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Books > Language and Literature > The System of Krt Accentuation in Panini and the Veda (A Old and Rare Book)
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Foreword

It gives me great pleasure to introduce to the world of scholars one of a series of critical and comparative studies based on the analysis of Panini's great work on Sanskrit Grammar, the Astadhyayi which has been a source of inspiration not only to India in developing linguistic studies, but also the Western world where modern Linguistics, first as Comparative Philology, has developed and produced such a remarkable field of fruitful and significant activity in the domain of communication.

Ever since the Deccan College, in Poona, one of the oldest educational centres in India, was founded in 1821 and reorganized in 1937-39 as a foundation for postgraduate studies and research in Linguistics, History and Social and Anthropological studies, its contribution to Sanskrit and in particular to Panini and his school have been significant. With its manuscripts collections and the publication of the Bombay Sanskrit Series, and the former glorious traditions associated with such distinguished scholars like BHANDARKAR, KIELHORN and others, the newly reorganized Research Institute undertook to take up the intensive study of Panini and his school, in comparison with other systems of Sanskrit grammar during the first two decades since 1940, which included the comparative study of Dhatupathas, Ganapathas, Linganusasana etc. some of which have been published by the Deccan College itself. It was my privilege as the first Professor of Indo-European Philology and the second Director of this Institute to inaugurate this special trend; the seeds these studies both in Poona and elsewhere, with the establishment of the Centres of Advanced Study in Sanskrit and Linguistics respectively in the University of Poona and the Deccan College and in the Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha which the Government of India has established in various parts of India. It is indeed a matter of satisfaction to me to see that the staff at the Centres of Advanced Study in Sanskrit and Linguistics is constituted by scholars trained in or forming part of the Deccan College which, during the three decades 1940-70 has been the main source of inspiration for the development of linguistic studies in the country with its Language Project which made possible the establishment of nearly twenty university departments of linguistics all over the sub-continent and for the first time made Linguistics a major subject of study at the university level.

The present work by Dr. M D. Balasubrahmanyam represents his doctoral dissertation submitted to the University of Poona in 1967 and deals with a very important aspect of Panini's grammar, that of accentuation. Panini, alone among Indian grammarians, has made this an essential feature of his grammar. His use of the three accents as integral markers in specifying the nature of the verbal stem regarding voice and other features, and his specification of accents associated with primary and secondary derivation and the metalinguistic use made of the accents is a unique feature, and requires an elaborate examination in relation to Vedic tradition. The question whether accent played an important role as that in the Vedic tradition in the actual speech of Panini's time is a matter which needs careful investigation, since by the time of Katyayana and Patanjali, this feature may have disappeared in the colloquial speech. But comparative Indo-Aryan studies have shown that accent did play a role in the development of early Middle Indo-Aryan, but much more detailed studies are needed in this direction. Dr. Balasubrahmanyam was specially qualified to undertake this study and had the advantage of consultation with a scholar of repute who has edited the Svarasiddhantacandrika. It was from Deccan College that the author of this work went over to the newly created Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit at the University of Poona and then to the Mendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha at Tirupati. The printing of the work was undertaken in the late sixties, but its publication was delayed by circumstances beyond the control of the author. One must be grateful that at long last the work is now being published and made available to scholars. It is also significant that the date of its publication coincides with the first international conference on Paninian studies which the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit at the University of Poona is inaugurating this summer in Poona.

It is a matter of great satisfaction to me to see that the seeds which were sown in the Deccan College by the publication of KIELHORN'S edition princeps of Patanjali's Mahabhasya and the edition and translation of Paribhasendusekhara of Nagoji Bhatta sustained the development of the Department of Linguistics at the reorganized Research Institute and Became the instrument and feeder in developing and manning the proliferation of departments all over the country and in establishing one of the must significant developments in the field of Sanskrit studies in the great undertaking at the Deccan College of a Dictionary of Sanskrit on Historical Principles. I have great pleasure in commending this book and introducing it to scholars interested in Paninian and Vedic Studies.

Preface

The Present work almost reproduces my thesis on The System of Krt Accentuation in Panini and the Veda, submitted to the University of Poona (now written as Pune) in November, 1967 for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy in the field of Sanskrit Linguistics. Although no substantial changes mark this book, I am glad to have had the opportunity of revising the chapters carefully and adding certain relevant footnotes to the thesis, since some research papers have appeared in the twin fields of Panini and the Veda between 1967-1980. Consequently the Bibliography given at the end of the book has been made uptodate. I have found it appropriate to eliminate completely Section Four of the Third Chapter of the thesis (.4: pp. 666-755) dealing with the accentuation of three individual krt-words, amavasya, arya - and hayana- in order that the bulk of the book may be reduced and its publication be brought out well in time. However, this section (3. 4) is incorporated in my forthcoming volume, Studies in Panini and the Veda. Professors W. P. Lehmann (University of Texas, USA) and K. A. S. Iyer (Lucknow) have been kind enough to go through my work and offer some useful suggestions, besides pointing out several typographic errors that have crept in the thesis. Accordingly I have corrected the errors and carried out their suggestions in the present volume.

The idea that a thesis needed to be written on the System of Accentuation in Panini and the Veda was suggested to me by my revered Guru, Professor Dr. Sumitra Mangesh Katre when he was Director of Deccan College at Pune. He gave us a Summer Course of Lectures on "Indian Linguistics" at Coimbatore in 1959 and on "Lexicography" at Deccan College, Pune, in 1960. it was at the latter school he introducted me to the technique of linguistic research. He directed my research work at Deccan College from 1961 to 1967 with utmost care and loving kindness. I owe an incalculable debt of gratitude to him for his guidance, and I hope I have lived up to the great expectations of the KATREAN SCHOOL OF INDIAN LINGUISTICS. I thank him sincerely for writing the Foreword to this book, which speaks for itself, since it stems from the powerful pen of Dr. Katre who has dedicated all his life to the cause of the neo-linguistic studies apropos of the grammatical triumvirs-Panini, Katyayana and Patanjali initiated by him at Deccan College. The seeds sown by him at Poona have now grown into a beautiful tree, and his pupils now working in the Tirupati Vidyapeetha and elsewhere are trying to silhoutee its stringy shoots and shapely leaves.

The study could not have been made without the unfailing help, the vast teaching experience, the grammatical erudition and the Vedic learning of Sastraratna, Vyakaranarnava, Prof. K. A. Sivaramakrishna Sastri. I learnt the Mahabhasyam of Patanjali on the Four Pada-s of the Third Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi under him in the traditional style. He went through the first two chapters of my thesis, to see whether I have taken any unwarranted liberty with the language of Panini or of Patanjali. I remain grateful to him for his valuable assistance at all stages of my studies.

I owe a deep debt of obligation to Professor Dr. Shivaram D. Joshi (Now Director of the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit (=CASS), University of Pune) for not only helping me in the interpretation of the difficult Vyakarana texts, but also answering my endless queries with never-failing patience and generosity over a long period of years. As an outstanding exponent and critic of the Vyakarana architectonics, he went through my manuscript and offered a number of constructive criticisms. I cannot forget the happy days I spent with him at Pune from 1961 to 1968.

When I was a Senior Research Scholar of Cass during the years 1965-68, Professor R. N. Dandekar eviniced encouraging interest in the progress of my studies. I offer my sincere thanks to him for the fine working conditions he provided for us at Cass.

I thank Professors A. M. Ghatage and N.G. Kalelkar for permitting me to attend their lectures on Historical Linguistics and French respectively, delivered at Deccan College during the years 1963-65.

My colleague, Dr. N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya (Professor, Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati) made useful suggestions on one or another portion of the book. Dr. J. A. F. Roodbergen (University of Amsterdam) assisted me in reading some difficult papers and books written in German and French. Shri V. B. Belsare, Librarian at Deccan College, gave me valuable assistance in securing several microfilmed copies of rare and out-of print books and research papers from foreign libraries. Dr. Hukam Chand Patyal (Deccan College) helped me in the compilation of the Index Verborum and meticulously verified references made in the text and the Bibliography. Dr. P. Meegaskumbura (University of Ceylon, Peradeniya) corrected several typing errors found in the thesis. T.N.Balaram, Technical Laboratory Assistant, K. S. Vidyapeetha, Tirupati put some of the revised papers through the typewriter.

To all these friends I beg to express my sincere gratitude.

I acknowledge the generosity shown by the Board of Directors of Jaffna College Vaddukoddai, Cylon (especially Rt. Rev. S. Kulandran, Rev. Dr. S.K. Bunker and Mr. E. C. Lockwood) and the University Grants Commission in providing the necessary financial assistance for carrying out my research project from 1961 to 1967.

It is now my pleasant obligation to thank the members of the Research and Publication Committee of the erstwhile Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Tirupati Society which consisted of M. Ananthasayanam AYYANGAR (Chairman), Drs. B. R. Sharma (the First Director of Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha), R. K. Sharma (now Director of Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan), S. M. Katre, Aryendra Sarma, P. L. Vaidya, and V. Raghavan for having approved the publication of my thesis in 1969. Accordingly the printing of the book was undertaken-thanks to the encouraging interest shown in its publication by Dr. B. R. Sharma-by Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati; and now it appears under Series No. 32.

I am obliged by the regulations of the University of Poona to state here that the authorities of the said University granted me permission to publish the thesis for which the degree of Ph. D. was conferred on me in 1968.

My wife (M. B. Brhadamba) and children (Kumari M. B. Suparna and Master M. B. Sukhasvami) were kind enough to allow me to be away from home for several years, which enabled me to devote my concentrated attention on my studies.

Finally, special acknowledgement should be made to the Director, Mangalore Trading Association Private Ltd., and their Sharada Press, Mangalore for setting the appropriate types for this volume with rigour and patience. The staff of the press completed an exceedingly difficult task of printing the book which abounds in symbols and diacritics. If, inspite of all the care taken to bring the text to perfection, errors are found in it, I bear the responsibility for these occasional lapses. And I am well aware of the truth: To err is human, and to forgive is divine.

 

Contents

 

  Foreward ix
  Preface xiii
  Editions of original Texts, Dictionaries, xxvii
 
PART ONE
 
0. Introduction ii
0.0 The Traditional Approach ii
0.01 Vedic hermeneutists iii
0.02 Panini iv
0.03 Katyayana x
0.04 Patanjali xv
0.05 The Paninian Commentators xxi
0.06 The Svara-Manuals xxiv
0.10 The Western Approach xxvi
0.11 Comparative accentuation of IE languages xxvi
0.12 Studies on Vedic Accentuation xxviii
0.13 Nature of Vedic accent and Vedic Recitation xxix
0.14 Panini and Vedic language xxx
0.2 The Indian Approach xxxiii
0.21 The nature of Vedic accent and vocal tradition xxxiv
0.22 Studies on accentuation xxxv
0.3 The Thesis-Scope, Corpus and Methodology xxxviii
0.30 Scope of the thesis xxxviii
0.31 Corpus xxxviii
0.32 Methodology xli
0.33 Sings and Abbreviations xliii
 
PART TWO
 
1 Word-Accent and P.'s Accentual Principles 1-23
1.0 Word-accent 1
1.1 IE tendency 1
1.2 Greek word-accent 1
1.3 Vedic word-accent 2
1.4 Comparative evidence 3
1.5 Pratisakhya Theory-VPr. Ii. 1;2 7
1.6.0 P.'s testimony-A 6, 1,158 11
1.6.1 Pat. On A 6, 1,158 Introduction 12
1.6.2 The meaning of the rule 158 12
1.6.3 The purpose of the rule 158 13
1.6.4 Kat.'s propositions 15
1.6.5 158-a Paribhasa rule 17
1.7 The general maxim relating to the operation of accentual rules. 17
2. The Paninian Position 27-246
2.0 Anubandhas in P's system 27
2.0.0 The Anubandha system 27
2.0.1 Anubandha – derivation and meaning 28
2.0.2 Panini's ITs 29
2.0.3 IT-one of the models of grammatical description in P. 32
2.1 Accent Anubandhas 36
2.1.0 Accent Its in Krt suffixes 36
2.1.1 Position of occurrence of accent ITs 37
2.1.2 Distribution of accent Its in 75 suffixes 38
2.1.3 Symbols indicating the three pitch accents 39
2.1.4 Niyata-svara-pratyayas versus aniyata-svara-pratyayas: Pat's evidence 40
2.1.5 The Its C, N, and N-their special purpose 42
2.1.5.0 C/N/N 42
1 C in trC 43
2 C in yuC 45
3 C in KtiC 47
4 C in KhaC 48
5 C in KhisnuC 48
6 C in NaC 50
7 C in vIC 51
8 N in KaN 52
9 N in GhaN 53
10 N in NyuT 53
11 N in KvIN 53
2.1.5.12 N in NvIN 55
2.2 Non-Accent Its 55
2.2.0 13 non-accent Its 55
2.2.1 Position of occurrence of non-accent ITs 56
2.2.2 Distribution of non-accent Its in krt suffixes 56
2.2.3 Select functions of non-accent ITs 60
2.3 The Krt-Pratyayas: Formal Analysis 62
2.3.0 The structure of krt-pratyayas 62
2.3.1 56 bound morphemes 64
2.3.2 The alphabetical arrangement of 128 KPs 65
2.3.2.0 Table 8 65
2.3.2.1 Notes to Table 8 67
2.3.3 The alphabetical rearrangement of KPs 67
2.3.3.0 Table 9 67
2.3.3.1 Accentual Notes to Table 9 67
2.3.4 Distribution of 56 bound morphemes in 128 KPs 73
2.3.4.0 Table 10 73
2.3.4.1 Notes to Table 10 75
2.3.5 The accentual pattern of bound morphemes 82
2.3.5.0 Table 11-A 82
2.3.5.1 Notes to Table 11-A 82
2.3.5.2 The rearrangement of accentual pattern-Table 11-B 91
2.3.5.3 Notes to Table 11-B 98
2.4 KPs: Functional Analysis 112
2.4.0 Select Functions of KPs-Table 12 112
2.4.1 Notes of Table 12 128
2.5 Structure of Krt Derivatives 135
2.5.0 The components of a KD 135
2.5.1 Formulas for D/CD/W 136
2.5.2 Totos 137
2.5.2.0 A 3, 1,91 137
2.5.2.1 Distribution of Rs. 138
2.5.2.2 Toot-accent 139
2.5.2.3 KDs derived from the root kr- 140
2.5.3 Upapada Compunds 151
2.5.3.0 Structure of upapada 151
2.5.3.1 Table showing U-rules in Book III 152
2.5.3.2 Accentuation of U-cpd.s 153
2.5.3.3 Upapada categories 159
2.6 Accentuation of KDS 164
2.6.0 Accentual categories 164
2.6. 1   167
2.6.2 -a 168
2.6.3 -aka 173
2.6.4 -at- 174
2.6.5 -athu- 175
2.6.6 -ana- 175
2.6.7 -ani- 176
2.6.8 -aniya- 177
2.6.9 -am 177
2.6.10 -aka- 177
2.6.11 -ana- 177
2.6.12 -aru- 178
2.6.13 -alu- 178
2.6.14 -i- 179
2.6.15 -itra- 179
2.6.16 -in- 180
2.6.17 -isnu- 181
2.6.18 -i- 182
2.6.19 -uka- 182
2.6.20 -ura- 183
2.6.21 -uka- 183
2.6.22 -ta- 184
2.6.23 -tavat- 185
2.6.24 -tavya- 186
2.6.25 -ti- 187
2.6.26 -tum 188
2.6.27 -tr- 189
2.6.28 -tra- 190
2.6.29 -tri- + - ma- 191
2.6.30 -tva 191
2.6.31 -thaka 192
2.6.32 -na- 192
2.6.33 -naj- 193
2.6.34 -nu- 193
2.6.35 -man- 193
2.6.36 -mara- 194
2.6.37 -ya- 194
2.6.38 -ra- 196
2.6.39 -ru- 197
2.6.40 -luka- 197
2.6.41 -van- 198
2.6.42 -vara- 199
2.6.43 -vas- 200
2.6.44 -snu- 201
2.7 Accentual Rules in A.6,1 202
2.7.0 28 Accentual rules 202
2.7.1 General accentual rules 203
2.7.2 Rules for accent ITs 203
2.7.3 Special accentual rules 203
2.7.3.0 Accentual types 203
  1. A 6,1,159 204
  2. 194 206
  3. 200 207
  4. 205 207
  5. 214 207
  6. 173 209
  7. 174 210
  8. 186 210
  9. 189 211
2.7.4 Accentual rules for words 212
2.7.4.0 Accentual classes 212
  1. A 6, 1, 160 212
  2. 203 215
2.7.4.3 Accentuation of individual words 219
  4. A 6, 1,201 219
  5. 202 220
  6. 206 220
  7. 207 221
  8. 208 222
  9. 215 222
2.7.4.10 6, 1, 216 225
2.8 Accentuation of CDS in A 6,2 227
2.8.0 Accentual types 227
2.8.1.0 Type I 227
1 Table 34 showing accentual classes of Type i 228
2 Illustrative material for Type i 229
3 CDs in 231
4 CDs in –a- 232
5 DCs in –aka- 234
6 CDs in –ana- 235
7 CDs in –itra- 235
8 CD in –in- 235
9 CDs in – ta- 239
10 CDs in -tave 240
11 CDs in -tavai 240
12 CDs in –ti- 240
13 CDs in –tr- 240
14 CDs in -tum 240
15 CDs in –tos- 241
2.8.2 Type II 241
2.8.2.0 na N-accentuation 241
1 Table showing accentual classes of Type ii 241
2 Illustrative material for Type ii 242
3 naN cpd.s in –ani- 243
4 naN cpd.s in Kata (A 6,2,116) 243
5 naN cpd.s in aC, Ka 244
6 naN cpd.s in Kta (A 6,2,159) 244
7 naN cpd.s in Krtya-s, -uka-, isnuC 244
8 naN cpd.s in trN 246
3. The Veda in Panini 249-397
3.0 Panini and the Vedic facts: Prolegomena 249
3.0.0 P.'s Vedic rules 249
1 Number of Vedic rules in the A 249
2 P.'s general rules: their applicability to Chandas 252
3 Three divisions of Chandas 252
4 The domain of Chandas 252
5 P.'s method of teaching Chandasi-rules 253
3.0.6 P.'s knowledge of the Veda 254
7 The term 'Bhasayam' 266
3.1 Vedic data in Book III, Padas 1-3 267
3.1.0 Vedic rules in III. 1-3 267
1   269
2 -ana- 279
3 -ana- 283
4 -i- 284
5 -isnu- 288
6 -u- 289
7 -ta- 290
8 -ti- 292
9 -man- 299
10 -ya- 300
11 -van- 311
12 -vas- 312
3.2 Vedic Data In Book III, Pada 4 313
3.2.0 Infinitive BMs: Introduction 313
3.2.0.2 Vedic Infinitives: the Western approach 314
3.2.1 -adhyai 318
2. -am 325
3. -as- 327
4. -ase 330
5. -isyai 335
6. -e 336
7. -enya- 339
8. -ai 341
9. -tave 341
10. - tavai 347
11. -tos- 354
12. -tva- 358
13. -se 360
3.3 P's General Rules And Vedic Accentuation 365
3.3.0 Krt Ds formed with 39 KPs in P. and the Veda 365
1   365
2 -a- 366
3 -at- 371
4 -athu- 371
5 -ana- 371
6 -aniya- 372
7 -am 372
8 -ana- 373
9 -aru- 373
10 -alu- 374
11 -i- 374
12 -itra- 374
13 -in- 375
14 -isnu- 376
15 -u- 376
16 -uka- 376
17 -ura- 377
18 -uka- 377
19 -ta- 377
20 -tavua- 379
21 -ti- 379
22 -tum 380
23 -tr- 380
24 -tra- 381
25 -tri + ma- 381
26 -tva 382
27 -na- 382
28 -naj- 383
29 -nu- 383
30 -ma- 383
31 -man- 383
32 -mara- 383
33 -ya- 383
34 -ra- 386
35 -ru- 387
36 -van- 387
37 -vara- 388
38 -vas- 388
39 -snu- 388
3.4 Vyatyayo Bahulam 388
3.4.0 Convergence versus Divergence 388
3.4.1 A 3, 1, 85 389
3.4.2 Svara-vyatyaya-s 391
  Conclusion 398-402
  Index Verborum 403-488
  Part I Secular (non-Vedic) Vocables 403-432
  Part IIA: Vedic Vocables 433-437
  Part IIB: Vedic Infinitives 238-444
  Part III: Vocables common to Chandas and Bhasa 445-488
  Bibliography 489-488
  Errata 511

 

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The System of Krt Accentuation in Panini and the Veda (A Old and Rare Book)

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Foreword

It gives me great pleasure to introduce to the world of scholars one of a series of critical and comparative studies based on the analysis of Panini's great work on Sanskrit Grammar, the Astadhyayi which has been a source of inspiration not only to India in developing linguistic studies, but also the Western world where modern Linguistics, first as Comparative Philology, has developed and produced such a remarkable field of fruitful and significant activity in the domain of communication.

Ever since the Deccan College, in Poona, one of the oldest educational centres in India, was founded in 1821 and reorganized in 1937-39 as a foundation for postgraduate studies and research in Linguistics, History and Social and Anthropological studies, its contribution to Sanskrit and in particular to Panini and his school have been significant. With its manuscripts collections and the publication of the Bombay Sanskrit Series, and the former glorious traditions associated with such distinguished scholars like BHANDARKAR, KIELHORN and others, the newly reorganized Research Institute undertook to take up the intensive study of Panini and his school, in comparison with other systems of Sanskrit grammar during the first two decades since 1940, which included the comparative study of Dhatupathas, Ganapathas, Linganusasana etc. some of which have been published by the Deccan College itself. It was my privilege as the first Professor of Indo-European Philology and the second Director of this Institute to inaugurate this special trend; the seeds these studies both in Poona and elsewhere, with the establishment of the Centres of Advanced Study in Sanskrit and Linguistics respectively in the University of Poona and the Deccan College and in the Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha which the Government of India has established in various parts of India. It is indeed a matter of satisfaction to me to see that the staff at the Centres of Advanced Study in Sanskrit and Linguistics is constituted by scholars trained in or forming part of the Deccan College which, during the three decades 1940-70 has been the main source of inspiration for the development of linguistic studies in the country with its Language Project which made possible the establishment of nearly twenty university departments of linguistics all over the sub-continent and for the first time made Linguistics a major subject of study at the university level.

The present work by Dr. M D. Balasubrahmanyam represents his doctoral dissertation submitted to the University of Poona in 1967 and deals with a very important aspect of Panini's grammar, that of accentuation. Panini, alone among Indian grammarians, has made this an essential feature of his grammar. His use of the three accents as integral markers in specifying the nature of the verbal stem regarding voice and other features, and his specification of accents associated with primary and secondary derivation and the metalinguistic use made of the accents is a unique feature, and requires an elaborate examination in relation to Vedic tradition. The question whether accent played an important role as that in the Vedic tradition in the actual speech of Panini's time is a matter which needs careful investigation, since by the time of Katyayana and Patanjali, this feature may have disappeared in the colloquial speech. But comparative Indo-Aryan studies have shown that accent did play a role in the development of early Middle Indo-Aryan, but much more detailed studies are needed in this direction. Dr. Balasubrahmanyam was specially qualified to undertake this study and had the advantage of consultation with a scholar of repute who has edited the Svarasiddhantacandrika. It was from Deccan College that the author of this work went over to the newly created Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit at the University of Poona and then to the Mendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha at Tirupati. The printing of the work was undertaken in the late sixties, but its publication was delayed by circumstances beyond the control of the author. One must be grateful that at long last the work is now being published and made available to scholars. It is also significant that the date of its publication coincides with the first international conference on Paninian studies which the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit at the University of Poona is inaugurating this summer in Poona.

It is a matter of great satisfaction to me to see that the seeds which were sown in the Deccan College by the publication of KIELHORN'S edition princeps of Patanjali's Mahabhasya and the edition and translation of Paribhasendusekhara of Nagoji Bhatta sustained the development of the Department of Linguistics at the reorganized Research Institute and Became the instrument and feeder in developing and manning the proliferation of departments all over the country and in establishing one of the must significant developments in the field of Sanskrit studies in the great undertaking at the Deccan College of a Dictionary of Sanskrit on Historical Principles. I have great pleasure in commending this book and introducing it to scholars interested in Paninian and Vedic Studies.

Preface

The Present work almost reproduces my thesis on The System of Krt Accentuation in Panini and the Veda, submitted to the University of Poona (now written as Pune) in November, 1967 for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy in the field of Sanskrit Linguistics. Although no substantial changes mark this book, I am glad to have had the opportunity of revising the chapters carefully and adding certain relevant footnotes to the thesis, since some research papers have appeared in the twin fields of Panini and the Veda between 1967-1980. Consequently the Bibliography given at the end of the book has been made uptodate. I have found it appropriate to eliminate completely Section Four of the Third Chapter of the thesis (.4: pp. 666-755) dealing with the accentuation of three individual krt-words, amavasya, arya - and hayana- in order that the bulk of the book may be reduced and its publication be brought out well in time. However, this section (3. 4) is incorporated in my forthcoming volume, Studies in Panini and the Veda. Professors W. P. Lehmann (University of Texas, USA) and K. A. S. Iyer (Lucknow) have been kind enough to go through my work and offer some useful suggestions, besides pointing out several typographic errors that have crept in the thesis. Accordingly I have corrected the errors and carried out their suggestions in the present volume.

The idea that a thesis needed to be written on the System of Accentuation in Panini and the Veda was suggested to me by my revered Guru, Professor Dr. Sumitra Mangesh Katre when he was Director of Deccan College at Pune. He gave us a Summer Course of Lectures on "Indian Linguistics" at Coimbatore in 1959 and on "Lexicography" at Deccan College, Pune, in 1960. it was at the latter school he introducted me to the technique of linguistic research. He directed my research work at Deccan College from 1961 to 1967 with utmost care and loving kindness. I owe an incalculable debt of gratitude to him for his guidance, and I hope I have lived up to the great expectations of the KATREAN SCHOOL OF INDIAN LINGUISTICS. I thank him sincerely for writing the Foreword to this book, which speaks for itself, since it stems from the powerful pen of Dr. Katre who has dedicated all his life to the cause of the neo-linguistic studies apropos of the grammatical triumvirs-Panini, Katyayana and Patanjali initiated by him at Deccan College. The seeds sown by him at Poona have now grown into a beautiful tree, and his pupils now working in the Tirupati Vidyapeetha and elsewhere are trying to silhoutee its stringy shoots and shapely leaves.

The study could not have been made without the unfailing help, the vast teaching experience, the grammatical erudition and the Vedic learning of Sastraratna, Vyakaranarnava, Prof. K. A. Sivaramakrishna Sastri. I learnt the Mahabhasyam of Patanjali on the Four Pada-s of the Third Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi under him in the traditional style. He went through the first two chapters of my thesis, to see whether I have taken any unwarranted liberty with the language of Panini or of Patanjali. I remain grateful to him for his valuable assistance at all stages of my studies.

I owe a deep debt of obligation to Professor Dr. Shivaram D. Joshi (Now Director of the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit (=CASS), University of Pune) for not only helping me in the interpretation of the difficult Vyakarana texts, but also answering my endless queries with never-failing patience and generosity over a long period of years. As an outstanding exponent and critic of the Vyakarana architectonics, he went through my manuscript and offered a number of constructive criticisms. I cannot forget the happy days I spent with him at Pune from 1961 to 1968.

When I was a Senior Research Scholar of Cass during the years 1965-68, Professor R. N. Dandekar eviniced encouraging interest in the progress of my studies. I offer my sincere thanks to him for the fine working conditions he provided for us at Cass.

I thank Professors A. M. Ghatage and N.G. Kalelkar for permitting me to attend their lectures on Historical Linguistics and French respectively, delivered at Deccan College during the years 1963-65.

My colleague, Dr. N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya (Professor, Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati) made useful suggestions on one or another portion of the book. Dr. J. A. F. Roodbergen (University of Amsterdam) assisted me in reading some difficult papers and books written in German and French. Shri V. B. Belsare, Librarian at Deccan College, gave me valuable assistance in securing several microfilmed copies of rare and out-of print books and research papers from foreign libraries. Dr. Hukam Chand Patyal (Deccan College) helped me in the compilation of the Index Verborum and meticulously verified references made in the text and the Bibliography. Dr. P. Meegaskumbura (University of Ceylon, Peradeniya) corrected several typing errors found in the thesis. T.N.Balaram, Technical Laboratory Assistant, K. S. Vidyapeetha, Tirupati put some of the revised papers through the typewriter.

To all these friends I beg to express my sincere gratitude.

I acknowledge the generosity shown by the Board of Directors of Jaffna College Vaddukoddai, Cylon (especially Rt. Rev. S. Kulandran, Rev. Dr. S.K. Bunker and Mr. E. C. Lockwood) and the University Grants Commission in providing the necessary financial assistance for carrying out my research project from 1961 to 1967.

It is now my pleasant obligation to thank the members of the Research and Publication Committee of the erstwhile Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Tirupati Society which consisted of M. Ananthasayanam AYYANGAR (Chairman), Drs. B. R. Sharma (the First Director of Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha), R. K. Sharma (now Director of Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan), S. M. Katre, Aryendra Sarma, P. L. Vaidya, and V. Raghavan for having approved the publication of my thesis in 1969. Accordingly the printing of the book was undertaken-thanks to the encouraging interest shown in its publication by Dr. B. R. Sharma-by Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati; and now it appears under Series No. 32.

I am obliged by the regulations of the University of Poona to state here that the authorities of the said University granted me permission to publish the thesis for which the degree of Ph. D. was conferred on me in 1968.

My wife (M. B. Brhadamba) and children (Kumari M. B. Suparna and Master M. B. Sukhasvami) were kind enough to allow me to be away from home for several years, which enabled me to devote my concentrated attention on my studies.

Finally, special acknowledgement should be made to the Director, Mangalore Trading Association Private Ltd., and their Sharada Press, Mangalore for setting the appropriate types for this volume with rigour and patience. The staff of the press completed an exceedingly difficult task of printing the book which abounds in symbols and diacritics. If, inspite of all the care taken to bring the text to perfection, errors are found in it, I bear the responsibility for these occasional lapses. And I am well aware of the truth: To err is human, and to forgive is divine.

 

Contents

 

  Foreward ix
  Preface xiii
  Editions of original Texts, Dictionaries, xxvii
 
PART ONE
 
0. Introduction ii
0.0 The Traditional Approach ii
0.01 Vedic hermeneutists iii
0.02 Panini iv
0.03 Katyayana x
0.04 Patanjali xv
0.05 The Paninian Commentators xxi
0.06 The Svara-Manuals xxiv
0.10 The Western Approach xxvi
0.11 Comparative accentuation of IE languages xxvi
0.12 Studies on Vedic Accentuation xxviii
0.13 Nature of Vedic accent and Vedic Recitation xxix
0.14 Panini and Vedic language xxx
0.2 The Indian Approach xxxiii
0.21 The nature of Vedic accent and vocal tradition xxxiv
0.22 Studies on accentuation xxxv
0.3 The Thesis-Scope, Corpus and Methodology xxxviii
0.30 Scope of the thesis xxxviii
0.31 Corpus xxxviii
0.32 Methodology xli
0.33 Sings and Abbreviations xliii
 
PART TWO
 
1 Word-Accent and P.'s Accentual Principles 1-23
1.0 Word-accent 1
1.1 IE tendency 1
1.2 Greek word-accent 1
1.3 Vedic word-accent 2
1.4 Comparative evidence 3
1.5 Pratisakhya Theory-VPr. Ii. 1;2 7
1.6.0 P.'s testimony-A 6, 1,158 11
1.6.1 Pat. On A 6, 1,158 Introduction 12
1.6.2 The meaning of the rule 158 12
1.6.3 The purpose of the rule 158 13
1.6.4 Kat.'s propositions 15
1.6.5 158-a Paribhasa rule 17
1.7 The general maxim relating to the operation of accentual rules. 17
2. The Paninian Position 27-246
2.0 Anubandhas in P's system 27
2.0.0 The Anubandha system 27
2.0.1 Anubandha – derivation and meaning 28
2.0.2 Panini's ITs 29
2.0.3 IT-one of the models of grammatical description in P. 32
2.1 Accent Anubandhas 36
2.1.0 Accent Its in Krt suffixes 36
2.1.1 Position of occurrence of accent ITs 37
2.1.2 Distribution of accent Its in 75 suffixes 38
2.1.3 Symbols indicating the three pitch accents 39
2.1.4 Niyata-svara-pratyayas versus aniyata-svara-pratyayas: Pat's evidence 40
2.1.5 The Its C, N, and N-their special purpose 42
2.1.5.0 C/N/N 42
1 C in trC 43
2 C in yuC 45
3 C in KtiC 47
4 C in KhaC 48
5 C in KhisnuC 48
6 C in NaC 50
7 C in vIC 51
8 N in KaN 52
9 N in GhaN 53
10 N in NyuT 53
11 N in KvIN 53
2.1.5.12 N in NvIN 55
2.2 Non-Accent Its 55
2.2.0 13 non-accent Its 55
2.2.1 Position of occurrence of non-accent ITs 56
2.2.2 Distribution of non-accent Its in krt suffixes 56
2.2.3 Select functions of non-accent ITs 60
2.3 The Krt-Pratyayas: Formal Analysis 62
2.3.0 The structure of krt-pratyayas 62
2.3.1 56 bound morphemes 64
2.3.2 The alphabetical arrangement of 128 KPs 65
2.3.2.0 Table 8 65
2.3.2.1 Notes to Table 8 67
2.3.3 The alphabetical rearrangement of KPs 67
2.3.3.0 Table 9 67
2.3.3.1 Accentual Notes to Table 9 67
2.3.4 Distribution of 56 bound morphemes in 128 KPs 73
2.3.4.0 Table 10 73
2.3.4.1 Notes to Table 10 75
2.3.5 The accentual pattern of bound morphemes 82
2.3.5.0 Table 11-A 82
2.3.5.1 Notes to Table 11-A 82
2.3.5.2 The rearrangement of accentual pattern-Table 11-B 91
2.3.5.3 Notes to Table 11-B 98
2.4 KPs: Functional Analysis 112
2.4.0 Select Functions of KPs-Table 12 112
2.4.1 Notes of Table 12 128
2.5 Structure of Krt Derivatives 135
2.5.0 The components of a KD 135
2.5.1 Formulas for D/CD/W 136
2.5.2 Totos 137
2.5.2.0 A 3, 1,91 137
2.5.2.1 Distribution of Rs. 138
2.5.2.2 Toot-accent 139
2.5.2.3 KDs derived from the root kr- 140
2.5.3 Upapada Compunds 151
2.5.3.0 Structure of upapada 151
2.5.3.1 Table showing U-rules in Book III 152
2.5.3.2 Accentuation of U-cpd.s 153
2.5.3.3 Upapada categories 159
2.6 Accentuation of KDS 164
2.6.0 Accentual categories 164
2.6. 1   167
2.6.2 -a 168
2.6.3 -aka 173
2.6.4 -at- 174
2.6.5 -athu- 175
2.6.6 -ana- 175
2.6.7 -ani- 176
2.6.8 -aniya- 177
2.6.9 -am 177
2.6.10 -aka- 177
2.6.11 -ana- 177
2.6.12 -aru- 178
2.6.13 -alu- 178
2.6.14 -i- 179
2.6.15 -itra- 179
2.6.16 -in- 180
2.6.17 -isnu- 181
2.6.18 -i- 182
2.6.19 -uka- 182
2.6.20 -ura- 183
2.6.21 -uka- 183
2.6.22 -ta- 184
2.6.23 -tavat- 185
2.6.24 -tavya- 186
2.6.25 -ti- 187
2.6.26 -tum 188
2.6.27 -tr- 189
2.6.28 -tra- 190
2.6.29 -tri- + - ma- 191
2.6.30 -tva 191
2.6.31 -thaka 192
2.6.32 -na- 192
2.6.33 -naj- 193
2.6.34 -nu- 193
2.6.35 -man- 193
2.6.36 -mara- 194
2.6.37 -ya- 194
2.6.38 -ra- 196
2.6.39 -ru- 197
2.6.40 -luka- 197
2.6.41 -van- 198
2.6.42 -vara- 199
2.6.43 -vas- 200
2.6.44 -snu- 201
2.7 Accentual Rules in A.6,1 202
2.7.0 28 Accentual rules 202
2.7.1 General accentual rules 203
2.7.2 Rules for accent ITs 203
2.7.3 Special accentual rules 203
2.7.3.0 Accentual types 203
  1. A 6,1,159 204
  2. 194 206
  3. 200 207
  4. 205 207
  5. 214 207
  6. 173 209
  7. 174 210
  8. 186 210
  9. 189 211
2.7.4 Accentual rules for words 212
2.7.4.0 Accentual classes 212
  1. A 6, 1, 160 212
  2. 203 215
2.7.4.3 Accentuation of individual words 219
  4. A 6, 1,201 219
  5. 202 220
  6. 206 220
  7. 207 221
  8. 208 222
  9. 215 222
2.7.4.10 6, 1, 216 225
2.8 Accentuation of CDS in A 6,2 227
2.8.0 Accentual types 227
2.8.1.0 Type I 227
1 Table 34 showing accentual classes of Type i 228
2 Illustrative material for Type i 229
3 CDs in 231
4 CDs in –a- 232
5 DCs in –aka- 234
6 CDs in –ana- 235
7 CDs in –itra- 235
8 CD in –in- 235
9 CDs in – ta- 239
10 CDs in -tave 240
11 CDs in -tavai 240
12 CDs in –ti- 240
13 CDs in –tr- 240
14 CDs in -tum 240
15 CDs in –tos- 241
2.8.2 Type II 241
2.8.2.0 na N-accentuation 241
1 Table showing accentual classes of Type ii 241
2 Illustrative material for Type ii 242
3 naN cpd.s in –ani- 243
4 naN cpd.s in Kata (A 6,2,116) 243
5 naN cpd.s in aC, Ka 244
6 naN cpd.s in Kta (A 6,2,159) 244
7 naN cpd.s in Krtya-s, -uka-, isnuC 244
8 naN cpd.s in trN 246
3. The Veda in Panini 249-397
3.0 Panini and the Vedic facts: Prolegomena 249
3.0.0 P.'s Vedic rules 249
1 Number of Vedic rules in the A 249
2 P.'s general rules: their applicability to Chandas 252
3 Three divisions of Chandas 252
4 The domain of Chandas 252
5 P.'s method of teaching Chandasi-rules 253
3.0.6 P.'s knowledge of the Veda 254
7 The term 'Bhasayam' 266
3.1 Vedic data in Book III, Padas 1-3 267
3.1.0 Vedic rules in III. 1-3 267
1   269
2 -ana- 279
3 -ana- 283
4 -i- 284
5 -isnu- 288
6 -u- 289
7 -ta- 290
8 -ti- 292
9 -man- 299
10 -ya- 300
11 -van- 311
12 -vas- 312
3.2 Vedic Data In Book III, Pada 4 313
3.2.0 Infinitive BMs: Introduction 313
3.2.0.2 Vedic Infinitives: the Western approach 314
3.2.1 -adhyai 318
2. -am 325
3. -as- 327
4. -ase 330
5. -isyai 335
6. -e 336
7. -enya- 339
8. -ai 341
9. -tave 341
10. - tavai 347
11. -tos- 354
12. -tva- 358
13. -se 360
3.3 P's General Rules And Vedic Accentuation 365
3.3.0 Krt Ds formed with 39 KPs in P. and the Veda 365
1   365
2 -a- 366
3 -at- 371
4 -athu- 371
5 -ana- 371
6 -aniya- 372
7 -am 372
8 -ana- 373
9 -aru- 373
10 -alu- 374
11 -i- 374
12 -itra- 374
13 -in- 375
14 -isnu- 376
15 -u- 376
16 -uka- 376
17 -ura- 377
18 -uka- 377
19 -ta- 377
20 -tavua- 379
21 -ti- 379
22 -tum 380
23 -tr- 380
24 -tra- 381
25 -tri + ma- 381
26 -tva 382
27 -na- 382
28 -naj- 383
29 -nu- 383
30 -ma- 383
31 -man- 383
32 -mara- 383
33 -ya- 383
34 -ra- 386
35 -ru- 387
36 -van- 387
37 -vara- 388
38 -vas- 388
39 -snu- 388
3.4 Vyatyayo Bahulam 388
3.4.0 Convergence versus Divergence 388
3.4.1 A 3, 1, 85 389
3.4.2 Svara-vyatyaya-s 391
  Conclusion 398-402
  Index Verborum 403-488
  Part I Secular (non-Vedic) Vocables 403-432
  Part IIA: Vedic Vocables 433-437
  Part IIB: Vedic Infinitives 238-444
  Part III: Vocables common to Chandas and Bhasa 445-488
  Bibliography 489-488
  Errata 511

 

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