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Text Book of Dravyaguna
Text Book of Dravyaguna
Description
Preface

Dravyaguna is interpreted as clinical pharmacology since the most of the Ayurvedic drugs were initially evaluated only in human beings. Seers of Ayurveda have collected the information regarding the clinical usage of several herbs from cowherds, shepherds, tribals and other forest dwellers and they never felt the necessity of evaluating their activity in animals.

Dravyaguna encompasses the information of all other allied fields of pharmacology like:

1. Namarupa Vijnanam - Pharmacognosy (the science of identification of drugs).
2. Gunakarma Vijnanam - Pharmacodynamics (mechanism of drugs action) & Pharmacokinetics (study of absorption, distribution, metabolims and excretion of drugs).
3. Amayikaprayoga Vijnanam - Therapeutics (branch of medicine concerned with cure of diseases or relief of symptoms).
4. Kalpana Vijnanam - Pharmacy (science of selection, preservation & compounding of drug).

The major object of teaching Dravyaguna to the medical students of Ayurveda is to provide a rational basis for choosing or using drugs skillfully to relieve ailments of the patient population. The modern pharmacology is traditionally associated with the study of drugs in different animals like dogs, monkeys, cats, rabbits, rats etc. Whereas the clinical pharmacology involves the study of various aspects of drug action and metabolism in humans, both in health and disease. The ultimate aim of pharmacological studies in animals is to find out a therapeutic agent suitable for clinical evalutation in man, The animal models (cat, rat etc.) cannot act as an ideal model of human being. The drug has to be carefully evaluated in human being for its safety and efficacy before it is accepted for therapeutic use.

Majority of the drugs that are currently used in modern medicine are synthetic where as the Ayurvedic therapeutics mainly employ plant-based medicines (oudbhija) along with metals & minerals (parthiva) and animal products (jagama dravya). Among the plant products, the important pharmacologically active principles (utkrishta guna-sampanna dravyamsha) are -
(a) alkaloids (basic substances containing cyclic nitrogen) (b) glycosides (a combination of sugars with other organic structures) (c) glucosides (glycoside which yields glucose on acid hydrolysis) (d) oils (fixed or volatile) (e) resins (formed by oxidation of volatile oils which are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohal) (f) gums (dispersible in water) (g) tannins (precipitate proteins from the cells and are non-nitrogenous).

Scientists of modern pharmacy generally argue that plant based medicines should be processed in the medium of alcohal as the majority of active principles (mainly alkaloids) are made available and according to them water extracts of plants are useless as they are devoid of maximum alkaloid content. The review of various bheshaja-kalpanas (pharmaceutical processes), namely kwatha, phanta, hima, taila, ghrita, arishta except asava-kalpana clearly indicates that water was suggested as the medium of extraction. Some of the scholars of Ayurveda following the concept of modern pharmaceutical scientists suggest to prefer kanjikam (contains self generated alcohal) as the medium for extracting the active portion of the drugs. But a careful review of different formulations indicates that kanjikam was not mentioned for majority of formulations. To achieve the maximum therapeutic action it is always preferable to administer the swarasa (fresh juice) or kalka (paste) or churna (powder) of fresh herb or dried herb. The human gut, which is highly sophisticated, and also the selective chemical laboratory can synthesize the required portion of the active principle and makes in available to various bodily organs and tissues. Ayurvedic pharmacology delineates five important principles namely rasa, guna, virya, vipaka and prabhava (Rasapanchaka) which are responsible for any drug action. Many times the terms 'action' and 'effects' of a drug are being used as synonyms. However, it is useful to term the initial consequences of drug-cell interactions as the action (karma) of the drug, the remaining events that follow are called drug effects (phala). In practice, no drug produces only a single effect but has spectrum of effects or actions. Further, a drug may be selective in one respect but non-selective in another. With this view only the most of the Ayurvedic Nighantus attributed a spectrum of actions and therapeutic indications to the majority of drugs. Most of the actions of drugs are attributed to the potent gunas which are given virya status. Most of the actions of drugs are attributed to the potent gunas which are given virya statue. Ayurvedic classics firmly established the relationship between the various pharmacological actions and the principles of drug actions like rasa, vipaka and guna/virya. In my view rasa, which is identified, by nipata (contact with the tongue) and vipaka by nishtha karma (final action) serve as indices of guna at the tongue level and at the stage of biotransformation (alteration of drug within living organism) respectively. After absorption, drugs could undergo three possible fates, namely, that could be metabolized by enzymes (dhatwagni paka), they could change into other substances without intervention of enzymes (it happens in the case of vyavayi drugs) or they could be excreted unchanged and in the case of samana pratyayarabdha dravyas. In the case of samana pratyayarabdha dravyas through rasa, it becomes easy to draw the profiles of other principles of drug action and in the case of vichitra pratyayarabdha dravyas the pharmacological principles barring rasa (which is perceivable) are identified by inference basing on pharmacological action/therapeutic (karma & phala). The drugs metabolized by enzymes (vipaka) result in their activation, inactivation or modification, Vipaka alone engenders virya (activated drug energy) and it alone -
(i) activates the gunas like ushna to become ushnatara/ushnatama or
(ii) inactivates the action of gunas like sheeta which is unable to produce vata vriddhi (as in the case of ksheera (milk)
(iii) modifies gunas originally attributed to rasa eg. Sheeta virya of madhura rasa becomes ushna virya after vipaka (such drugs are categorized as vichitra pratyayarabdha dravyas).

It is generally observed that most of the Ayurvedic scholars are inclined to interpret virya of a dravya as the active principle. Acharya Priyavrat Sharma has disagreed with this concept and rightly suggested that active principle is the adhisthana of virya, Sushruta alone initiated a debate to discuss the relative importance of all the principles of drug action and finally concluded that dravya is the only prime one among all the principles. If the active principle or active drug molecule (dravya) is attributed with drug action, it can also be safely interpreted that rasa (taste) serves as one of the indices to identify pharmacological behaviour of active principle and vipaka indicates the metabolic process to synthesize the active drug molecules and virya indicates the release of energy from the active drug molecule (active principle).

Dravyaguna in some respects as a bridge between basic medical sciences on one hand and clinical medicine on the other. An attempt is made in this book to give all the relevant details of the entire Dravyaguna subject in accordance with CCIM curriculum and students will get all the necessary information by reading this book. Students should not 'cram' this book to get through the examination successfully but I expect them to learn the basic pharmacology of drugs in common clinical use and their rational application in therapeutics. The CCIM syllabus in the subject of Dravyaguna consists of two papers- first paper contains the fundamental principles of Dravyaguna and second paper deals with the details of 365 herbs and the subject of modern pharmacology in brief. I wish to acknowledge the help taken form the works of great scholars of Dravyguna late Acharya Yadavji Trikamji, late Acharya Bapalal Vaidya, late C. Dwarakanath, Acharya Priyavrata Sharma and Acharya K.C. Chunekar, which have rendered important guidelines in the preparation of this hand book. My heartfelt thanks are due to Sri K. Arunee Kumar, Lecturer in Botany, P.R. Govt. College, Kakinada for his ablest guidance in all my academic pursuits. I specially thank Mr. Naveen Gupta, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan for taking up the task of publication.

K. Nishteswar

Vijaya Dashami,
Dt. 12-10-2005
CONTENTS
First Paper
Patha155Vibhitaka217
Part - A
Daruharidra156Amalaki219
Introduction1Ahiphena158Lavanga221
Dravya5Varuna159Jambu222
DravyaTuvaraka160Dadima224
  Vargikarana9Nagakesara161Dhataki226
Guna Vijnana18Sala162Indravaruni227
Rasa Vijnana29Bala163Kusmanda229
Vipaka45Nagabala165Mandukaparni231
Virya53Salmali167Patola233
Prabhava68Goksura168Hingu234
Cangeri170Satapuspa235
Part - B
Nimbuka171Misreya236
DravyagataBilva172Dhanyaka237
  PadarthasGuggulu173Ajamoda239
  And Paraspari-Tejohva176Yavani240
  Kasambandha73Nimba177Jiraka242
Karma76Jyotismati179Krsnajiraka244
Modern Pharma-Karkatasrngi180Manjistha245
  Cological Ac-Bhallataka182Madanaphala247
   tions91Sigru184Gandha-
AudbhidadiPalasa186    Prasarini249
  Gana96Aparajita188Jatamamsi250
Dravya Samgra-Madhuyasti189Bhrngaraja252
  Hana And Sam-Yavasa191Puskaramula253
  Rakshana103Salaparni192Kustha254
Dravya Shodha-Prsniparni194Citraka256
   na118Karanja195Vidanga258
Bhesaja Pra-Latakaranja197Lodhra259
   yoga Vijnana123Kapikacchu199Saptaparna260
History of Sarapunkha201Kutaja261
  Dravyaguna139Bakuci203Sarpagandha263
Kancanara205Karavira264
Second Paper
Asoka 207 Arka 266
Part - A (1)
Sirisa 209Sariva268
Vatsanabha 151 Aragwadha 211Kupilu270
Ativisa 152 Khadira 213Kiratatikta272
Guduci 153 Haritaki 215Sankhapuspi274
Trivrt 275 Usira 344Khatmi385
Kantakari 276 Pippalimula 345Karpasa386
Brhati 278 Palandu 346Mucakunda387
Aswagandha 279 Pisaca Karpasa388
Dhattura 281
Part - A (II)
Avartani389
Parasika Mamira 349Parusaka390
   Yavani 282 Nirvisa 350Gangeruki391
Katuki 283 Upakuncika 351Gudasarkara392
Brahmi 285 Kandira 352Dhanwana393
Syonaka 287 Cavya 353Atasi394
Patala 289 Campaka 354Cancu395
Vasa 291 Sitaphala 355Karmaranga396
Nirgundi 293 Kasthadaru 356Bijapura397
Agnimantha 295 Patalagarudi 357Suddava398
Bharngi 297 Giri Parpata 358Haramala399
Gambhari 298 Kamala Amlavetasa400
Tulasi 300     (Sacred Lotus) 359Aralu401
Dronapuspi 302 Kumuda Ingudi402
Punarnava 303    (Water Lily) 361Bola403
Apamarga 305 Satyanasi 362Sallaki404
Marica 306 Makhanna 363Kunduru
Pippali 307 Parpataka 364   (Sallaki)405
Jatiphala 309 Sarsapa 365Mamsarohini406
Twak 311 Rajika 366Badara407
Karpura 312 Candrasura 367Unnava408
Aguru 313 Khubakala 368Draksa409
Candana 314 Todari 369Asthisam-
Eranda 316 Mulaka 370    Haraka410
Danti 318 Tilaparni 371Aristaka411
Arjuna 320 Himsra 372Kosamra412
Udumbara 322 Vyaghranakhi 373Amra413
Bhanga 323 Karira 374Tintidika415
Devadaru 325 Banaphsa 375Priyala416
Talisapatra 327 Vikankata 376Ankota417
Haridra 328 Punnaga 377Rumimastagi418
Ardraka 330 Surapunnaga 378Gunja419
Ela 332 Tamala 379Agastya420
Rasona 334 Sarja 380Jayanti421
Kumari 336 Vrksamla 381Nili422
Satavari 338 Aswakarna 382Asmantaka423
Vaca 340 Latakasturi 383Goraksa424
Musta 342 Parisa 384Mudgaparni425
Masaparni 426 Garjara 467Hrtpatri509
Bijaka 427 Coraka 468Rohitaka510
Simsapa 428 Nadihingu 469Tila511
Paribhadra 429 Kadamba 470Saireyaka512
Virataru 430 Haridra 471Kokilaksa513
Amlika 431 Tagara 472Kalamegha514
Sami 432 Damanaka 473Utangana515
Patranga 433 Cauhara 474Bhandira516
Cakramarda 434 Sahadevi475Priyangu517
Kasamarda 435 Mundi 476Putiha518
Methika 436 Akarakarabha477Jupha519
Raktacandana437Aranyajiraka478Parnayavani520
Vidari 438 Kukundara 479Asvagola521
Caksusya 439 Jhandu480Goraksagunja522
Kulattha 440 Ayapana 481Cukrika
Tinisa 441 Dugdhapheni482   (Cukra)523
Irimeda 442 Chikkika 483Pitamuli524
Markandika 443 Kasani484Iswari525
Avartaki 444 Rasna 485Kitamari526
Babbula 445 Madhuka 486Sugandha-
Lajjalu 446 Bakula 487   Vastuka527
Taruni 447 Parijata 488Kankola528
Vatada 448 Jati 489Patraka
Padmaka 449 Yuthika 490   (Tejapatra)529
Pasanabheda450 Tinduka491Medasaka530
Parnabija 451 Pilu 492Bandaka531
Silhaka 452 Karamarda 493Snuhi532
Dhava 453 Jivanti 494Kampillaka533
Tilaparna454 Mesasrngi495Putrajivaka534
Hijjala 455 Murva 496Bhumyama-
Madayantika456 Kataka497   laki535
Srngataka457 Trayamana498Swarnaksiri536
Saptacakra458 Slesmataka499Kankustha537
Erandakarkati459 Gojihwa 500Jayapala538
Trapusa460 Adhahpuspi501Nagadanti539
Katutumbi Vrddhadaruka502Vata540
  (Iksvaku)461 Krsnabija 503Aswattha541
Kosataki462 Akhuparni 504Plaksa542
Jimutaka463 Amaravalli505Tuda543
Dhamargava464Kakamaci506Kakodumbara544
Bimbi 465 Katuvira507Cirabilwa545
Karavellaka466 Tamraparna 508Panasa546
Aksota547 Surana578
Katphala548 Manakanda579
Part - B (II)
Mayaphala549 Kumbhika580Iksu Varga611
Bhurjapatra550 Kaseruka 581Dugdha Varga613
Soma551 Vamsa582Mutra Varga615
Sarala552 Kusa583Taila Varga616
Hapusa553 Sara584Madya Varga617
Sati554 Kasa585Madhu Varga619
Tavaksira555 Nala586Vari Varga621
Amragandhi Durva 587Mamsa Varga623
   Haridra556 Rohisa588Sukadhanya513
Nagadamani557 Hamsaraja 589   Varga624
Mahabhari Mayurasikha590Simbidhanya
   Vaca558 Saileya 591   Varga625
Kebuka559 Saivala592Lavana Varga627
Kadali560 Chatraka593Aharopayogi
Ananasa561 Sanapuspi 594  Varga628
Sudarsana562 Suci595
Part - B (III)
Kunkuma563 Dugdhika596Guduci629
Talamuli564 Manjistha632
Varahikanda565
Part - B (I)
Kutaja634
Vanapalandu566 Angarasa599Dhattura636
Dwipantara Agnijara600Vasa639
   Vaca567 Kasturi 601Pippali641
Usava568 Gorocana602Arjuna643
Langali569 Pravala603Sariba644
Suranjana570 Puti (Khattasi) 604Aswagandha645
Musali571 Mukta605Satavari647
Narikela572 Sankha606
Puga573 Sambuka607
Part - B (IV)
Tala574 Sukti 608Modern Phar-
Kharjura575 Varatika609Macology649
Raktaniryasa576 Mrgasrnga Index of Latin Names
Ketaki577   (Stag's Horn) 610of Dravyas660

Text Book of Dravyaguna

Item Code:
IDJ167
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2007
Size:
8.8" X 5.7"
Pages:
670
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Weight of the Book: 840 gms
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Preface

Dravyaguna is interpreted as clinical pharmacology since the most of the Ayurvedic drugs were initially evaluated only in human beings. Seers of Ayurveda have collected the information regarding the clinical usage of several herbs from cowherds, shepherds, tribals and other forest dwellers and they never felt the necessity of evaluating their activity in animals.

Dravyaguna encompasses the information of all other allied fields of pharmacology like:

1. Namarupa Vijnanam - Pharmacognosy (the science of identification of drugs).
2. Gunakarma Vijnanam - Pharmacodynamics (mechanism of drugs action) & Pharmacokinetics (study of absorption, distribution, metabolims and excretion of drugs).
3. Amayikaprayoga Vijnanam - Therapeutics (branch of medicine concerned with cure of diseases or relief of symptoms).
4. Kalpana Vijnanam - Pharmacy (science of selection, preservation & compounding of drug).

The major object of teaching Dravyaguna to the medical students of Ayurveda is to provide a rational basis for choosing or using drugs skillfully to relieve ailments of the patient population. The modern pharmacology is traditionally associated with the study of drugs in different animals like dogs, monkeys, cats, rabbits, rats etc. Whereas the clinical pharmacology involves the study of various aspects of drug action and metabolism in humans, both in health and disease. The ultimate aim of pharmacological studies in animals is to find out a therapeutic agent suitable for clinical evalutation in man, The animal models (cat, rat etc.) cannot act as an ideal model of human being. The drug has to be carefully evaluated in human being for its safety and efficacy before it is accepted for therapeutic use.

Majority of the drugs that are currently used in modern medicine are synthetic where as the Ayurvedic therapeutics mainly employ plant-based medicines (oudbhija) along with metals & minerals (parthiva) and animal products (jagama dravya). Among the plant products, the important pharmacologically active principles (utkrishta guna-sampanna dravyamsha) are -
(a) alkaloids (basic substances containing cyclic nitrogen) (b) glycosides (a combination of sugars with other organic structures) (c) glucosides (glycoside which yields glucose on acid hydrolysis) (d) oils (fixed or volatile) (e) resins (formed by oxidation of volatile oils which are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohal) (f) gums (dispersible in water) (g) tannins (precipitate proteins from the cells and are non-nitrogenous).

Scientists of modern pharmacy generally argue that plant based medicines should be processed in the medium of alcohal as the majority of active principles (mainly alkaloids) are made available and according to them water extracts of plants are useless as they are devoid of maximum alkaloid content. The review of various bheshaja-kalpanas (pharmaceutical processes), namely kwatha, phanta, hima, taila, ghrita, arishta except asava-kalpana clearly indicates that water was suggested as the medium of extraction. Some of the scholars of Ayurveda following the concept of modern pharmaceutical scientists suggest to prefer kanjikam (contains self generated alcohal) as the medium for extracting the active portion of the drugs. But a careful review of different formulations indicates that kanjikam was not mentioned for majority of formulations. To achieve the maximum therapeutic action it is always preferable to administer the swarasa (fresh juice) or kalka (paste) or churna (powder) of fresh herb or dried herb. The human gut, which is highly sophisticated, and also the selective chemical laboratory can synthesize the required portion of the active principle and makes in available to various bodily organs and tissues. Ayurvedic pharmacology delineates five important principles namely rasa, guna, virya, vipaka and prabhava (Rasapanchaka) which are responsible for any drug action. Many times the terms 'action' and 'effects' of a drug are being used as synonyms. However, it is useful to term the initial consequences of drug-cell interactions as the action (karma) of the drug, the remaining events that follow are called drug effects (phala). In practice, no drug produces only a single effect but has spectrum of effects or actions. Further, a drug may be selective in one respect but non-selective in another. With this view only the most of the Ayurvedic Nighantus attributed a spectrum of actions and therapeutic indications to the majority of drugs. Most of the actions of drugs are attributed to the potent gunas which are given virya status. Most of the actions of drugs are attributed to the potent gunas which are given virya statue. Ayurvedic classics firmly established the relationship between the various pharmacological actions and the principles of drug actions like rasa, vipaka and guna/virya. In my view rasa, which is identified, by nipata (contact with the tongue) and vipaka by nishtha karma (final action) serve as indices of guna at the tongue level and at the stage of biotransformation (alteration of drug within living organism) respectively. After absorption, drugs could undergo three possible fates, namely, that could be metabolized by enzymes (dhatwagni paka), they could change into other substances without intervention of enzymes (it happens in the case of vyavayi drugs) or they could be excreted unchanged and in the case of samana pratyayarabdha dravyas. In the case of samana pratyayarabdha dravyas through rasa, it becomes easy to draw the profiles of other principles of drug action and in the case of vichitra pratyayarabdha dravyas the pharmacological principles barring rasa (which is perceivable) are identified by inference basing on pharmacological action/therapeutic (karma & phala). The drugs metabolized by enzymes (vipaka) result in their activation, inactivation or modification, Vipaka alone engenders virya (activated drug energy) and it alone -
(i) activates the gunas like ushna to become ushnatara/ushnatama or
(ii) inactivates the action of gunas like sheeta which is unable to produce vata vriddhi (as in the case of ksheera (milk)
(iii) modifies gunas originally attributed to rasa eg. Sheeta virya of madhura rasa becomes ushna virya after vipaka (such drugs are categorized as vichitra pratyayarabdha dravyas).

It is generally observed that most of the Ayurvedic scholars are inclined to interpret virya of a dravya as the active principle. Acharya Priyavrat Sharma has disagreed with this concept and rightly suggested that active principle is the adhisthana of virya, Sushruta alone initiated a debate to discuss the relative importance of all the principles of drug action and finally concluded that dravya is the only prime one among all the principles. If the active principle or active drug molecule (dravya) is attributed with drug action, it can also be safely interpreted that rasa (taste) serves as one of the indices to identify pharmacological behaviour of active principle and vipaka indicates the metabolic process to synthesize the active drug molecules and virya indicates the release of energy from the active drug molecule (active principle).

Dravyaguna in some respects as a bridge between basic medical sciences on one hand and clinical medicine on the other. An attempt is made in this book to give all the relevant details of the entire Dravyaguna subject in accordance with CCIM curriculum and students will get all the necessary information by reading this book. Students should not 'cram' this book to get through the examination successfully but I expect them to learn the basic pharmacology of drugs in common clinical use and their rational application in therapeutics. The CCIM syllabus in the subject of Dravyaguna consists of two papers- first paper contains the fundamental principles of Dravyaguna and second paper deals with the details of 365 herbs and the subject of modern pharmacology in brief. I wish to acknowledge the help taken form the works of great scholars of Dravyguna late Acharya Yadavji Trikamji, late Acharya Bapalal Vaidya, late C. Dwarakanath, Acharya Priyavrata Sharma and Acharya K.C. Chunekar, which have rendered important guidelines in the preparation of this hand book. My heartfelt thanks are due to Sri K. Arunee Kumar, Lecturer in Botany, P.R. Govt. College, Kakinada for his ablest guidance in all my academic pursuits. I specially thank Mr. Naveen Gupta, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan for taking up the task of publication.

K. Nishteswar

Vijaya Dashami,
Dt. 12-10-2005
CONTENTS
First Paper
Patha155Vibhitaka217
Part - A
Daruharidra156Amalaki219
Introduction1Ahiphena158Lavanga221
Dravya5Varuna159Jambu222
DravyaTuvaraka160Dadima224
  Vargikarana9Nagakesara161Dhataki226
Guna Vijnana18Sala162Indravaruni227
Rasa Vijnana29Bala163Kusmanda229
Vipaka45Nagabala165Mandukaparni231
Virya53Salmali167Patola233
Prabhava68Goksura168Hingu234
Cangeri170Satapuspa235
Part - B
Nimbuka171Misreya236
DravyagataBilva172Dhanyaka237
  PadarthasGuggulu173Ajamoda239
  And Paraspari-Tejohva176Yavani240
  Kasambandha73Nimba177Jiraka242
Karma76Jyotismati179Krsnajiraka244
Modern Pharma-Karkatasrngi180Manjistha245
  Cological Ac-Bhallataka182Madanaphala247
   tions91Sigru184Gandha-
AudbhidadiPalasa186    Prasarini249
  Gana96Aparajita188Jatamamsi250
Dravya Samgra-Madhuyasti189Bhrngaraja252
  Hana And Sam-Yavasa191Puskaramula253
  Rakshana103Salaparni192Kustha254
Dravya Shodha-Prsniparni194Citraka256
   na118Karanja195Vidanga258
Bhesaja Pra-Latakaranja197Lodhra259
   yoga Vijnana123Kapikacchu199Saptaparna260
History of Sarapunkha201Kutaja261
  Dravyaguna139Bakuci203Sarpagandha263
Kancanara205Karavira264
Second Paper
Asoka 207 Arka 266
Part - A (1)
Sirisa 209Sariva268
Vatsanabha 151 Aragwadha 211Kupilu270
Ativisa 152 Khadira 213Kiratatikta272
Guduci 153 Haritaki 215Sankhapuspi274
Trivrt 275 Usira 344Khatmi385
Kantakari 276 Pippalimula 345Karpasa386
Brhati 278 Palandu 346Mucakunda387
Aswagandha 279 Pisaca Karpasa388
Dhattura 281
Part - A (II)
Avartani389
Parasika Mamira 349Parusaka390
   Yavani 282 Nirvisa 350Gangeruki391
Katuki 283 Upakuncika 351Gudasarkara392
Brahmi 285 Kandira 352Dhanwana393
Syonaka 287 Cavya 353Atasi394
Patala 289 Campaka 354Cancu395
Vasa 291 Sitaphala 355Karmaranga396
Nirgundi 293 Kasthadaru 356Bijapura397
Agnimantha 295 Patalagarudi 357Suddava398
Bharngi 297 Giri Parpata 358Haramala399
Gambhari 298 Kamala Amlavetasa400
Tulasi 300     (Sacred Lotus) 359Aralu401
Dronapuspi 302 Kumuda Ingudi402
Punarnava 303    (Water Lily) 361Bola403
Apamarga 305 Satyanasi 362Sallaki404
Marica 306 Makhanna 363Kunduru
Pippali 307 Parpataka 364   (Sallaki)405
Jatiphala 309 Sarsapa 365Mamsarohini406
Twak 311 Rajika 366Badara407
Karpura 312 Candrasura 367Unnava408
Aguru 313 Khubakala 368Draksa409
Candana 314 Todari 369Asthisam-
Eranda 316 Mulaka 370    Haraka410
Danti 318 Tilaparni 371Aristaka411
Arjuna 320 Himsra 372Kosamra412
Udumbara 322 Vyaghranakhi 373Amra413
Bhanga 323 Karira 374Tintidika415
Devadaru 325 Banaphsa 375Priyala416
Talisapatra 327 Vikankata 376Ankota417
Haridra 328 Punnaga 377Rumimastagi418
Ardraka 330 Surapunnaga 378Gunja419
Ela 332 Tamala 379Agastya420
Rasona 334 Sarja 380Jayanti421
Kumari 336 Vrksamla 381Nili422
Satavari 338 Aswakarna 382Asmantaka423
Vaca 340 Latakasturi 383Goraksa424
Musta 342 Parisa 384Mudgaparni425
Masaparni 426 Garjara 467Hrtpatri509
Bijaka 427 Coraka 468Rohitaka510
Simsapa 428 Nadihingu 469Tila511
Paribhadra 429 Kadamba 470Saireyaka512
Virataru 430 Haridra 471Kokilaksa513
Amlika 431 Tagara 472Kalamegha514
Sami 432 Damanaka 473Utangana515
Patranga 433 Cauhara 474Bhandira516
Cakramarda 434 Sahadevi475Priyangu517
Kasamarda 435 Mundi 476Putiha518
Methika 436 Akarakarabha477Jupha519
Raktacandana437Aranyajiraka478Parnayavani520
Vidari 438 Kukundara 479Asvagola521
Caksusya 439 Jhandu480Goraksagunja522
Kulattha 440 Ayapana 481Cukrika
Tinisa 441 Dugdhapheni482   (Cukra)523
Irimeda 442 Chikkika 483Pitamuli524
Markandika 443 Kasani484Iswari525
Avartaki 444 Rasna 485Kitamari526
Babbula 445 Madhuka 486Sugandha-
Lajjalu 446 Bakula 487   Vastuka527
Taruni 447 Parijata 488Kankola528
Vatada 448 Jati 489Patraka
Padmaka 449 Yuthika 490   (Tejapatra)529
Pasanabheda450 Tinduka491Medasaka530
Parnabija 451 Pilu 492Bandaka531
Silhaka 452 Karamarda 493Snuhi532
Dhava 453 Jivanti 494Kampillaka533
Tilaparna454 Mesasrngi495Putrajivaka534
Hijjala 455 Murva 496Bhumyama-
Madayantika456 Kataka497   laki535
Srngataka457 Trayamana498Swarnaksiri536
Saptacakra458 Slesmataka499Kankustha537
Erandakarkati459 Gojihwa 500Jayapala538
Trapusa460 Adhahpuspi501Nagadanti539
Katutumbi Vrddhadaruka502Vata540
  (Iksvaku)461 Krsnabija 503Aswattha541
Kosataki462 Akhuparni 504Plaksa542
Jimutaka463 Amaravalli505Tuda543
Dhamargava464Kakamaci506Kakodumbara544
Bimbi 465 Katuvira507Cirabilwa545
Karavellaka466 Tamraparna 508Panasa546
Aksota547 Surana578
Katphala548 Manakanda579
Part - B (II)
Mayaphala549 Kumbhika580Iksu Varga611
Bhurjapatra550 Kaseruka 581Dugdha Varga613
Soma551 Vamsa582Mutra Varga615
Sarala552 Kusa583Taila Varga616
Hapusa553 Sara584Madya Varga617
Sati554 Kasa585Madhu Varga619
Tavaksira555 Nala586Vari Varga621
Amragandhi Durva 587Mamsa Varga623
   Haridra556 Rohisa588Sukadhanya513
Nagadamani557 Hamsaraja 589   Varga624
Mahabhari Mayurasikha590Simbidhanya
   Vaca558 Saileya 591   Varga625
Kebuka559 Saivala592Lavana Varga627
Kadali560 Chatraka593Aharopayogi
Ananasa561 Sanapuspi 594  Varga628
Sudarsana562 Suci595
Part - B (III)
Kunkuma563 Dugdhika596Guduci629
Talamuli564 Manjistha632
Varahikanda565
Part - B (I)
Kutaja634
Vanapalandu566 Angarasa599Dhattura636
Dwipantara Agnijara600Vasa639
   Vaca567 Kasturi 601Pippali641
Usava568 Gorocana602Arjuna643
Langali569 Pravala603Sariba644
Suranjana570 Puti (Khattasi) 604Aswagandha645
Musali571 Mukta605Satavari647
Narikela572 Sankha606
Puga573 Sambuka607
Part - B (IV)
Tala574 Sukti 608Modern Phar-
Kharjura575 Varatika609Macology649
Raktaniryasa576 Mrgasrnga Index of Latin Names
Ketaki577   (Stag's Horn) 610of Dravyas660
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