the detail and accuracy of the original text. Each chapter is initially summarized and referenced verse. Each verse is presented first in the original Sanskrit and followed by an English translation and in some cases an interpretation. Abundant foot notes and references to Indian terms are included for clarity. It is an easily readable translation. It would appear that attention to detail has provided an accurate account of the original text.

These translations are of immense historical significance for they provide insights into a highly developed medical practice of many centuries ago which parallel and possibly precede medical thoughts of the oriental and Near Eastern cultures. These writings vividly portray Vedic physicians who developed a very systematic classification of diseases and a very detailed set of therapeutics.

This particular book represents only a portion of the Susruta which in its entirety likely represents the largest and most detailed ancient surgical treatise. I would hope that this translation would stimulate other medical scientists to study in more detailed Ayurvedic medicine. Dr. Singhal has suggested research problems at the end of each chapter in anticipation that these ancient Indian concepts might be put into perspective with further modern investigations. This book opens new doors into medical history and should stimulate a surge of investigation into the ancient practices described in these writings. Dr. Singhal and his colleagues are to be commended for presenting these translations to the English speaking world.

 





Vol-2

 

Foreword

I was privileged to read through a substantial portion of Dr. G. D. Singhal and Dr. L.V. Guru's work, 'Anatomical and Obstetric Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery', before it was published.

So far there has been only one English translation of Susruta Samhita available in India, that by Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna. This work had been out of print for nearly half a century. A recent reprint is now available without any change whatsoever in the original version. Not only is the language of this translation archaic and unnatural ,but, in many cases, the interpretation of technical terms is faulty, confusing, misleading and unfair to Susruta , e. g. rendering of dosa as 'fault', vata as 'wind', etc.

Being free from these defects of the earlier effort, Dr. G. D. Singhal and Dr. L.V. Guru's English rendering of the ancient Sanskrit text of Susruta Samhita is not only more faithful, but lucid and clear, and more in tune with modern style and trends. Thus the publication removes a lacuna from the existing English literature on Ayurveda. Dr. Singhal and Dr. Guru are experienced teachers of modern medicine and Ayurveda respectively, and the present work does them credit.

Students, teachers and research workers who find it difficult to study and familiarise themselves with Dhanwantari's teachings, as recorded by Susruta, due to their inability to read and understand Sanskrit, will find this book a welcome solution to their problem. I commend Dr. Singhal and Dr. Guru's excellent book to this group of scholars in particular and other English-knowing Vaidyas in general.

 

Vol-3

 

Foreword

I am very happy to send this Foreword to my friend, Dr. G.D. Singhal of India (whom I first met in London, U.K. in Sept. '72 at the 23rd International Congress of History of Medicine) for his book 'Ophthalmic and Otorhino-laryngological Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' based on Salakya-tantra portion of Susruta Samhita, the classical Ayurvedic surgical treatise.

Susruta Samhita has been available in the ancient Arab World as Kitabe Susruda. But till today, so far as I know, no authentic version of this classic has been presented to the West. The attempt of Dr. Singhal and his colleagues from the famous Banaras Hindu University to present the 2500 years old Sanskrit Susruta Samhita into a modern encyclopaedic, monumental work of Ancient Indian Surgery series of 12 volumes in more than 5000 pages as its only authoritative scientific, research-oriented syntax interpretation in an easily understandable, lucid style is highly commendable. The four line Gists in Introduction and a Summary in running English at the beginning and a list of Suggested Research Problems at the end of each chapter add to the utility and glamour of the books.

I am surprised to find that the West knows more about Dr. Singhal's work compared to the recognition given to him in his own country. I know this unique work will make all those whose name appears in the book immortal, even though vested interests may not allow proper utilisation of the talents of this excellent team of translators, editors and commentators from Varanasi, the same town where Susruta originally wrote his treatise.

It is my opinion that this work is indispensable for all Historians of Medicine, even remotely interested in the field. No medical institution in any part of the world should remain without a copy of this remarkable work which will give a new direction to the History of Medicine and Surgery. The work deserves the highest laurels and awards. The world will remain for ever grateful to Dr. Singhal and his colleagues for showing this light from the East.

I wish it was somehow made possible through some international agency for Dr. Singhal to travel to all the Universities of the world giving lectures on Ancient Indian Surgery and its contributions to the surgery of the world.

On the whole, I am confident this pioneering work will enable one day Dr. Singhal achieve his cherished dream of getting Susruta of India recognized as the Father of Surgery.

I am grateful that Dr. Singhal requested me to write this Forword for his next volume and am proud to send these few lines of appreciation. May be India and the world will recognize this work thoroughly after a few generations when its full impact has been felt in changing the world History of Medicine putting India's and Susruta's name in glittering letters on each page.

 

British Journal of Surgery, London, U.K.
  an authentic scientific version...a fascinating work...a readable book with a compelling charm...
Dr. Roland Folse, Chairman, Dept. Surgery, Illinois, U.S.A.
  ...the first organised and systematic approach to translating the largest and most detailed ancient surgical treatise...
Prof. Boris D. Petrov, Semashko Institute, Moscow, U.S.S.R.
  ...For the first time the unique experience of traditional Indian medicine and the famous treatise of Susruta in such details and so perfectly scientifically interpreted......
Dr. P. S. Hunt, Monash Dept. of Surgery, Melbourne, Australia
  ...These volumes should be available in all medical libraries.
Dr. Glen W. Davidson, Southern, Illinois University, U.S.A.
  ...really impressive...the first time we were aware of the extremely rich history of Ayurvedic surgery.

 

CONTENTS
(Volume I-Fundamental & Plastic Surgery Considerations in AIS)

 

The Fundamental and Plastic Surgery Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' contains Chapters 1-27 of Sutra-sthana, the first canto of Susruta Samhita. The remaining chapters 28-46 of Sutra-sthana are contained in the next volume on 'Pharmaceutical Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery'.
The salient features of the 27 chapters in this book are as follows:  
CHAPTER 1  
It deals with the introduction of Susruta, the student, to the teacher, Lord Dhanvantari and beginning of the teaching discourse. General introduction of the subject and the eight divisions of Ayurveda have been given. The four aspects of Ayurvedic treatment, the human being, the disease, the remedy and the timely activity have been considered. Broad subdivisions of the treatise have been given. (9-36)
CHAPTER 2  
It deals with the premedical tests employed for the selection of the students, their enrollment by initiation with a Vedic ceremony, the reciprocal code of conduct employed between the teacher and the taught, as also with the enumeration of the unsuitable times and places for study. (37-48)
CHAPTER 3  
It deals with the classification of the treatise in the 6 cantos and enumeration of all the 186 chapters in them. Emphasis has been laid for the surgeon to learn both theoretical knowledge and practical experience equally well. (49-74)
CHAPTER 4  
It emphasizes two important methods of study of the medical science in ancient India, viz., (1) by trying to understand the 'depth of meaning' of the subject intelligently, and (2) by knowing about the related sciences in addition to the basic speciality. (75-84)
CHAPTER 5  
Though entitle 'Preoperative Arrangements', it deals in addition with the details of the preoperative, operative and postoperative measures of an abscess drainage. (85-101)
CHAPTER 6  
It deals with the factors of time and seasons in relation to Ayurveda. The effects of seasonal variations on bodily humours have also been dealt with. (103-123)
CHAPTER 7  
It deals with all aspects of the 101 blunt instruments used in Ayurveda. (125-138)
CHAPTER 8  
It deals with all aspects of the 20 sharp instruments used in Ayurveda. (139-151)
CHAPTER 9  
It deals with the Ayurvedic concepts of experimental surgery and the different operative precedures advised to be practised on various easily obtainable objects. (153-161)
CHAPTER 10  
It outlines the conditions before medical practice could be started, external appearances and behaviour of the doctor during visits, and the methodology of history taking and examination of the patient to arrive at a diagnosis and prognosis. (163-172)
CHAPTER II  
It deals with the pharmacology and therapeutics of ksaras (the caustics). (173-190)
CHAPTER 12  
It deals with all aspects of the fire-cautery treatment and with the classification and management of burns. It also deals with smoke poisoning and heat-stroke, frost bite, sunstroke and lightning burn. (191-208)
CHAPTER 13  
It deals with all aspects of leeches and with their therapeutic application in the human beings. (209-223)
CHAPTER 14  
It deals with the formation, circulation and functions of blood. Features of normal blood and that deranged by the dosas, and all aspects of surgical blood-letting have also been discussed. (225-245)
CHAPTER 15  
It describes all the dosas, abatus and malas-their normal features, as well as the features and the management of the their increase or decrease. It also deals with the Ayurvedic concept of bala (ojasa, natural immunity), obesity and asthenia. (247-273)
CHAPTER 16  
It deals with the method of piercing children's ear lobules for ornamental purposes, of the fifteen methods of plastic repair of the split ear lobule and with certain other specialised procedures like raising a check flap for this and also with ten ear and ear lobule diseases. It also describes the technique of rhinoplasty along with its pre and post-operative care and the principles of harelip surgery. (275-298)
CHAPTER 17  
It deals with the six types of inflammations; if properly treated all inflammations would lead to suppuration. The three types of abscesses-unripe, ripening and ripe, and their pathogenesis, complications and principles of management have been described. (299-312)
CHAPTER 18  
It deals with the general considerations of pastes to be applied over the wounds and inflammations (the specific pastes having been considered with individual diseases), fourteen methods of bandaging (which closely compare with some of the modern methods of bandaging), and with all aspects of bandages in general. (313-330)
CHAPTER 19  
It deals with the 'do's' and 'don'ts' for the traumatised patient. (331-344)
CHAPTER 20  
It deals with the salutary and unsalutary diets and regimen for the patient, the harmful dietary combinations and the effects of winds blowing from different directions. (345-360)
CHAPTER 21  
It deals with the physiological and the pathological concepts of the dosas (humours), the vata, pitta, kapha and sonita, in the human body and their significance in relation to wounds. (361-383)
CHAPTER 22  
It deals with a vivid and picturesque description of the local features of ulcers. (385-397)
CHAPTER 23  
It classifies in a general way the sites and natures of the curable, relievable and incurable lesions, particularly the ulcerative lesions. (399-411)
CHAPTER 24  
It deals broadly with the classification of diseases according to the site and the nature of the lesion concerned. (413-426)
CHAPTER 25  
It deals with the indications of the eight types of the surgical procedures, with a detailed discussion of suturing, and a broad outline of the complications from surgery. (427-442)
CHAPTER 26  
It deals with the types, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of the foreign bodies lodged in the body. (443-456)
CHAPTER 27  
It deals with the fifteen methods of removal of the two (loose and fixed) types of foreign bodies. (457-472)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume II-Pharmaceutical Considerations in AIS)

 

The 'Pharmaceutical Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' contains Chapters 28-46 of Sutra-sthana, the first canto of Susruta Samhita. The remaining chapters 1-27 of Sutra-sthana are contained in the 'Fundamental & Plastic Surgery Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery'.  
The salient features of the chapters in this book are:  
Chapter 28  
It deals with the recognition, importance and avoidance of bad omens and fatal signs in a wound. (1-10)
Chapter 29  
It deals with the inauspicious and the auspicious messengers, patients, dreams and the omens during the physician's visit to see the patient. (11-32)
Chapter 30  
It deals with the features of the pathological functioning of the five special sensory organs. (33-42)
Chapter 31  
It deals with the signs and symptoms in the patient which forecast his imminent death. (43-54)
Chapter 32  
It deals with the premonitary changes and other signs indicating a fatal outcome. (55-64)
Chapter 33  
It deals with the associated complications of the eight serious diseases and certain other conditions, which in the absence of the rasayana treatment, have an inevitably fatal outcome and thus become untreatable. (65-75)
Chapter 34  
It deals with the measures to be taken for the protection of the king and his well-equipped army in a camp by the surgeon. (77-87)
Chapter 35  
It deals with the prognostic factors such as the life expectancy, age, general health, season, etc. which have to be considered before commencing the treatment. (89-112)
Chapter 36  
It deals with all aspects of the soil from which medicinal herbs were to be collected for preparing useful drugs. (113-123)
Chapter 37  
It classifies the drugs and measures for the treatment of inflammations, abscesses and wounds. (125-137)
Chapter 38  
It deals with the drugs and their properties classified into 37 groups. (139-157)
Chapter 39  
It lists the dosa-eliminating and dosa-alleviating drugs and their dosage schedules. (159-169)
Chapter 40  
It deals at length with the discussion regarding the supremacy of the dravya (drugs), their rasa ( tastes), guna (properties), virya (potencies) and the vipaka (the final taste after digestion) (171-184)
Chapter 41  
It deals with all aspects of the interrelation between the drugs and their source of origin in the five basic principles, the pancamahabhutas. (185-195)
Chapter 42  
It deals with the origin, classification, interrelation with the dosas, actions and properties of the tastes along with a list of substances and drugs belonging to each of the six tastes. (197-211)
Chapter 43  
It describes the six special emetic drugs along with the details of their mode of usage. (213-222)
Chapter 44  
It deals with the root, the bark, the fruit and the latex purgative preparations. (223-244)
Chapter 45  
It deals with the medicinal aspects of ten liquid substances viz. water, milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, ghrta, oil, honey, sugarcane juice, wine and urine. (245-302)
Chapter 46  
It deals with all aspects of dietetics including the classification, properties and indications of all types of foods, vegetables, meats and drinks, etc. and with the causes, types and the management of indigestion. (303-424)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume III-Diagnostic Considerations in AIS)

 

Nidana-Sthana or the Section on Diagnostic Considerations consists of sixteen chapters. All these deal with the aetiology and signs and symptoms of the various important surgical diseases. The management of these various diseases has been dealt with in the first half of Cikitsa-Sthana (S.S. IV), the section on treatment.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows:  
Chapter 1 It deals with the locations and functions of the five types of vatas in the body in health and the clinical features of the diseases produced by their vitiation alone or in association with other dosas. (Pages 7-32)
Chapter 2 It deals with the aetiology, anatomical considerations, pathogenesis and prognosis of anal piles. It also deals with the diagnosis of fleshy protuberant lesions (resembling piles) in other areas of the body. (Pages 33-48)
Chapter 3 It deals with the anatomical and physiological considerations of urinary bladder, the aetiology, pathogenesis, premonitary symptoms, clinical features and complications of the four types of vesical calculi and of seminal concretions and urinary gravel. (Pages 49-62)
Chapter 4 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of the five types of fistula-in-ano. (Pages 63-74)
Chapter 5 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, complications and prognosis of the seven major and eleven minor skin diseases (including leprosy) and the three types of leucoderma. It also describes the modes of spread of contagious diseases. (Pages 75-92)
Chapter 6 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and complications of the twenty urinary abnormalities. Clinical features and prognosis of the ten types of associated boils have also been given. (Pages 93-108)
Chapter 7 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and prognosis of eight types of abdominal enlargements including intestinal obstruction, perforation, splenomegaly and ascites. (Pages 109-120)
Chapter 8 It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of various forms of foetal malpresentations and mentions Caesarian section to save the child. (Pages 121-132)
Chapter 9 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of external abscesses of six types, internal abscesses including puerperal sepsis and acute osteomyelitis, differentiating features of a gaseous abdominal swelling and an intra-abdominal abscess. (Pages 133-146)
Chapter 10 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and prognosis of various types of cellulitis and sinuses as well as those of some breast diseases. (Pages 147-160)
Chapter 11 It deals with the etiology, clinical features and prognosis of various types of glandular swellings, lymphadenitis, tumours and goitres. (Pages 161-172)
Chapter 12 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of various types of scrotal and inguinoscrotal swellings, venereal and allied diseases and elephantiasis. (Pages 173-184)
Chapter 13 It deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of forty-four miscellaneous diseases mostly of skin and its appendages, lymph nodes and external urogenital organs. (Pages 185-204)
Chapter 14 It deals with the etiology and clinical features of the infective and traumatic lesions of penis caused by the local applications of watermoss to elongate it. (Pages 205-214)
Chapter 15 It deals with the etiology, clinical and prognostic features of fractures and dislocations. (Pages 215-226)
Chapter 16 It deals with etiology, classification and clinical features of the diseases of the oral cavity including those of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate and throat. (Pages 227-250)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume IV-Anatomical & Obstetric Considerations in AIS)

 

This (Sarira-Sthana) section on Anatomical and Obstetric Considerations consists of ten chapters. These deal with the foetal development, sex differentiation in the foetus, philosophical viewpoints about the soul and the origin of Universe, different body layers and body parts such as the muscles, joints, bones, arteries, veins, etc., and the care of the pregnant and the newborn.  
The salient features of these chapters are:  
Chapter 1. Indian philosophical viewpoint regarding the origin of Universe in general and living beings in particular has been dealt with in this chapter along with its applied aspects to Ayurveda (Pages 5-20)
Chapter 2. It deals with the normal and abnormal features of seminal discharge and menstrual flow, treatment of their disorders, regimen for begetting a male or a female child, impotents and certain aspects of foetal abnormalities. (Pages 21-42)
Chapter 3. It deals with conception, monthwise development of the foetus, sex differentiation, ante-natal care, pregnancy longngs and related aspects. (Pages 43-64)
Chapter 4. It deals with the formation of the seven layers of the skin, the seven internal supporting layers and of all the hollow and solid viscera. It also describes the physio-pathological aspects of sleep and various classifications of the constitutions of human beings. (Pages 65-96)
Chapter 5. It deals with the steps of foetal development, enumeration of the anatomical parts of the body and their subdivisions of muscles, joints, bones, etc., and with the importance and method of dissecting a cadaver. (Pages 97-122)
Chapter 6. It describes the 107 vulnerable areas (marmans), their classifications, enumeration, description, importance and effects of injury. (Pages 123-152)
Chapter 7. It deals with the distributions and classifications of the 700 veins of the body, the principal and dosa-carrying veins and with the veins which have been contraindicated for venepuncture. (Pages 153-168)
Chapter 8. It deals with venepuncture, its indications, contraindication, technique, pre and post operative care, good and bad bleedings and with all other aspects of venepuncture. (Pages 169-191)
Chapter 9. It deals with the anatomical and physiological considerations of the dhamanis and strotasas and their differentiation from the siras. (Pages 191-206)
Chapter 10. It deals with all aspects of ante-natal, natal and post-natal care of the mother and also with the care of the new born. (Pages 207-241)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume V-Operative Considerations in AIS)

 

This 'Operative Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' (Vol. 5 of the Ancient India Surgery series) is bases on Chapters 1 to 23 of Cikitsa-sthana, the fourth canto of Susruta Samhita.  
These chapters mainly deal with the management of diseases, the diagnosis of which has already been described is the 'Diagnostic Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' (Vol. 3 of the Ancient Indian Surgery series by Singhal, G. D., Singh, L. M. & Singh, K. P.). Vol. 3 and 5 are thus complimentary to each other and make a set of diagnosis and management of important diseases.  
The remaining Chapter 24 to 40 of Cikitsa-sthana, of Susruta Samhita are included in the next volume 'Non-operative Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery' by Singhal, G. D., Singh, R. H. & Shukla, K. P.  
The salient features of the chapters included in this book are:  
Chapter 1  
It deals with the aetiology and clinical features, etc., of wounds and ulcerative lesions and their management by the sixty therapeutic procedures. (1-45)
Chapter 2  
It deals with the classification, clinical features and the management of the traumatic wounds. (47-72)
Chapter 3  
It deals with the general and the local management of the skeletal and the joint injuries. (73-93)
Chapter 4  
It deals with the eliminative therapies and other measures for the treatment of vatika diseases, either generalised or localised, due to vitiated Vata alone or in association with the other dosas (95-109)
Chapter 5  
It deals with all aspects of the management of the serious vatika diseases, such as vata-rakta (gout), apatanaka (convulsions), hemiplegia, wry neck, epileptic fits, facial paralysis, earache,tune (bladder pain), pratituni (proctalgia), prostatic enlargements, and adhyavata. The drug guggulu, as a specific fat reducing agent, has been described. (111-137)
Chapter 6  
It deals with the four types of the management of piles, viz. medicinal, chemical cautery, fire cautery an surgery, along with their indications, techniques and complications. (139-158)
Chapter 7  
It deals with the medicinal and surgical management of the various types of the urinary calculi and gravel. (159-175)
Chapter 8  
It deals with the surgical and medicinal management of the fistula-in-ano. (177-193)
Chapter 9  
It deals with the management of the various skin diseases including leprosy, ringworm and leucoderma. (195-217)
Chapter 10  
It deals with the various pharmacological preparations used for managing leprosy, abnormal urinary discharges, kaphaja diseases, general anasarca and obesity. (219-233)
Chapter 11  
It deals with the management of the various types of urinary abnormalities, including diabetes, chyluria, hematuria, etc. (235-247)
Chapter 12  
It deals with the management of boils occuring as a complication of the urinary abnormalities, including madhumeha (diabetes mellitus). (249-260)
Chapter 13  
It deals with the management of glycosuria (diabetes mellitus) by silajatu and leprosy, etc. by hydnocarpus oil. (261-273)
Chapter 14  
It deals with the surgical and the medical management of the eight different diseases manifested by the common presenting symptom of abdominal enlargement, e.g. splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, intestinal obstruction and perforation, etc. (275-292)
Chapter 15  
It deals with the manipulative, surgical and general management of foetal malpresentations, with or without obstructed labour and with the care after delivery. (293-308)
Chapter 16  
It deals with the management of external as well as internal abscesses and of osteomyelitis. (309-321)
Chapter 17  
It deals with the management of the various types of cellulitis including erysipelas, sinuses and breast abscesses. (323-338)
Chapter 18  
It deals with the management of the glandular swellings including cysts, lymphadenopathy, tumours and goitres. (339-355)
Chapter 19  
It deals with the surgical and the medical management of the various types of the scrotal swellings, venereal diseases and elephantiasis. (357-375
Chapter 20  
It deals with the management of the various unclassified minor diseases, mostly of the skin and its appendages. (377-394)
Chapter 21  
It deals with the management of the diseases of the penis caused by unhygienic practices or by local applications of water-moss, etc., designed to increase its length. (395-404)
Chapter 22  
It deals with the management of the diseases of the oral cavity, including those of the lips, gums, teeth, the tongue and the palate. (405-426)
Chapter 23  
It deals with the management of the various types of general anasarca. (427-438)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume VI-Non-Operative Considerations in AIS)

 

Cikitsa-sthana, the fourth canto of Susruta Samhita contains 40 chapters, first 23 of which deal mainly with the management of surgical diseases described in Nidana-Sthana, the second canto of Susruta Samhita;, the latter chapters (24 to 40) deal with the very important concepts of Ayurveda, mainly on four aspects, viz. prevention of diseases, rejuvenation therapy, aphrodisiacs and pancakarma procedures.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows:  
Chapter 1 (S. S. IV. 24)  
This chapter describes various rules for personal hygiene and ethics with a view towards prevention of diseases. It includes descriptions regarding tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, care of the eyes and the mouth, use of anointing, massage, bath, exercise, food, sleep, and sexual activities, etc. (9-48)
Chapter 2 (S. S. IV. 25)  
It deals with the management of certain miscellaneous diseases, viz. the diseases of the ear lobule, greying of hairs and pigmentation of the face. (49-64)
Chapter 3(S.S. IV. 26)  
It deals with the aphrodisiac treatments for the sexually weak. (65-78)
Chapter 4 (S.S. IV. 27)  
It deals with the various restorative treatments advocated for alleviation from all types of ailments. (79-92)
Chapter 5 (S.S. IV. 28)  
It deals with the restorative therapies which promote wisdom and longevity. (93-108)
Chapter 6 (S.S. IV. 29)  
It deals with the restorative measures which could prevent old age. (109-126)
Chapter 7 (S.S. IV. 30)  
It deals with the restorative remedies for people whose afflictions have already been removed. (127-142)
Chapter 8 (S.S. IV. 31)  
It deals with the oleation therapy. (143-166)
Chapter 9 (S.S. IV. 32)  
It deals with the sudation therapy. (167-182)
Chapter 10 (S.S. IV. 33)  
It deals with the emetic and purgative treatments as well as the management of their curable complications. (183-204)
Chapter 11 (S.S. IV. 34)  
It deals with the management of the complications of the emetic and the purgative therapies. (205-226)
Chapter 12 (S.S. IV. 35)  
It deals with the specifications of the enema treatments and the nozzles. (227-244)
Chapter 13 (S.S. IV. 36)  
It deals with the complications of the enema treatment caused by an improperly used netravasti (enema pipe). (245-262)
Chapter 14 (S. S. IV. 37)  
It deals with the use of oily enemas and urethral and vaginal irrigations. (263-296)
Chapter 15 (S.S. IV. 38)  
It deals with the schedule of the decoction enema treatment. (297-328)
Chapter 16 (S.S. IV. 39)  
It deals with the management of the side-effects which occur in patients (undergoing eliminative therapy). (329-342)
Chapter 17 (S.S. IV. 40)  
It deals with the therapeutic uses of medicated fumigations, errhines and gargles. (343-372)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume VII-Toxicological Considerations in AIS)

 

This Kalpa-sthana section on Toxicological Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery consists of eight chapters. They deal with the poisoning of the king and with the methods of poisoning, their detection, protection, and treatment, the inanimate poisoning, dusi-visa or slow accumulative poisoning, the animate poisoning by venemous animals, snake, insect and rat bites, etc. and their diagnosis and management.  
The salient features of these chapters are:  
Chapter 1  
This chapter deals with the diverse ways in which a king (or any other person) could be poisoned through the medium of food, drinks or other articles of daily use such as combs, oils, vehicles etc. and with their detection, prophylaxis and treatment. (Pages 5-30)
Chapter 2  
It deals with the classification, sources, types, clinical features, complications and treatment of poisoning by inanimate poisons in general and by dusi visa, the slow acting ones, in particular. (Page 31-50)
Chapter 3  
It deals with the locations, features and management of animate poisoning by venemous animals. It includes chemical warfare poisoning, water poisoning, soil poisoning, food and fodder poisoning and atmospheric poisoning. (Page 51-68)
Chapter 4  
It describes the different types of snakes, features an stages of poisoning by their bites in human beings and in animals. (Page 69-92)
Chapter 5  
It deals with the management of snake bite poisoning in human beings, birds and animals. It also deals with arrow poisoning and the management of poisoning by insect bite and rate bite. (Page 93-120)
Chapter 6  
It deals with four great anti-poisonous recipes capable of treating serious and terminal stages of poisoning. Some of them were for use in the treatment of poisoning of masses of persons, army or cattle. They were to be applied on the drums which when beaten produced sounds having curative effect. (121-132)
Chapter 7  
It deals with 18 types of rats, signs and symptoms produced by their bites and the management thereof. Rat bite poisoning in animals and hydrophobia have also been dealt with. (Page 133-152)
Chapter 8  
It deals with the classification, clinical features, management and prognosis of poisoning by bite, etc. of insects, frogs, flies, mosquitoes, scorpions and spiders etc. ( Page 153-196)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume VIII-Ophthalmic & Otorhinolaryngologial Considerations in AIS)

 

Chapter 1  
It gives the skeletal outline of the contents of Uttara-tantra, anatomical considerations of the eyeball and aetiology, prodromal features and general principles in the management of eye diseases. It then enumerates the seventy-six eye diseases, classified according to the dosas in volved, prognosis and the site of lesion. (1-18)
Chapter 2  
It deals with the clinical features of the nine diseases of the junctional areas of the eye. (19-26)
Chapter 3  
It deals with the nomenclature and clinical features of the twenty-one diseases afflicting the eyelids. (27-38)
Chapter 4  
It deals with the nomenclature and clinical features of the eleven diseases of the white part of the eye. (39-46)
Chapter 5  
It deals with the clinical features and prognosis of the four diseases of the cornea. (47-54)
Chapter 6  
It deals with the nomenclature, clinical features and prognosis of the seventeen generalised eye diseases. (55-66)
Chapter 7  
It deals with the diagnosis of immature and mature cataract and the six other serious diseases afflicting the pupil and the lens. (67-82)
Chapter 8  
It deals with the classification of the surgical treatment applicable to the eye diseases, based upon prognosis. (83-94)
Chapter 9  
It deals with the treatment of vatabhisyanda and other vatika afflictions of the eye. (95-106)
Chapter 10  
It describes the procedures available for the management of pittabhisyanda and pittadbimantha and other curable paittika afflictions of the eye. ... (107-116)
Chapter 11  
It describes the methods of treatment available for the management of Kapbaja abbisyanda and other curable Kapbaja afflictions of the eye. (117-126)
Chapter 12  
It deals with the management of raktabbisyanda and allied eye diseases. (127-144)
Chapter 13  
It deals with all aspects of scraping in eye diseases. (145-154)
Chapter 14  
It deals with the management of the five eye diseases in detail in which incision is indicated. (155-162)
Chapter 15  
It deals with the management of the arman and other eye diseases in which excision is indicated as a method of treatment. (163-174)
Chapter 16  
It deals with the plastic surgery for entropion (paksmakopa) in detail. It also describes the three alternative methods of treatment of the disease, it surgical repair fails. (175-185)
Chapter 17  
It deals with the operative procedures and collyriums for the treatment of cataract and management of other diseases of the pupil and the lens. (183-210)
Chapter 18  
It deals with all aspects of the five, therapeutic external ophthalmic applications, viz. tarpana (lubrication), putapaka (a kind of poultice), ascyotana (eye drops), pariseka (irrigation) and anjana (collyrium). (211-240)
Chapter 19  
It deals with the management of eye injuries and ophthalmia neonatorum. (241-252)
Chapter 20  
It deals with the pathogenesis and clinical features of the twenty-eight ear diseases. (253-262)
Chapter 21  
It deals with the general and local management of the ear diseases. (263-280)
Chapter 22  
It deals with the pathogenesis and clinical features of the thirty-one disease of the nose. (281-292)
Chapter 23  
It deals with the management of the diseases of the nose. (293-302)
Chapter 24  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of pratisyaya (corrhyza) including pinasa. (303-316)
Chapter 25  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of the eleven types of headache and diseases of the head. (317-326)
Chapter 26  
It deals with the management of the eleven types of headache and diseases of the head. (327-340)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume IX-Paediatric & Gynaecological Considerations in AIS)

 

The Kaumdra-tantra (Paediatrics and Gynaecology) and Tantra-bhusana (Aphorisms) sections of Uttara-tantra, the sixth canto of Susruta Samhita consists of 12 and 4 chapters respectively.  
Paediatrics is dealt with in the first eleven chapters (S. S. VI. 27-37). These describe the nine grahas, the superhuman agencies which afflict the children and produce various syndromes, their mythogical origin, mode of affliction, clinical feature and management.  
Gynaecology has been described in the one chapter (S.S. VI. 38) which deals with the 20 gynaecological disorders, their aetiology, diagnosis and management.  
The Aphorisms portion consists of the last four chapters (S.S. VI. 63-66) and compiles the various possible combinations of the tastes and dosas, measures to keep healthy and the maxims; this portion is as an epilogue to the whole treatise.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows:  
Chapter 1 (S.S. VI. 27)  
A Study of the Specific Features of the Nine Grahas  
It deals with the nomenclature, aetiology, clinical features, prognosis and general regimen of afflictions of children with the nine grahas (the superhuman organisms invisibly entering the body of unhygeinically kept children and producing various grave paediatric syndromes (7-19)
Chapter 2 (S.S. Vi. 28)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Skanda Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Skanda graha by measures like vata-eliminating medications, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (21-29)
Chapter 3 (S.S. VI. 29)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Skandapasmara Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted by skandapasmara graha with measures like medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (31-39
Chapter 4 (S. S. VI. 30)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Sakuni Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted by Sakuni graha with such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, fumigations, sacrificial rites, etc. (41-48)
Chapter 5 (S.S. VI. 31)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Revati Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted by Revati graha using such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (49-57)
Chapter 6 (S.S. VI. 32)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Putana Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Putana graha by the use of such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (59-66)
Chapter 7 (S.S. VI. 33)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Andhaputana Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Andhaputana graha by the use of such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, warding-off omens, sacrificial rites, etc. (67-74)
Chapter 8 (S.S. VI. 34)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Sitaputana Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Sitaputana graha by using measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, fumigation, warding off omens, sacrificial rites, etc. (75-82)
Chapters 9 (S.S. VI. 35)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Mukhamandika Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Mukhamandika Graha using measures as medicated sprinklings, massage, ghrta, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (83-90)
Chapter 10 (S. S. VI. 36)  
The Management of an Affliction by the Naigamesa Graha  
It deals with the management of children afflicted with Naigamesa Graha using such measures as medicated sprinkling, massage, ghrta, anointment, fumigation, sacrificial rites, etc. (91-98)
Chapter II (S. S. VI. 37)  
The Mythological Origin of the Grahas  
It describes the mythological basis of the origin of the grahas. The nine grahas were created by Gods to protect the newly born Guha and were to afflict the children of unpious and unhygienic families as a part of their activities. Skanda has been considered to be the most dreadful graha. (99-109)
Chapter 12 (S.S. VI. 38)  
The Management of the Gynaecological Disorders  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, prognosis and management of the 20 gynaecological disorders, including dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, dyspareunia, prolapse uterus, habitual abortion, sexual insatiability, cervical growth, pinhole cervical os, etc. (111-126)
Chapter 13 (S.S. VI. 63)  
Compilation of the Different Tastes  
It compiles the 63 combinations of 6 tastes in all possible permutations to counteract the 63 possible combinations of dosas. (127-139)
Chapter 14 (S.S. VI. 64)  
Measures to keep Healthy  
It dealt with the measures to keep healthy. Daily regimens to be observed during the different seasons, the twelve types of diet, their effects and indications and the ten suitable times for the administration of medicine in relation to meals have been discussed. (141-165)
Chapter 15 (S.S. VI. 65)  
The Maxims  
It deals with the thirty-two maxims (a general principle serving as a rule or guide) used in Susruta Samhita. Their importance has been given and each one discussed with examples. They help in general in correlating the sentences and clarifying the meaning of the text. They are of invaluable help to the physician in understanding the subject. (167-186)
Chapter 16 (S.S. VI. 66)  
The Compilation of the Different Dosas  
It deals with the compilation of dosas into 62 possible combinations and their relation to dhatus and malas in health and disease. It has also been mentioned that diseases are 1120 and drugs 573 in number. (187-196)

 

CONTENTS
(Volume X-Medical & Psychiatric Considerations in AIS)

 

This book contains 24 chapters of Uttara-tantra, the VIth Canto of Susruta Samhita; the initial 21 chapters are on Kaya-cikitsa or Internal Medicine and the last 3 are on Bhuta-vidya or Psychiatry.  
The Internal Medicine chapters deal mostly on symptoms encountered in surgical practice, as fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, cough, hiccough, loss of appetite, fainting, etc,; each such symptom has been considered in a separate chapter, almost as a disease entity in itself. Other chapters in this portion are purely medical as heart diseases, consumption, alcoholism, asthma, worm infestation, etc. A few chapters are more surgical as retention of urine and obstructive uropathies.  
The chapters on psychiatry deal with afflictions by grahas or superhuman agencies, epilepsy and psychoses.  
The salient features of these chapters are as follows: the concerned page numbers are given within brackets.  
Chapter 39  
The Management of Pyrexia  
It deals with fever as a disease. All aspects are discussed including its importance, definition, classification, aetiopathogenesis, prodromal symptoms, clinical features, prognosis and management of different types. Intermittent fever (? Malaria) is dealt at length. (9-85)
Chapter 40  
The Management of Diarrhoea  
It deals with the diagnosis and management of three allied conditions with the common presentation of frequent loose motions, viz. diarrhoea (atisara), dysentery (pravahika) and the malabsorption syndrome (grahani). Special conditions like painful diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and chronic diarrhoeas are also discussed. Many antidiarrhoea recipes are given
A general classification of diseases is also mentioned.
(87-141)
Chapter 41  
The Management of Consumption  
It deals with all aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of consumption of tissues and wasting as a disease. Some of these patients could be of pulmonary tuberculosis. Meat preparations and nutritious diet and various drugs have been mentioned for treatment. (143-163)
Chapter 42  
The Management of Gulma  
It deals with the gulma disease (intra-abdominal localised swellings), basically gaseous in nature and moving within the intestinal tract; it also deals with the various abdominal colics due to lesions other than the gulmas, e.g. ureteric colic, etc. (165-206)
Chapter 43  
Management of the Heart Diseases  
It deals with the pathogenesis, classification, clinical features, complications and treatment of heart diseases. (207-217)
Chapter 44  
The Management of Anaemia (and Jaundice)  
It deals with the aetiopathogenesis, classification, clinical features, complication and management of the conditions presenting with the common symptomatology of 'palor', viz. anaemia and jaundice. (219-236)
Chapter 45  
Management of the Haemorrhagic disorders  
It describes the aetiopathogenesis, two principal types, clinical features, prognosis, complications and the management of the haemorrhagic diseases. (237-256)
Chapter 46  
The Management of Fainting (and Coma)  
It deals with the diagnosis and management of fainting and coma. (257-270)
Chapter 47  
The Management of Excessive Drinking  
It deals with the properties of wine, three stages of intoxication and seven types of diseases due to excessive drinking, including hangover, alcoholic gastritis and chronic alcoholism, and their treatment. (271-301)
Chapter 48  
i>The Management of Thirst  
It gives the aetiopathogenesis, types, prodromal symptoms, clinical features and the management of thirst as a disease. (303-318)
Chapter 49  
The Management of Emesis  
It deals with the diagnosis and management of five types of vomiting. (319-333)
Chapter 50  
The Management of Hiccup  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management of hiccup. (335-348)
Chapter 51  
The Management of Breathlessness  
It deals with all aspects of the diagnosis and management of breathlessness, including asthma. (349-368)
Chapter 52  
The Management of Cough  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, characteristics and management of the five types of cough. (369-388)
Chapter 53  
The Management of Hoarsensess of Voice  
It describes the aetiopathogenesis, types, clinical features, prognosis and management of the hoarseness of voice. (389-399)
Chapter 54  
Management of the Worm Infestations  
It deals with the classification, clinical features and the management of the worm infestations. (401-416)
Chapter 55  
The Management of Udavarta  
It deals with the pathogenesis, clinical features and management of udavartas caused by the suppression of the natural urges. (417-436)
Chapter 56  
The Management of Gastroenteritis,  
It deals with the clinical features and management of gastroenteritis, some forms of intestinal obstruction, paralytic ifeus and chronic constipation. (437-449)
Chapter 57  
The Management of anorexia  
It deals with the five types of anorexia, their clinical features and management. (451-462)
Chapter 58  
Management of the Obstructive Uropathy  
It deals with the clinical features and management of twelve types of obstructive uropathy. (463-483)
Chapter 59  
The Management of Dysuria  
It deals with the classification of dysuira into eight types and their clinical features and management. (485-496)
Chapter 60  
The Management of the Graha (Superhuman Agencies)
Afflictions
 
It deals with the graha (superhuman agencies) afflictions and their management. Concept of microoraganisms is available. Some manifestations could be psychiatric diseases, whose diagnosis and management is also discussed. (497-516)
Chapter 61  
The Management of Epilepsy  
It deals with the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management of epilepsy. (517-531)
Chapter 62  
The Management of Psychoses  
It deals with the aetiology, classification, clinical features and managements of psychoses and some special recipes for their treatment. (533-546)

 

Sample Pages

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