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Books > Yoga > Yoga From Confusion to Clarity (Set of Five Volumes)
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Yoga From Confusion to Clarity (Set of Five Volumes)
Yoga From Confusion to Clarity (Set of Five Volumes)
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Back of The Book

Yoga: From Confusion to Clarity is a refreshing series of five volumes entitles as follows:

Vol 1. Foundation of Yoga

Vol 2. Psychology of Yoga

Vol 3. Asana

Vol 4. Sat Karma, Mudra, Pranayama and Pratyahara

Vol 5. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi

The first volume is based on the novel findings of the authors of the elements of yoga in the Vedic Samhitas as well as in the Upanishads and has developed the view that it is these elements which gradually in course of time have taken the shape of various system of Yoga such as jnana-yoga , bhakti-yoga, karma-yoga, dhyana-yoga, mantra-yoga and hatha-yoga, etc. The second volume has put forward the view of consciousness as the most fundamental reality getting concretized into matter only secondarily. The entire psychology of yoga, according to it, is based on this basic postulate opening up thus the possibility of transformation in the nature of mankind as a whole as well as in that of the individual through the discipline of yoga. The last three volumes show the way to such a transformation via various kind as of yogic practices such as asana, sat karma, Mudra, praayaama, pratyahar, dahrana, dhyana and Samadhi. All these ingredients of yoga as well as its basic postulates have been discussed here clearly and authentically having been based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.

About the Book (Vol 1)

Here is an attempt to trace the origin of Yoga back to the Veda millennia before the advent of Patanjali with his Yoga-sutra which ordinarily is mistaken to be the earliest source-book o the discipline. By tracing the origins of so important a disciplines as Yoga to that end this work not only presents a corrective of an error of so abysmal order but also brings to the fore the discipline in its pristine purity and abundance which resulted in the elevation of Angiras, Visvamitra, Vasistha, etc., to seer hood. The mystery of the Veda at such an early stage of the human history gets cracked here through the trace of yoga to that antiquity. Besides showing sure indications opt the discipline in the Vedic Samhita, it discloses the secret yogic practices of some of the most important seers of the Vedic age. If the method of prananusandhana as developed by Angiras has resulted in the way of access to pure consciousness through control of the vital, that of nadanusandhana as epitomized by the female seers Angiras has led to descent of Vedic mantas on the seers with all their exquisite wealth of wisdom, knowledge and aesthetic values. While the chapter on Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals confirms the literary evidence adduced here by archaeological verity, the Critique of Patanjali brings to the fore the seminal points of departure of him from the royal road of Yoga, raja-yoga, built up by the seers. Thus, if one wants to understand the secret of Spirituality in India along with the infallible way to it, one is sure to find this publication most refreshing and rewarding.

As the book is designed to confirm to course contents of Yoga, it will be of great use to graduates, post grag8uates, diploma, degree and research students of Yoga and the teachers alike.

About The Book (Vol 2)

While the first volume of the Foundation of Yoga deals with the historical side of the foundation, the present one concerns itself with the psychological which has been discerned in the form of consciousness. Just as matter is the basic stuff physical sciences have to deal with, consciousness serves as the basic stuff of the science of spirit known as Yoga. Any yogic practice apart from deep understanding of the nature of consciousness is, thus, doomed to end in an exercise in futility. This is what has been brought to the fore by Vedic seers and Upanisadic sages practically by diving deep into consciousness and declaring it as the source of everything in the world including matter itself. As such, what modern psychologists have declared as sub-conscious and unconscious, is only a covert form of consciousness. What has been recounted in the Veda as war between gods and demons is, thus, reducible to the seer's entry into these covert layers of consciousness and facing the odds. Search of one's identity in the pure consciousness is liberation and immortality while one's identification with the physical is bondage and mortality. The Mahdmrtyunjaya mantra epitomizes this secret at its best. All this has been brought out here closely and cogently on the evidence of the galaxy of Vedic seers and Upanisadic sages with a view to recreate the real psychological foundation of Yoga which otherwise is being tossed around today like a kite snapped off its string. As such, the volume is expected to prove an authentic passage to entry into the citadel of yoga and experience the felicity lying await within. It will be helpful in clearing the cobweb of misunderstanding about it formed in course of millennia and will benefit everyone including yoga teachers, practitioners, researchers and students who are doing graduation, post-graduation and Ph.D. in Yoga.

About The Book (Vol 3)

One, who has established control over the asanas, conquers the three worlds. Practice of asanas removes diseases and brings stability and health to the body. This volume discusses various kinds of asana, both gross and subtle with suitable pictorial illustrations, textual references and scientific notes on their effects on the body and the mind from both hygienic and yogic viewpoints. Combination of textual account with the modern physiological analysis is sure to be helpful in the understanding of the proper mode of these postures which otherwise are likely to cause damage to the body and disturbance to the mind instead of bringing succor to both of them. It also discusses preparatory asanas for beginners as well as asanas for advanced practitioners. Practice of these asanas is so described that it prepares one for inner journey. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga, and we hope that it will benefit everyone including Yoga teachers, practitioners, researchers and students who are doing diploma, graduation, post-graduation, and Ph.D.

About The Book (Vol 4)

This volume deals with what are known in yogic parlance as sat karma, mudra, pranayama, pratyahara. Sat karma is purificatory of the body. It includes what are known as neti, dhauti, vasti, nauli, etc. These devices of purification of the body on the yogic line have been discussed in hatha-yogic treatises of the medieval age and are highly useful in the redemption of the body from various kinds of diseases. So is the case with the mudras and bandhas which, however, being purificatory of the body are highly useful in leading to concentration of the mind. While pranayama in the course of yogic sadhana is self-evident as prana and consciousness are closely interrelated. Various kinds of pranayama have been deliberated upon in the volume apart from several others that have remained generally unknown so far. It also discusses precaution and safety during the practice of pranayama. Pratyahara is that method in which the sense organs follow the sense-mind on the image held within so that they can get sensations from within thereby leading to the dissolution of the sensations of sense-organs in the sense-mind and finally it gets dissolved in the consciousness or the Self. All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga and will be of great use to graduates, post graduates, diploma, research students and teachers of Yoga and the practitioners alike.

About The Book (Vol 5)

This volume discusses the three next steps of Yoga known as dharana, dhyana and samadhi. They represent the crux of the. process of yogic sadhana. In view of the extreme subtlety of these steps, this volume successful coverage of these steps through relevant texts dealing with this part of the sadhana. With this end in view, selections have been made from such yogic texts bearing as the Upanisads, Bhagavadgita, Vijnabhairava, Malinivijayottaratantra, etc. which have been adduced here along with their English translation and necessary notes wherever required for clarification.

It also includes and discusses the Epistemology of Yoga as well as a digest of the entire process and method of the sadhana put together succinctly and in a graded manner under A Tractatus of Yoga. The formulations made here are for summarising the entire range of the sadhana in as brief a form as possible. These formulations have been made somewhat on the pattern of the classical authors of the sutra-from of literature dealing with subjects of utmost technical bearing requiring close attention of the reader. A significant difference in the process of formulation of the tractatus here from that of the ancient Sanskrit authors of the sutras lies in the fact that while surra preceded their expositions made sometimes by the sutrakaras themselves and mostly by other exponents of them quite subsequently, here the formulations only follow the detailed exposition meant particularly to serve as a digest of the entire stuff along with all the difficulties involved in its coverage, understanding and practical application. All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.

All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga and we hope that it will be of great use to graduates, post graduates, diploma, research students, teachers of Yoga and general practitioners alike.

About the Author

Professor Satya Prakash Singh is a renowned Vedic and Yogic Scholar as well as practicing Yogi. He is a Ph. D. of the Banaras Hindu University and D. litt. Of the Alilgarh Muslim University. A former Chairman of eh Department of Sanskrit and Dean, Faculty of Arts, Aliigarh Muslim University, he is presently working as an Editorial Fellow in the Centre for Studies in Civilisations, New Delhi. He has also been Director of Dharam Hindu International Centre of Indic Research Centre Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratisthan under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India in New Delhi. He is the recipient of a number of prestigious awards including Ganganath Jha Award of the Uttar Pradesh Sanskrit Academy, Rajaji Literary Award of Bharatiya Visdya Bhavan , Bombay, Banabhatta Puraskara of Sanskrit Academy, Uttar Pradesh, besides President of India’s Award of Scholar of Eminence. His publications’ include: 1. Sri Aurobindo and Whitehead d on the Nature of God 2. Sri Aurobindo, Jung and Vedic Yoga 3. Upanisadic Symbolism. 4. Vedic Symbolism 5. Life and Vision of Vedic Seers Vol. I visvamtira, vol. II. Dirghatamas 6. Vedic Vision of Consciousness and Reality 7. History of Yoga.

Yogi Mukesh is and accomplished yogin besides being deeply grounded in the study of yogic literature of a variety of shades including Vedic, Tantric, Saiva, Vaisnava and Buddhist. He has been initiated in yoga practically by a reputed yogin while living in his company for quite some time in a sacred cave in western Uttar Pradesh. He is an extensively travelled scholar and sadhaka both externally and internally having devoted considerable time of his life in several countries of the world as well as in the yogin’s cave.

Foreword

I feel honored to write a foreword to the present publication on yoga which, to be sure, is the most scholarly work on yoga published so far. Its novelty as well as profundity lies in tracing other root of yoga right in the Vedas which hardly any other scholar so far has dared to go to inches search for the root. Of any other scholar has to refer to any Vedic mantra in this regard that has been done only with reference to such mantras which have happened to be quoted in the Upanishads. It goes to the credit of such a profound scholar of Veda as Professor Satya Prakash Singh to have adduced so much insight from the foremost scriptural creation of mankind in regard to the beginning of this pre-eminently intuition-based discipline as yoga. Tracing the root of yoga in the Vedas has automatically resolved a number of points of confusion in regard to the nature of the discipline, such as the involvement of dualistic or non-dualistic metaphysics in its fabric. So is the case with the authors’ basing their treatment of yoga on the ontological primacy of consciousness which in spite of having been presumed b each and every practitioner of yoga, has seldom been put forward so consistently and convincingly by any other author on yoga world over so far.

The volumes as asana, sat karma, pratyaharam Dhahran, dhyana and Samadhi too are refreshing and highly instructive. The pictorial representations in these as well as in earlier both the volumes are marvelous. They are highly suggestive of the content they have been designed to represent. The coordination between the textual and the expository matter is perfect. Each statements supported by relevant textual evidence. While ht first two volumes of the series are highly illuminative to the frontline scholar of the discipline, the remaining three are as much instructive to students of yoga at large. I am, therefore of the considered view that this series of volumes on yoga must necessarily be acquired by each and every educational institution and library in the country and closely be gone through by each and every scholar as well as student of yoga whosever.

Preface

We are glad to present herewith in the form of this series the fruits of our association of more than a decade since we happened to work together at the Dharma Hindu a International Centre of Indic Research during the nineties of the last century .It is since those days that we got all the more deeply interested in the essentials of yoga as embedded in the Vedic Samhitas which otherwise were taken by scholars to concern mainly with nature- worship particularly under the persuasion of the Aryan Invasion theory. The myth at the theory began to get exploded as we progressed ahead with our findings of the beginnings of various forms of yoga in those earliest texts of mankind as came to be elaborated upon in later works on the discipline such as the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Mahabharata, the Yoga Sutra, the later Upanishads, the Tantric texts and works on Hatha-yoga. Sri Aurrobindo, the sage of Pondicherry with his refreshing interpretation of the Veda of the side and deep understanding of the subsequent literature on the other proved a great source of inspiration of the Veda on the one side and deep understanding of the subsequent literature on the other proved a great source of inspiration to us. This work has taken fifteen years of our time to complete it. Prof. Kireet Joshi’s company with us all through this period served as a remarkable stimulant to us in giving the present shape to our understanding of the origin and development of the discipline of yoga as we have presented it here. In fact, the major part of the second volume of this series was worked out under a project entitled Consciousness in the Veda granted to one of us under the auspices of Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratisthan , Ujjan, during the Chairmanship of Professor Kireet Joshi himself. We, therefore, express our obligation and thus providing us the facility to carry out the work to this end.

We are thankful to Shri Kulvir Singh, born and raised in New Delhi. He was one of the youngest, Creative Art Directors in India and is at present living in Toronto, Canada for the last seven years. Currently he is working with an international media publishing company as Creative Art Director for internationally published B2B magazines. He has assisted us by designing the covers of the volumes with a unique perspective and concept by this design the rise of yoga globally. The abstract illustrative art with warm colour palette gives the design a very Eastern and earthy feel and look. We cannot forget the help rendered to us by Mrs. Nisha Saxena, NTPC, who took upon herself the task of typing the manuscript correctly and elegantly and also for providing the print outs. In the same way we are grateful to Shri Anurag Chopra, Advocate, Supreme Court, New Delhi for his constant inspiration, support and encouragement.

Our heartfelt gratitude goes to Shri Mohindra Vashistha, the publisher of these volumes, for his constant support an initiative in getting them published.

Also we would like to thank Dr. Premlat, Judge, Consumer court, Delhi, Shri Radhey Shyam Sharma, PGT, KEndriya Vidyalaya, Rajokari, New Delhi and Shri Pankaj Rastogi of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.

The graphics used in the book are not of our own creation. They have been drawn from dicers sources to bear out some sort of semblance to the central ideas discussed here. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all those agencies responsible for the creation, production or reproduction as the case may be, of these graphics.

Introduction

Yoga is the greatest gift of Indian to mankind. It is a gift of the same magnitude from the Indian side as science is from the Western with this difference, however, that while the fruits of science began to be relished by people a large right from the very beginning, Yoga continued to remain confined only to the selected few for aeons. Even while remaining so, it has produced effects quite splendid as a device of bringing to the fore man’s latent potentialities, as is evident from the creativity of the Vedic seers, Upanisadic sages, poets like valmiki and vyasa, sages like Kapila, Adinatha, Mahavira, Buddha, Sankara and Abhinavagupta, philosopherse like Kanada and Gautama, grammarians like Panini and Patanjali besides an endless list of thinkers and innovators emerging from the Indian soil in the hoary past and remaining unparalleled, to a great extent, even until now. As is evident from their biographies in whatsoever scanty from, all these seers, sages, saints, thinkers and innovators of different disciplines of knowledge were basically yogis’ having been involved in the practice of yoga as the source of their exceptional knowledge and wisdom which have kept India sustained since untold ages until now, all vicissitude of history notwithstanding. It is, therefore, imperative now to bring that technique of knowledge, wisdom and transformation of life out of its haunt of secrecy so that the humanity, as a whole, may taste the fruit of it without any inhibition and discrimination.

In order to get this objective materialized, what is necessary is to go to the very root of this discipline both historically and psychologically. So far as the historical perspective is concerned, the necessity of going into it has arisen out of the misconception of delimiting the root of Yoga generally midway to Patanjali, the author of Yoga-sutra. Indeed, it is due to this misconception that Yoga has come to be mistaken as something secret, unsocial an otherworldly and hence not lonely difficult to take yup but also counterproductive in many respects. It is due to the prevalence of this view of Yoga that such a scripture as the Bhagavad-Gita has been mistaken as denunciatory in spite of its most eloquent advocacy in favor of karma yoga. Another by- product of this mistaken view of Yoga particularly in the modern times is the delimitation of it to only a certain kind of physical and vital exercises in the form of asansas and pranayama as popularly taught by some enthusiasts of the discipline in the name of Yoga as such today. The special feature of the present attempt is to explore the history of Yoga right from the Vedic or even the pre-Vedic era and reconstruct it from the material scatted throughout the Vedas as a system of Yoga by virtue of which pre-Vedic and Vedic people became seers of Vedic mantras as the treasure-chest of the profoundest kind of wisdom and knowledge even at that epoch of human history and thus laid the foundation of the Indian culture so broad an humane in outlook and so lasting in character. In fact, it is the tapas and sadhana of the Vedic seers which has got crystallized in the form of the discipline of Yoga in all its dimensions, phases and varieties coming to be designated in course of time as bhakti-yga, jnana-yoga,karma-yoga, hatha-yoga, etc. It is for the first time here so far that the prmecal seers like Atharvan, Angiras, Ayasya, Agastya, Dadhyan, Dirghatamas, Visvamitra, VAmadeva, Vasisthat, Patanga, Ambhrni et al have been induced to speak for themselves through their mantric mouths as to how through the yogic process they happened to envision mantras of such profound bearing like the well-known Gayatri, mahamrtyunjaya etc., which have been serving as the last resort of millions of people for millennia in their venture into the unknown as well as known, howsoever impregnable otherwise.

On the other hand, so far as the psychological perspective of the discipline is concerned, instead of searching for its motivation in the desire for alleviation of any kind of suffering or affliction in this world or in the wish for the enjoyment of the plenitude of the world beyond, here it has been found to lie in man’s eternal quest for exploring into the mystery of consciousness has been determined here as the explorer as well as the field of exploration, as the object as well as the subject. In the commonsense experience, the object is object and subject, as both are conceived as categorically different form each other. The interaction between the two is considered as just a matter of fact without needing any explanation concerning the mystique behind it. Philosophical attempts to solve the problem has resulted in the East in the form of the admittance of Prakriti and Purusa as two absolutely independent realities while in the West it has led to the Cartesian dichotomy between Mind and Matter. Both these positions stop short of resolving the problem of explaining the why of the integration between so polar entities as the subject and the object. In view of this kind of shortfall of these explanations, science made an effort to resolve the problem by setting before itself Matter alone as the reality projecting itself primarily as the object and giving isle to the subject as its by product. This viewpoint served well in concentrating exclusively on Matter and developing the physical sciences, which have served mankind well to a certain extent but, at the same time, have led inadvertently to extreme erosion in moral values today in the society. A society scorn of such values cannot afford to sustain itself very long. Moreover, in spite of adding immensely to the means of comfort to the human life, the physical science, with this basic standpoint of it, has robbed him of what really he is, that is, his self, in research of which he is panting like a fish put out of water. When Self as the crux of the personality is lost, what remains there to enjoy the plenitude of life! This dilemma in the human life created by the physical science, however, finds a gleam of light emerging from science itself in the form of its proposition that even in the strictly scientific observation there is a possibility of the subject playing a definite role in molding the shape of the object to a great extent. This finding under quantum mechanics in course of experiments of the ultimate shape of matter as particle and wave both as per the peresupposition of the observer, is sufficient to open our eye to the pre-eminence of consciousness in the spectrum of the reality.

This gleam of light as emerging faintly from modern science happened to have been envisioned by Vedic seers in its full abundance as the light of lights known as Atman and was found out in course of meditation on it as both the beginning and the end of creation in its entirety. As the Taittiriya Upanisad has put it, it is out of the atman that has emerged akasa, the space-time continuum resulting eventually in the creation of matter in all forms, that is, gaseous, illiquid and solid via interaction between space and time as the warp and woof of creation. The realization of this order of immensity of consciousness, the Upanishad contends, is productive of the quantum of delight equivalent to hundred times that of a sovereign king.

This work is intended to show the way to the entry into that infinitude of consciousness, which, at the same time, is the infinitude of bliss, called in the Upanisad as bhuman. In this reject, it distinguishes itself from those works which are based on the Yoga-stra of Patanjali and aim at just redemption from the hold of Prakrti, Nature, and hence approve of living in isolation of it. It is for the first time that here in this work Yoga has been brought to the notice of the reader in all its comprehensiveness based as it is on the primacy an immensity of consciousness on the one hand and concordance of the results of tapas and sadhana of Vedic seers themselves on the other.

How that glorious tradition comprising various methods of meditation leading to self-realization has been kept intact to a great extent, is evident from discussions on Saivism, etc. These discussions and deliberations may prove sufficient to show to what extent the basic stream of sadhana has remained intact and to what extent it has given way to sectarian divisions. The chapter on the Indus Seals is included here to bear out not only the verity of the Vedic Yoga on the tangible archaeological grounds but also to show how Vedic mantaras, looking apparently to concern sheer nature-worship, have, indeed, been used as the medium of communication of yogic ideas if deep significance. It is also explosive of the myth of Aryan Invasion created by the vested interest to distort the image of the Indian history, demoralize the Indian mind and denigrate the Vedic ethos. The chapter on Aesthetics and yoga, on the other hand, is illustrative of the extent to which Yoga is practicable in life while deliberations on consciousness are meant for indicating to the sound basis of the Yoga taken resort to by Vedic seers. These discussion, I f perused minutely, would show how much the psychology of today which has distance itself from its real centre in accepting, on the analogy of science, Matter as its basis.

In view of these possibilities, this series of volumes on Yoga is expected to prove instrumental in the restoration of peace, joy and real values of life to the humanity which it has lost, to a great extent, under the enchantment of the facilities of life brought to its doorstep by science. At the same time, it is also hoped to prove corrective of the aberrations of the religious dogmas overburdening the human mind and creating fissures in the solidarity of the society.

The first volume of the work deals with the life and visions of the seers who were instrumental in giving a shape to this discipline through the austerities and tapas of their lives. Some of such seers are Angiras, Atharvan, Bhrgu, Visvamitra, Grtsamada, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadvaja, Vasistha, Kanva, Agasstua, Lopamudra and Vagambhrni. The mantras seen by them and collected in the Vedic Samhitas from within the details apparently looking to relate to nature- worship, when pursued closely, reveal their precise relevance to Yoga in its various aspects to be classified subsequently as bhakti-yoga, jnana-yoga , karma-yoga, mantra-yoga, and even hatha-yoga.

The chapter on Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals bears out the close correspondence between the contents of a Rgvedic hymn and those of the Pasupati seal excavated from Mohenjo-daro and found to belong to the beginning of the third millennium B.C. The striking correspondence between these two sources, that is, the literary and the archaeological, as discovered by us, shows how Yoga was in practice even during that period of antiqutiyaboout five thousand years ago. Sitting of the Pasupati in such a difficult yogic posture as bhjadrasana in the minds of such ferocious animals as tiger, elephant, rhinoceros as well as buffalo and deer and yet having maintained perfect equipoise is a tangible evidence of attainment of high degree of proficiency in Yoga even at that time. The equivalence of the five animals surrounding Him with the five organs of sense, as mentioned by the Brahmanic texts of almost the same era, shows the cognizance of the difficulty lying in the control of those senses on the part of the authors of the idea who might have been responsible for getting the whole scenario engraved on the seal.

Inclusion of the chapter on Patanjali in this volume is meant for pointing to the limitations of his verity of Yoga as a partial deviation from the main strand as coming down from the Vedic source. Kapila who is credited to have given rise to the concepts of Prakrti and Pursa and thus to the Sankhya sustem of Indian philosophy, is really a Vedic seer and son of Angiras an d as such has considered prakarti as neither completely blind nor as absolutely independent of the Purusa but as extraordinarily sighted and daughter of Indra in the Rgvedic hym attributing the son ship of him to Angiras, as against the assumption of the later for of the system as propounded by the Sankhya karika by creating complete dichotomy between these two fundamental constituents of the later form of the system as propounded by the sankhya karika by creating complete dichotomy between these two fundamental constituents of the reality.This dichotomy in the midst of these tow constituents, having been admitted by Patanjali as his fundamental postulate, has obliged him to conceive of absolute loneliness, kaivalya, as the ultimate goal of Yoga which fall very much short of the state of final beatitude and bliss as aspired for by the Vedic seers. This deviation from the main stream made by Patanjali, though useful as a short-cut arrangement, has left the main stream made by Patanjali, though useful as a short-cut arrangement, has left the main Vedic stream of Yoga much less forceful like the canalization of the Ganga of Bhagiratha at Haridwar.

After pointing to this aberration in the Yoga in this first volume, the second one seeks to redress the same through the display of the opulence of the stream in its pristine purity. It has to do with a psychology not confined to the senses and the sense mind, as is the prevalent trend in the modern psychology but with one which has to go much deeper into these layers of the psyche which underlie and regulate the outer from within. It includes in its purview what in modern psychology is known as the area of Depth Psychology and concerns itself with the study of what it calls at unconscious part of the human psyche. That also however, is only a stepping stone to the crux of its real object of study and practice. It has further two steps to take involving the state of dreamless sleep and much beyond the same in the form of the fourth supernal state of consciousness only marginally reflected in the psychology of C.G. Jung in the form of what he calls archetype of the Self and has accorded it the position of the crown of his achievement in his psychological explorations supposed to be potent enough to solve all problems of psychic aberrations. This he could achieve through his practice of Yoga itself, as he claims, combined with data collected from his treatment of pathological cases. What is just a shadow of the fourth supernal state of consciousness in the Depth Psychic of the modern area, is the real objective of Yoga in all its substantiality along with its potentiality to explain not only the mental and vital but also the physical as a manifestation of that supernal state of consciousness not merely epistemic ally but also ontologically. Thus the discipline of Yoga shows the path to the control of the Physical through the application of the latent potentialities of the fourth state of consciousness. Its immediate benefit at least is the improvement on health preparing the way to improvement over the quality of life as a whole.

Contents

Volumes I
ii
Table of Transliterationii
Forewordix
Prefacexi
Introductionxiii
1Glimpses of Yoga in the Vedic Samhitas1
IYoke As a Symbol of Yoga In The Vedic Samhitas3
IIHrda-Manisa As A Direct Indicator Of Serious Yogic Sadhana6
IIIEvidence of the Aitareya Upanisad7
IVSqueezing of Soma As Symbolic Of Yogic Sadhana8
VTapas And Yoga10
2Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals15
IProblem of Relationship Between The Vedic And Indus Civilization17
IIYogic Motifs concerning Asanas17
IIIThe Motif Of The Yogin In Sanbhavi Mudra18
IVYogic Message Of The Pasupati Seal19
VResemblance Between The Pasupati Seal And The Content Of Vedic Mantras20
VICorroboration By The Ayurvedic Evidence25
3Yogic Sadhana of Vedic Seers29
Visvamitra31
Vamadeva41
Bharadvaja55
Vasistha71
Dirghatamas81
Agastya and the Sadhana of Reconciliation between the vital and the spiritual93
Vatsa kanva101
Narayana and the Possibility of Transformation of the Human into the Divine115
Hiranugarbha125
Vagambhrni135
Patanga145
Aghamarsana155
4Yoga as the Cradle of the Vedic system of Education168
IBearing of Yajna in the Development of Yoga169
IIUpanisadic Vidyas As a Link Between Education And Yoga173
IIIIntegrative Role of Yoga In Education177
5Consciousness and Yogic Sadhana in Saivism181
IVedic Origin Of Saivism183
IISiva As the Auspicious Aspect of Rudra184
IIIDiscovery of Siva By Upanisadic Sage Through Meditation185
IVEquivalence Of Macrocosm And Microcosm As The Basis Of Yogic Sadhana In Saivism187
VNadis And Cakras IN Saivsm As a Vedic Heritage189
6A Critique of Patanjali194
IAdverse Effect Of The Sankhya Metaphysics195
IIConsequence of Departure From Kapila's Fundamental Standpoint198
IIIBrahmi-sthiti Versus Kaivalya202
IVDisruption Of The Integrality Of The Transcendental Experience Through Differentiation IN the States Of Samadhi207
VConfusion Of Kriya-Yoga And Raja-Yoga209
VILeaning To The Buddhist Ethos211
VIISankar's Criticism Of Patanjali216
7Vedic Vision of Bondage and Liberation219
Index229
Volume II
Table of transliterationii
Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Introductionxv
1Consciousness, States and Grades1
IConsciousness As The Essence of The Universe3
IIConsciousness And Self-Consciousness4
IIIConcentricity And Expansiveness of Consciousness5
IVLuminosity of Consciousness6
VCreativity of Consciousness9
VIConsciousness And Physical Energy10
VIITra And Consciousness12
VIIICause of Gradation In Consciousness14
IXConsciousness And The Unman fest of The Sankhyas22
XConsciousness And The purusa22
XIStates Of Consciousness24
XIIThe Fourth State of Consciousness And Its Luminousness26
XIIIPurpose Behind the Dynamics of Consciousness27
2Consciousness as a Metaphysical Force29
IVision of Dirghatamas and The Gayatri31
IINature of Consciousness As Reflected In Ambhrni's Hymn32
IIIBharadvaja's Vision Of Consciousness35
3Existential Value of Consciousness41
ITruth And Existence43
IICoherence To The Real44
IIITruth As An Imperative Of The Real46
IVTruth And Knowledge of the Reality48
VRelationship Between Truth and Untruth49
VIConsciousness And The Space Time Continuum51
VIISelf Consciousness52
VIIIQuantum Mechanics And The Nature of Consciousness54
IXExpansiveness And Concentricity of Consciousness54
XDynamism of Consciousness55
XIConsciousness And Its Projectivity56
XIIConsciousness As the Basic Stuff of Creation57
4Concentricity And Universal Creativity of Consciousness59
IImplications of The Vaisvanara Vidya61
IIConcentric Movement of Consciousness As An Elucidated In The Gargya- Ajatasatry Dialogue70
IIIMessage of The Dahara Vidya73
IVImplications of The Instruction To Svetaketu75
VConcurrence of The Brhadaranyaka upanisad77
VIConfirmation from The Aitareya Upanisad82
5Consciousness of The Unconscious91
IContrariety of Terminology93
IIPenetrability of Anrta By Rta94
IIIDaksa of The Divine As An Aid To The Penetration95
IVSense of Guilt And Its Remedy96
VDaiva Manas As An Antidote To The Problems of The Unconscious99
6Ordeals of the Unconscious in the Quest for Consciousness107
ISeer's Encounter With the Unconscious109
IISemblance of The Unconscious To Darkness And Water111
IIISleep of Vrtra And The Unconscious115
IvVrtra As Tama Of The Sankhyas116
VVrtra And The Black Hole118
VIIntervention of The Sacramental In The Indra-Vrtra Conflict120
VIIVrtra And Panis122
VIIIOrdeals Of Bhujyu123
IXRebha's Encounter With The Unconscious125
7Contribution of Angiras, Ayasya, Bhrgy and Dadhyan to the Discovery of the way to Consciousness127
IConsciousness As The foundation Of Indian Culture129
IIAngiras And His Role in the Discovery Of The Way130
IIIDiscovery of The Mukhya Prana132
IVBVAk And The Mukhya Prana135
VAyasya's Discovery of The Fourth state of Consciousness136
VIMukhya Prana And The Libido138
VIIBhrgu Varuni's Relation of Matter As the Ultimate Reality138
VIIIVital Force As The Ultimate Reality140
IXMind As The Ultimate Reality141
XConsciousness As The Ultimate Reality142
XIBhrgu's Contribution To The Analysis of The Layers of the Human Psyche And Personality145
XIIDadhyan's Discovery of The suprarenal State of Harmony146
XIIIDadhyan As Seer of The Upanisad148
XIVAllegorical Significance of His Story149
XVSingularity of Dadhyan;s Vision of The Reality152
XVIPractical Implications of Dadhyans Vision154
XVIISeers’ Venture from In conscience to the suprarenal Consciousness156
8Consciousness and Immortality159
IImmortality Through progeny161
IIImmortality Through Noble Deeds162
IIISavitr and Immortality163
IVRbhus'Bowl As A Symbol and Vision of The reality as the way to immortality165
VDevotion, Equipoise, Service And Vision of The Reality As The Way To Immortality167
VITeaching of Ghora angirasa169
VIIRole of Angiras in the discovery of the way to Immortality170
VIIIRole of other Accomplishments of The Rbhus in their immortalization173
IXSupramundane status of consciousness as the basis of immortality177
XAgni-vidya and the secret of immortality179
XIImmortality through soma182
XIIHigher knowledge as The way to immortality185
XIIIImmortality and liberation186
XIVProblem of physical transformations189
9Yoga and Vak191
IConcept of vak in the veda193
IIAnalysis of the Frog Hymn in relationship to vak197
IIICow and vak201
IVAditi as vak207
VUltimate Reality as the Source of vak208
vISarsvatias vak215
VIISarasvati as the illuminator of Delight and Rasa218
VIIIConcept of Vak in The Brahmanas227
IXVak in Saivism And Tantra235
10Aesthetics and Yoga243
IInadequacy of the Path of Restraint245
IISoma As the symbol of Aesthetic rapture247
IIIRelationship Between Aesthetic Joy And Spiritual Bliss249
IVBhakti Rasa as the Connecting Link Between Aesthetic Joy And Delight of Yogic Experience254
VAesthetic Joy As The Foretaste of The Delight of Yogic Experience262
11Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra as a Way to Immortality269
IMeaning of Tryambaka271
IIParallelism Between Tryambaka an savitr274
IIISignificance of the Simile of Melon275
IVTryambaka And The Fourth State of Consciousness276
VSiva And Mahadeve277
VIDeath And Redemption279
VIIUse of the Maha Mrityunjaya as Assurance to a Life of Hundred Years282
VIIIVayu, Prana and Immortality283
IxSecret of The Ten Rudras284
Index287
Volume III
Table of Transliterationii
Forewordxiii
Prefacexv
Introductionxvii
Part-I Asanas For Beginners
A. Jivana Tattva Sadhana
1Introduction5
2Sarvottana (Stretching the Entire Body)6
3Skandha Calana (Shoulder Rotation)9
4Paga Calana (Feet Movement)13
5Nabhi Calana (Rolling of The Navel)15
6Janu Prasara (Expansion of Thighs)17
7Nadi Calana (Exercise for the Nerves)19
8Bala Macalana (Child's Playful Pose)22
B. Yogic Suksma Vyayama27
Introduction29
I.Pharynx, Intellect, Memory Hearing Power And Neck Exercises
9Uccarana-Sthala Tatha Visuddha-Cakra Suddhi (Pharynx Purification)31
10Prarthana (Prayer Pose)33
11Buddhi Tatha Dhrti Sakti Vikasaka (Development of Intellect and Willpower)35
12Smarana Sakti Vikasaka (Improving Memory)37
13Medha Sakti Vikasaka (Development of Intellect Power)39
14Netra Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Eyes)41
15Kapola Vardhaka (Rejuvenation and Toning of Cheeks)44
16Karna Sakti Vikasaka (Improving The Power Of Hearing)46
17Griva Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening of Neck)48
IIShoulders, Arms And Wrists Exercises
18Anguli-Mula Vikasaka (Toning of Finger Joints)53
19Anguli Vikasaka (Toning of Fingers)56
20Mani-Bandha Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of The Back of the Palms)58
21Kara-Prstha Sakti Vikasaka (Toining of Wrists)61
22Kara- Tala Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Palms)64
23Bhuja-Bandha Vikasak (Toning of Forearms)66
24Bhuha-Valli Vikasaka (Toning of Arms)68
25Purna-Bhuja Sakti vikaska (Strengthening and Toning of Arms)70
26Kapohni Vikasaka (Toning of Elbows)72
27Skandh Tatha Bahu Mula Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening of Shoulder and Joints)75
IIIStrengthening of Chest, Back And Abdomen Muscles
28Vaksa-Sthala Sakti Vikassaka (Toning of Chest)79
29Kati Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening and Toning of The Back)82
30Udara Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening of Abdominal Muscles)90
IVStrengthening of Things, Knees. Legs. Ankles And Toes
32Jangha Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Thighs)105
33Gulha-Pada-Prstha-Tala Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Ankles and Feet)107
34Janu Sakti Vikasak (Toning of Knees)109
35Padanguli Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening and Toning of Toes)111
36Pindalli Sakti Vikasaka (Strenghtening and Toning of Calves)113
37Pada Mula Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening and Toning of th Soles)115
38Upastha Tatha Svadhisthana Cakra Suddhi (Toning of Genital Organs)117
39Muladhara Cakra Suddhi (Toning of Rectum)119
Part II: Asanas For Advanced Practitioners
ISitting Postures
40Dandasana (Staff Pose)133
41Siddhasana (Adept's Pose)137
42Padmasana (Lotus Pose)147
43Vajrasana (Adamantine or Thunderbolt Pose)154
44Bhadrasana (Decent or Gracious Pose)158
45Virasana (Hero Pose)167
46Svastikasana (Auspicious Pose)171
47Sukhasana (Comfortable or Easy Pose)174
48Kasana (Crow's Pose)178
49Gomukhasana (Cow's Face Pose)180
50Kokilasana (Cuckoo Pose)185
51Simhasana (Roaring Lion Pose)187
52Baddha Padmasana196
53Brahmacaryasana (Ccellibate Pose)201
54Goraksasana (Yogi Gorakhanatha's Pose)203
55Kukkutasana (Rooster Pose)207
56Kurmasana (Tortoise Pose)211
57Mandukasana (Frog Pose)217
58Matsyendrasana (Spinal Twist Pose)221
59Parvatasan (Mountain Pose)231
60Sasankasana (Hare Pose)238
61Utthitasana (Uplilfted Lotus Pose)240
62Udarakarsannasana (Abdominal Massage Pose or Belly Suction Pose)243
63Ustrasana (Camel Pose)246
64Utkatasana (Chari Pose)252
65Yogasana (Yoga Pose)256
66Balasana (Child's Pose)262
67Eka Padamgusthasana (One Foot-Toe Balance Pose)265
68Krauncanusadana (Crane or Heron's Pose)268
69Pascimottansana (Sated Forward Bend Pose)272
70uttanakurmasana (Lifted Tortoise Pose)282
71Vrsasana (Bull Pose)286
72Tribandhasana (Triple Lock Pose)289
73Bhunamanasana292
74Janu-Bhumi Sthirasana (Knee Support Pose)295
75Marjari asana(Cat Stretch Pose)299
75Lolasana (Pendant Pose)302
76Akarna Dhanurasana (Stretched Bow Pose)305
Postures311
IISupine Posture
77Supta Vajrasana (Sleeping Adamantine or Thunderbolt Pose)329
78Matsyasana (Fish Pose)335
79Paryankasana (Couch or Bed Pose()343
80Pavanmuktasana347
81Halasana (Plough Pose)351
82Cakrasana (Wheel Pose)359
83Setu Asana (Bridge Pose)363
84Supta Padangustha-Nasa Sparsasana (Supine Toe and Nose Pose)366
85Tolangulasana (Weighing Scale Pose)369
86Uttanamandukasana (Raised Scale Pose)375
87Uttanapadasana (Raised Leg Pose)383
88Savasana (cropse Pose)386
89Supta Udarakarsana (Supine Abdominal Massage Pose)392
Postures395
IIIProne Posture
90Dhanurasana (Bow Pose)403
91Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose)411
92Salaghasana (Locust Pose)414
93Naukasana (Boat or Yacht Pose)431
94Mayurasana (Peacock Pose)438
95Makarasana (Corcodle Pose)444
96Matsya kridasana (Flapping Fish Pose)451
Postures454
IVStandng Postures
97Urdhva Hastotanasanas (UP stretche Hand Pose)461
98Asvatthasana (Holy Fig Tree Pose)464
99Garudasana (Eagle Pose)466
100Hasta-Padangusthasana (Hand Toe Pose)469
101Kati Cakrasana (Waist Movement Pose)472
102Natarajasana (Dancing Siva Pose)475
103Padahastasana (Hand to Foot Pose)477
104Sankatasana (Contracted or Difficult Pose)481
105Konasana (Angle Pose)484
106 Tadasabna (Palm Tree Pose) 487
107Vatayanasan (Horse Pose)490
108Vrksasana (Tree Pose)492
Postures495
VInverted Postures
109Sarvamgasana503
110Sirsa-urdhava-padasana or Sirsasana (Head Stand)509
515Postures515
Index517
Volume IV
Table of Transliterationii
Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Introductionxv
ISatkarma
1Dhauti kriyas3
2Vastr Dhauti6
3Danda Dhauti13
4Baghi17
5Agnisara20
6Mula Sodhana25
7Gajakarani28
8Neto lroua34
9Trataka47
10Kapalabhati52
11Nauli59
12Sankhapraksalana66
13Vasti77
14Cakri karma84
IIMudra
Importance of Mudras87
Bandhas
1Jalandhara Bandha93
2Uddiyana Bandha97
3Mula Bandha102
Adhara Mudras
1Asvini Mudra107
Mudras With Combination of Bandhas
1Maha Mudra111
2Maha Babdga117
3Maha Vedha122
Postural Mudras
1Tadagi Mudra131
2Matangini Mudra137
3Pasini Mudra139
4Yoga Mudra145
5Viparitakarani148
6Kaki Mudra154
7Bhujangini Mudra158
Meditation Mudras
1Sambhave Mudra163
2Khecari Mudra167
3Nabho Mudra172
4Sanmukhi Mudra175
5Panca Tattva Dharan Mudras182
6Satkticalani mudra186
7Manduuki Mudra190
IIIPranayama
Prana And Consciousness193
1Indran's Proposition of Prana as Consciousness193
2Relationship Between Air And Prana194
3Air as the Cosmic Energy195
4Primacy of pranayama198
5Convertibility of Prana into Consciousness201
6Development of Self from within the Viral202
7Transformation of the Physical into the Vieal and Mental204
8Germ of the Instincts of Self-Protection and Procreation206
9Sygyzy of Life -Force and Consciousness209
10Consciousness and the Instinct for Possession212
Pranayama215
1Importance of Pranayama215
2Suitable Place for Practice216
3Who should Start the Practice e of Pranayama218
4Best Seasons for Starting the Practice of Pranayama218
5Diet during the Practice of Pranayama219
6Prohibited Food and Acts during the Practice221
7Method of Pranayama223
8Time of Practice and Duration226
9Attitude during Practice226
10Safety in the Practice of Pranayam226
11Obstacles in the Path of Yoga229
12Benefits Aim of Sahita Kumbhaka230
13Final Aim of Sahita Kumbhaka233
Pranayama For Beginners
1Sukhapurvaka (Rhythmic/Yogic Breathing)237
2Anuolma-Violma (Alternate Nostril Breathing )241
3Nadi Sodhana245
Pranayama For Advanced Practitioners
1Surya-Bheda Jumbhaka (Piercing of the Pingala Nadi)257
2Ujjayi (Snoring Breath265
3Bhastrika (Bellows Breathing)272
4Bhramari (Beetle Droning)280
5Sitali (Cooling Breath)287
6Sitakari (Hissing Breath)294
7Murccha (Swooming Breath)299
8Plavini303
9Candra-Breath (Piercing of the Ida Nadi)305
Unclassified Pranyamas From The Upanisdas311
KUmbhaka Paddhati Of Raghuvira317
Pratyahara323
Index333
Volume-5
Table of Transliterationii
List of Abbreviationvi
Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Introductionxv
1Dharana
IPatanjali Definition of Dharana3
IIDharana as Suggested by Seer Dadhyan Atharvana3
IIIDharana as Suggested by Seer Visvamitra4
IVDharana of Seer Kavasa Ailusa5
VDharana of Seer Narayana6
VISeer Prajapati Paramesthin's Dharana on the Being in the Negativity of the Entire Creation7
VIISeer Hiranyagarbha's Dharaba on the Golden Egg Lying in Trabcendence of Time and Space8
VIIISeer Dilrghatamas' Dharana on the Absolute Formed Through Contemplation
on the Six Planes of the Universe8
IXSeer Dadhyan Atharvana's Dharana on Universal Friendship9
XSeer Dirghatamas' Dharana on Visnu10
XISeer Kutsa Angirasa's Dharana onSurya as Self10
XIISeer Gotama Rahugana's Dharana on Aditi as All in All11
XIIISeer Gaya Plata's Dharana on the Cosmos as a Divine Boat Sailing Towards the Final State of Emancipation11
XIVSeer Vasistha's Dharana on Varuna's House of Redemption from the Drudgery of the earthly Life12
XVSeer Vamadeva's Dharana on Rta: The Principle of Universal Dynamics12
XVIA Yajurvedoc Seer's Dharana on the Supreme Being as “That" in Abstractions as the Source of All14
XVIIDharana on Rudra as the Supreme Being15
2Dhyana And Samadhi
IImperative for Dhyana Imparted by Seer Visvamitra20
IIDhyana, Kindalilni and Samadhi23
IIISoma as Symbolic of the Beatific Experience of Samadhi26
IVSeer Vamadeva's Realization of Himself as Indra: The Divine Supreme28
VSeer Mabhamcedistha's Experience of Access to the Centre of His Being and Revelation of the Structure of the Reality30
VISeer Visvamitra's Experience of the Oneness of His self with Agni33
VIIA Yajurvedoic Seer's way to Samadhi Through Assimilation of All to Oneself37
VIIISeer Bharadvaa's Ecstatic Experience of the Inner Light Unfolding Itself as the Supreme Being38
IXSeer Narayana's Yoga Leading to Entrance into the State of Samadhi40
XSeer Vatsa Kanva's Account of the First Ecstatic Experience of the Earliest Vedic Seers44
3Samadhi
IExperience of Samadhi in the Vedas51
IIConcept of Samadhi in Buddhism51
IIIConcept of Samadhi in Patanjali's Yoga-Sutra53
IVConcept of Samadhi in the Bhagavad-Gita57
VConcept of Samadhi in Later Upanisads61
VIConcept of Samadhi in Vedanta66
VIIConcept of Samadhi in Vaisnavism70
VIIIConcept of Samadhi in Saivism72
IXThe Hatha-Yogic Concept of Samadhi78
4Meditation on the Sacred Syllable Om As An Aid To Samadhi86
Role Of The Kundalini In The Attainment of Samadhi101
Role of The Nervous System And Centers In It In The Task Of Insulation of The Spiritual Consciousness115
Introverted Perusal Of Light, Sound And Taste As Ways To Samadhi129
Fundamental of The Epistemology of Yoga 161
Appendices
IMethods of Meditation from Vijnana Bhairava179
IIMethods of Meditation in Sri Malininvijayottara Tantra207
1Chapter II209
2Chapter XII210
3Chapter XIII215
4Chapter XIV228
5Chapter XV232
6Chapter XVI240
7Chapter XVII251
8Chapter XVIII256
9Chapter XIX257
10Chapter XXI258
11Chapter XXII263
12Chapter XXIII268
IIIMeditation Methods by Abhinavagupta Abhinavagupta's Girartha Sangraha273
IVA Tractatus of Yoga279
1Foundation of Yogfa281
2The Yogin and The Yogic Methodology292
3Suitable Place for Yoga301
4Pillars of Yoga302
5Mantra304
6Prana, Nada and Kundalini306
7Brahmacarya312
8Buddhi and Manas313
9Detachment315
10Satsang317
11Cognition318
12Sublimation of The Desire for Sex321
Index323

Yoga From Confusion to Clarity (Set of Five Volumes)

Item Code:
NAF471
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2010
ISBN:
9788187471578
Language:
English
Size:
10.0 inch x 7.5 inxh
Pages:
1727 (Throughout B/W Illustrations)
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Weight of the Book: 4.930 kg
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Back of The Book

Yoga: From Confusion to Clarity is a refreshing series of five volumes entitles as follows:

Vol 1. Foundation of Yoga

Vol 2. Psychology of Yoga

Vol 3. Asana

Vol 4. Sat Karma, Mudra, Pranayama and Pratyahara

Vol 5. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi

The first volume is based on the novel findings of the authors of the elements of yoga in the Vedic Samhitas as well as in the Upanishads and has developed the view that it is these elements which gradually in course of time have taken the shape of various system of Yoga such as jnana-yoga , bhakti-yoga, karma-yoga, dhyana-yoga, mantra-yoga and hatha-yoga, etc. The second volume has put forward the view of consciousness as the most fundamental reality getting concretized into matter only secondarily. The entire psychology of yoga, according to it, is based on this basic postulate opening up thus the possibility of transformation in the nature of mankind as a whole as well as in that of the individual through the discipline of yoga. The last three volumes show the way to such a transformation via various kind as of yogic practices such as asana, sat karma, Mudra, praayaama, pratyahar, dahrana, dhyana and Samadhi. All these ingredients of yoga as well as its basic postulates have been discussed here clearly and authentically having been based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.

About the Book (Vol 1)

Here is an attempt to trace the origin of Yoga back to the Veda millennia before the advent of Patanjali with his Yoga-sutra which ordinarily is mistaken to be the earliest source-book o the discipline. By tracing the origins of so important a disciplines as Yoga to that end this work not only presents a corrective of an error of so abysmal order but also brings to the fore the discipline in its pristine purity and abundance which resulted in the elevation of Angiras, Visvamitra, Vasistha, etc., to seer hood. The mystery of the Veda at such an early stage of the human history gets cracked here through the trace of yoga to that antiquity. Besides showing sure indications opt the discipline in the Vedic Samhita, it discloses the secret yogic practices of some of the most important seers of the Vedic age. If the method of prananusandhana as developed by Angiras has resulted in the way of access to pure consciousness through control of the vital, that of nadanusandhana as epitomized by the female seers Angiras has led to descent of Vedic mantas on the seers with all their exquisite wealth of wisdom, knowledge and aesthetic values. While the chapter on Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals confirms the literary evidence adduced here by archaeological verity, the Critique of Patanjali brings to the fore the seminal points of departure of him from the royal road of Yoga, raja-yoga, built up by the seers. Thus, if one wants to understand the secret of Spirituality in India along with the infallible way to it, one is sure to find this publication most refreshing and rewarding.

As the book is designed to confirm to course contents of Yoga, it will be of great use to graduates, post grag8uates, diploma, degree and research students of Yoga and the teachers alike.

About The Book (Vol 2)

While the first volume of the Foundation of Yoga deals with the historical side of the foundation, the present one concerns itself with the psychological which has been discerned in the form of consciousness. Just as matter is the basic stuff physical sciences have to deal with, consciousness serves as the basic stuff of the science of spirit known as Yoga. Any yogic practice apart from deep understanding of the nature of consciousness is, thus, doomed to end in an exercise in futility. This is what has been brought to the fore by Vedic seers and Upanisadic sages practically by diving deep into consciousness and declaring it as the source of everything in the world including matter itself. As such, what modern psychologists have declared as sub-conscious and unconscious, is only a covert form of consciousness. What has been recounted in the Veda as war between gods and demons is, thus, reducible to the seer's entry into these covert layers of consciousness and facing the odds. Search of one's identity in the pure consciousness is liberation and immortality while one's identification with the physical is bondage and mortality. The Mahdmrtyunjaya mantra epitomizes this secret at its best. All this has been brought out here closely and cogently on the evidence of the galaxy of Vedic seers and Upanisadic sages with a view to recreate the real psychological foundation of Yoga which otherwise is being tossed around today like a kite snapped off its string. As such, the volume is expected to prove an authentic passage to entry into the citadel of yoga and experience the felicity lying await within. It will be helpful in clearing the cobweb of misunderstanding about it formed in course of millennia and will benefit everyone including yoga teachers, practitioners, researchers and students who are doing graduation, post-graduation and Ph.D. in Yoga.

About The Book (Vol 3)

One, who has established control over the asanas, conquers the three worlds. Practice of asanas removes diseases and brings stability and health to the body. This volume discusses various kinds of asana, both gross and subtle with suitable pictorial illustrations, textual references and scientific notes on their effects on the body and the mind from both hygienic and yogic viewpoints. Combination of textual account with the modern physiological analysis is sure to be helpful in the understanding of the proper mode of these postures which otherwise are likely to cause damage to the body and disturbance to the mind instead of bringing succor to both of them. It also discusses preparatory asanas for beginners as well as asanas for advanced practitioners. Practice of these asanas is so described that it prepares one for inner journey. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga, and we hope that it will benefit everyone including Yoga teachers, practitioners, researchers and students who are doing diploma, graduation, post-graduation, and Ph.D.

About The Book (Vol 4)

This volume deals with what are known in yogic parlance as sat karma, mudra, pranayama, pratyahara. Sat karma is purificatory of the body. It includes what are known as neti, dhauti, vasti, nauli, etc. These devices of purification of the body on the yogic line have been discussed in hatha-yogic treatises of the medieval age and are highly useful in the redemption of the body from various kinds of diseases. So is the case with the mudras and bandhas which, however, being purificatory of the body are highly useful in leading to concentration of the mind. While pranayama in the course of yogic sadhana is self-evident as prana and consciousness are closely interrelated. Various kinds of pranayama have been deliberated upon in the volume apart from several others that have remained generally unknown so far. It also discusses precaution and safety during the practice of pranayama. Pratyahara is that method in which the sense organs follow the sense-mind on the image held within so that they can get sensations from within thereby leading to the dissolution of the sensations of sense-organs in the sense-mind and finally it gets dissolved in the consciousness or the Self. All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga and will be of great use to graduates, post graduates, diploma, research students and teachers of Yoga and the practitioners alike.

About The Book (Vol 5)

This volume discusses the three next steps of Yoga known as dharana, dhyana and samadhi. They represent the crux of the. process of yogic sadhana. In view of the extreme subtlety of these steps, this volume successful coverage of these steps through relevant texts dealing with this part of the sadhana. With this end in view, selections have been made from such yogic texts bearing as the Upanisads, Bhagavadgita, Vijnabhairava, Malinivijayottaratantra, etc. which have been adduced here along with their English translation and necessary notes wherever required for clarification.

It also includes and discusses the Epistemology of Yoga as well as a digest of the entire process and method of the sadhana put together succinctly and in a graded manner under A Tractatus of Yoga. The formulations made here are for summarising the entire range of the sadhana in as brief a form as possible. These formulations have been made somewhat on the pattern of the classical authors of the sutra-from of literature dealing with subjects of utmost technical bearing requiring close attention of the reader. A significant difference in the process of formulation of the tractatus here from that of the ancient Sanskrit authors of the sutras lies in the fact that while surra preceded their expositions made sometimes by the sutrakaras themselves and mostly by other exponents of them quite subsequently, here the formulations only follow the detailed exposition meant particularly to serve as a digest of the entire stuff along with all the difficulties involved in its coverage, understanding and practical application. All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.

All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga and we hope that it will be of great use to graduates, post graduates, diploma, research students, teachers of Yoga and general practitioners alike.

About the Author

Professor Satya Prakash Singh is a renowned Vedic and Yogic Scholar as well as practicing Yogi. He is a Ph. D. of the Banaras Hindu University and D. litt. Of the Alilgarh Muslim University. A former Chairman of eh Department of Sanskrit and Dean, Faculty of Arts, Aliigarh Muslim University, he is presently working as an Editorial Fellow in the Centre for Studies in Civilisations, New Delhi. He has also been Director of Dharam Hindu International Centre of Indic Research Centre Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratisthan under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India in New Delhi. He is the recipient of a number of prestigious awards including Ganganath Jha Award of the Uttar Pradesh Sanskrit Academy, Rajaji Literary Award of Bharatiya Visdya Bhavan , Bombay, Banabhatta Puraskara of Sanskrit Academy, Uttar Pradesh, besides President of India’s Award of Scholar of Eminence. His publications’ include: 1. Sri Aurobindo and Whitehead d on the Nature of God 2. Sri Aurobindo, Jung and Vedic Yoga 3. Upanisadic Symbolism. 4. Vedic Symbolism 5. Life and Vision of Vedic Seers Vol. I visvamtira, vol. II. Dirghatamas 6. Vedic Vision of Consciousness and Reality 7. History of Yoga.

Yogi Mukesh is and accomplished yogin besides being deeply grounded in the study of yogic literature of a variety of shades including Vedic, Tantric, Saiva, Vaisnava and Buddhist. He has been initiated in yoga practically by a reputed yogin while living in his company for quite some time in a sacred cave in western Uttar Pradesh. He is an extensively travelled scholar and sadhaka both externally and internally having devoted considerable time of his life in several countries of the world as well as in the yogin’s cave.

Foreword

I feel honored to write a foreword to the present publication on yoga which, to be sure, is the most scholarly work on yoga published so far. Its novelty as well as profundity lies in tracing other root of yoga right in the Vedas which hardly any other scholar so far has dared to go to inches search for the root. Of any other scholar has to refer to any Vedic mantra in this regard that has been done only with reference to such mantras which have happened to be quoted in the Upanishads. It goes to the credit of such a profound scholar of Veda as Professor Satya Prakash Singh to have adduced so much insight from the foremost scriptural creation of mankind in regard to the beginning of this pre-eminently intuition-based discipline as yoga. Tracing the root of yoga in the Vedas has automatically resolved a number of points of confusion in regard to the nature of the discipline, such as the involvement of dualistic or non-dualistic metaphysics in its fabric. So is the case with the authors’ basing their treatment of yoga on the ontological primacy of consciousness which in spite of having been presumed b each and every practitioner of yoga, has seldom been put forward so consistently and convincingly by any other author on yoga world over so far.

The volumes as asana, sat karma, pratyaharam Dhahran, dhyana and Samadhi too are refreshing and highly instructive. The pictorial representations in these as well as in earlier both the volumes are marvelous. They are highly suggestive of the content they have been designed to represent. The coordination between the textual and the expository matter is perfect. Each statements supported by relevant textual evidence. While ht first two volumes of the series are highly illuminative to the frontline scholar of the discipline, the remaining three are as much instructive to students of yoga at large. I am, therefore of the considered view that this series of volumes on yoga must necessarily be acquired by each and every educational institution and library in the country and closely be gone through by each and every scholar as well as student of yoga whosever.

Preface

We are glad to present herewith in the form of this series the fruits of our association of more than a decade since we happened to work together at the Dharma Hindu a International Centre of Indic Research during the nineties of the last century .It is since those days that we got all the more deeply interested in the essentials of yoga as embedded in the Vedic Samhitas which otherwise were taken by scholars to concern mainly with nature- worship particularly under the persuasion of the Aryan Invasion theory. The myth at the theory began to get exploded as we progressed ahead with our findings of the beginnings of various forms of yoga in those earliest texts of mankind as came to be elaborated upon in later works on the discipline such as the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Mahabharata, the Yoga Sutra, the later Upanishads, the Tantric texts and works on Hatha-yoga. Sri Aurrobindo, the sage of Pondicherry with his refreshing interpretation of the Veda of the side and deep understanding of the subsequent literature on the other proved a great source of inspiration of the Veda on the one side and deep understanding of the subsequent literature on the other proved a great source of inspiration to us. This work has taken fifteen years of our time to complete it. Prof. Kireet Joshi’s company with us all through this period served as a remarkable stimulant to us in giving the present shape to our understanding of the origin and development of the discipline of yoga as we have presented it here. In fact, the major part of the second volume of this series was worked out under a project entitled Consciousness in the Veda granted to one of us under the auspices of Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratisthan , Ujjan, during the Chairmanship of Professor Kireet Joshi himself. We, therefore, express our obligation and thus providing us the facility to carry out the work to this end.

We are thankful to Shri Kulvir Singh, born and raised in New Delhi. He was one of the youngest, Creative Art Directors in India and is at present living in Toronto, Canada for the last seven years. Currently he is working with an international media publishing company as Creative Art Director for internationally published B2B magazines. He has assisted us by designing the covers of the volumes with a unique perspective and concept by this design the rise of yoga globally. The abstract illustrative art with warm colour palette gives the design a very Eastern and earthy feel and look. We cannot forget the help rendered to us by Mrs. Nisha Saxena, NTPC, who took upon herself the task of typing the manuscript correctly and elegantly and also for providing the print outs. In the same way we are grateful to Shri Anurag Chopra, Advocate, Supreme Court, New Delhi for his constant inspiration, support and encouragement.

Our heartfelt gratitude goes to Shri Mohindra Vashistha, the publisher of these volumes, for his constant support an initiative in getting them published.

Also we would like to thank Dr. Premlat, Judge, Consumer court, Delhi, Shri Radhey Shyam Sharma, PGT, KEndriya Vidyalaya, Rajokari, New Delhi and Shri Pankaj Rastogi of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.

The graphics used in the book are not of our own creation. They have been drawn from dicers sources to bear out some sort of semblance to the central ideas discussed here. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all those agencies responsible for the creation, production or reproduction as the case may be, of these graphics.

Introduction

Yoga is the greatest gift of Indian to mankind. It is a gift of the same magnitude from the Indian side as science is from the Western with this difference, however, that while the fruits of science began to be relished by people a large right from the very beginning, Yoga continued to remain confined only to the selected few for aeons. Even while remaining so, it has produced effects quite splendid as a device of bringing to the fore man’s latent potentialities, as is evident from the creativity of the Vedic seers, Upanisadic sages, poets like valmiki and vyasa, sages like Kapila, Adinatha, Mahavira, Buddha, Sankara and Abhinavagupta, philosopherse like Kanada and Gautama, grammarians like Panini and Patanjali besides an endless list of thinkers and innovators emerging from the Indian soil in the hoary past and remaining unparalleled, to a great extent, even until now. As is evident from their biographies in whatsoever scanty from, all these seers, sages, saints, thinkers and innovators of different disciplines of knowledge were basically yogis’ having been involved in the practice of yoga as the source of their exceptional knowledge and wisdom which have kept India sustained since untold ages until now, all vicissitude of history notwithstanding. It is, therefore, imperative now to bring that technique of knowledge, wisdom and transformation of life out of its haunt of secrecy so that the humanity, as a whole, may taste the fruit of it without any inhibition and discrimination.

In order to get this objective materialized, what is necessary is to go to the very root of this discipline both historically and psychologically. So far as the historical perspective is concerned, the necessity of going into it has arisen out of the misconception of delimiting the root of Yoga generally midway to Patanjali, the author of Yoga-sutra. Indeed, it is due to this misconception that Yoga has come to be mistaken as something secret, unsocial an otherworldly and hence not lonely difficult to take yup but also counterproductive in many respects. It is due to the prevalence of this view of Yoga that such a scripture as the Bhagavad-Gita has been mistaken as denunciatory in spite of its most eloquent advocacy in favor of karma yoga. Another by- product of this mistaken view of Yoga particularly in the modern times is the delimitation of it to only a certain kind of physical and vital exercises in the form of asansas and pranayama as popularly taught by some enthusiasts of the discipline in the name of Yoga as such today. The special feature of the present attempt is to explore the history of Yoga right from the Vedic or even the pre-Vedic era and reconstruct it from the material scatted throughout the Vedas as a system of Yoga by virtue of which pre-Vedic and Vedic people became seers of Vedic mantras as the treasure-chest of the profoundest kind of wisdom and knowledge even at that epoch of human history and thus laid the foundation of the Indian culture so broad an humane in outlook and so lasting in character. In fact, it is the tapas and sadhana of the Vedic seers which has got crystallized in the form of the discipline of Yoga in all its dimensions, phases and varieties coming to be designated in course of time as bhakti-yga, jnana-yoga,karma-yoga, hatha-yoga, etc. It is for the first time here so far that the prmecal seers like Atharvan, Angiras, Ayasya, Agastya, Dadhyan, Dirghatamas, Visvamitra, VAmadeva, Vasisthat, Patanga, Ambhrni et al have been induced to speak for themselves through their mantric mouths as to how through the yogic process they happened to envision mantras of such profound bearing like the well-known Gayatri, mahamrtyunjaya etc., which have been serving as the last resort of millions of people for millennia in their venture into the unknown as well as known, howsoever impregnable otherwise.

On the other hand, so far as the psychological perspective of the discipline is concerned, instead of searching for its motivation in the desire for alleviation of any kind of suffering or affliction in this world or in the wish for the enjoyment of the plenitude of the world beyond, here it has been found to lie in man’s eternal quest for exploring into the mystery of consciousness has been determined here as the explorer as well as the field of exploration, as the object as well as the subject. In the commonsense experience, the object is object and subject, as both are conceived as categorically different form each other. The interaction between the two is considered as just a matter of fact without needing any explanation concerning the mystique behind it. Philosophical attempts to solve the problem has resulted in the East in the form of the admittance of Prakriti and Purusa as two absolutely independent realities while in the West it has led to the Cartesian dichotomy between Mind and Matter. Both these positions stop short of resolving the problem of explaining the why of the integration between so polar entities as the subject and the object. In view of this kind of shortfall of these explanations, science made an effort to resolve the problem by setting before itself Matter alone as the reality projecting itself primarily as the object and giving isle to the subject as its by product. This viewpoint served well in concentrating exclusively on Matter and developing the physical sciences, which have served mankind well to a certain extent but, at the same time, have led inadvertently to extreme erosion in moral values today in the society. A society scorn of such values cannot afford to sustain itself very long. Moreover, in spite of adding immensely to the means of comfort to the human life, the physical science, with this basic standpoint of it, has robbed him of what really he is, that is, his self, in research of which he is panting like a fish put out of water. When Self as the crux of the personality is lost, what remains there to enjoy the plenitude of life! This dilemma in the human life created by the physical science, however, finds a gleam of light emerging from science itself in the form of its proposition that even in the strictly scientific observation there is a possibility of the subject playing a definite role in molding the shape of the object to a great extent. This finding under quantum mechanics in course of experiments of the ultimate shape of matter as particle and wave both as per the peresupposition of the observer, is sufficient to open our eye to the pre-eminence of consciousness in the spectrum of the reality.

This gleam of light as emerging faintly from modern science happened to have been envisioned by Vedic seers in its full abundance as the light of lights known as Atman and was found out in course of meditation on it as both the beginning and the end of creation in its entirety. As the Taittiriya Upanisad has put it, it is out of the atman that has emerged akasa, the space-time continuum resulting eventually in the creation of matter in all forms, that is, gaseous, illiquid and solid via interaction between space and time as the warp and woof of creation. The realization of this order of immensity of consciousness, the Upanishad contends, is productive of the quantum of delight equivalent to hundred times that of a sovereign king.

This work is intended to show the way to the entry into that infinitude of consciousness, which, at the same time, is the infinitude of bliss, called in the Upanisad as bhuman. In this reject, it distinguishes itself from those works which are based on the Yoga-stra of Patanjali and aim at just redemption from the hold of Prakrti, Nature, and hence approve of living in isolation of it. It is for the first time that here in this work Yoga has been brought to the notice of the reader in all its comprehensiveness based as it is on the primacy an immensity of consciousness on the one hand and concordance of the results of tapas and sadhana of Vedic seers themselves on the other.

How that glorious tradition comprising various methods of meditation leading to self-realization has been kept intact to a great extent, is evident from discussions on Saivism, etc. These discussions and deliberations may prove sufficient to show to what extent the basic stream of sadhana has remained intact and to what extent it has given way to sectarian divisions. The chapter on the Indus Seals is included here to bear out not only the verity of the Vedic Yoga on the tangible archaeological grounds but also to show how Vedic mantaras, looking apparently to concern sheer nature-worship, have, indeed, been used as the medium of communication of yogic ideas if deep significance. It is also explosive of the myth of Aryan Invasion created by the vested interest to distort the image of the Indian history, demoralize the Indian mind and denigrate the Vedic ethos. The chapter on Aesthetics and yoga, on the other hand, is illustrative of the extent to which Yoga is practicable in life while deliberations on consciousness are meant for indicating to the sound basis of the Yoga taken resort to by Vedic seers. These discussion, I f perused minutely, would show how much the psychology of today which has distance itself from its real centre in accepting, on the analogy of science, Matter as its basis.

In view of these possibilities, this series of volumes on Yoga is expected to prove instrumental in the restoration of peace, joy and real values of life to the humanity which it has lost, to a great extent, under the enchantment of the facilities of life brought to its doorstep by science. At the same time, it is also hoped to prove corrective of the aberrations of the religious dogmas overburdening the human mind and creating fissures in the solidarity of the society.

The first volume of the work deals with the life and visions of the seers who were instrumental in giving a shape to this discipline through the austerities and tapas of their lives. Some of such seers are Angiras, Atharvan, Bhrgu, Visvamitra, Grtsamada, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadvaja, Vasistha, Kanva, Agasstua, Lopamudra and Vagambhrni. The mantras seen by them and collected in the Vedic Samhitas from within the details apparently looking to relate to nature- worship, when pursued closely, reveal their precise relevance to Yoga in its various aspects to be classified subsequently as bhakti-yoga, jnana-yoga , karma-yoga, mantra-yoga, and even hatha-yoga.

The chapter on Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals bears out the close correspondence between the contents of a Rgvedic hymn and those of the Pasupati seal excavated from Mohenjo-daro and found to belong to the beginning of the third millennium B.C. The striking correspondence between these two sources, that is, the literary and the archaeological, as discovered by us, shows how Yoga was in practice even during that period of antiqutiyaboout five thousand years ago. Sitting of the Pasupati in such a difficult yogic posture as bhjadrasana in the minds of such ferocious animals as tiger, elephant, rhinoceros as well as buffalo and deer and yet having maintained perfect equipoise is a tangible evidence of attainment of high degree of proficiency in Yoga even at that time. The equivalence of the five animals surrounding Him with the five organs of sense, as mentioned by the Brahmanic texts of almost the same era, shows the cognizance of the difficulty lying in the control of those senses on the part of the authors of the idea who might have been responsible for getting the whole scenario engraved on the seal.

Inclusion of the chapter on Patanjali in this volume is meant for pointing to the limitations of his verity of Yoga as a partial deviation from the main strand as coming down from the Vedic source. Kapila who is credited to have given rise to the concepts of Prakrti and Pursa and thus to the Sankhya sustem of Indian philosophy, is really a Vedic seer and son of Angiras an d as such has considered prakarti as neither completely blind nor as absolutely independent of the Purusa but as extraordinarily sighted and daughter of Indra in the Rgvedic hym attributing the son ship of him to Angiras, as against the assumption of the later for of the system as propounded by the Sankhya karika by creating complete dichotomy between these two fundamental constituents of the later form of the system as propounded by the sankhya karika by creating complete dichotomy between these two fundamental constituents of the reality.This dichotomy in the midst of these tow constituents, having been admitted by Patanjali as his fundamental postulate, has obliged him to conceive of absolute loneliness, kaivalya, as the ultimate goal of Yoga which fall very much short of the state of final beatitude and bliss as aspired for by the Vedic seers. This deviation from the main stream made by Patanjali, though useful as a short-cut arrangement, has left the main stream made by Patanjali, though useful as a short-cut arrangement, has left the main Vedic stream of Yoga much less forceful like the canalization of the Ganga of Bhagiratha at Haridwar.

After pointing to this aberration in the Yoga in this first volume, the second one seeks to redress the same through the display of the opulence of the stream in its pristine purity. It has to do with a psychology not confined to the senses and the sense mind, as is the prevalent trend in the modern psychology but with one which has to go much deeper into these layers of the psyche which underlie and regulate the outer from within. It includes in its purview what in modern psychology is known as the area of Depth Psychology and concerns itself with the study of what it calls at unconscious part of the human psyche. That also however, is only a stepping stone to the crux of its real object of study and practice. It has further two steps to take involving the state of dreamless sleep and much beyond the same in the form of the fourth supernal state of consciousness only marginally reflected in the psychology of C.G. Jung in the form of what he calls archetype of the Self and has accorded it the position of the crown of his achievement in his psychological explorations supposed to be potent enough to solve all problems of psychic aberrations. This he could achieve through his practice of Yoga itself, as he claims, combined with data collected from his treatment of pathological cases. What is just a shadow of the fourth supernal state of consciousness in the Depth Psychic of the modern area, is the real objective of Yoga in all its substantiality along with its potentiality to explain not only the mental and vital but also the physical as a manifestation of that supernal state of consciousness not merely epistemic ally but also ontologically. Thus the discipline of Yoga shows the path to the control of the Physical through the application of the latent potentialities of the fourth state of consciousness. Its immediate benefit at least is the improvement on health preparing the way to improvement over the quality of life as a whole.

Contents

Volumes I
ii
Table of Transliterationii
Forewordix
Prefacexi
Introductionxiii
1Glimpses of Yoga in the Vedic Samhitas1
IYoke As a Symbol of Yoga In The Vedic Samhitas3
IIHrda-Manisa As A Direct Indicator Of Serious Yogic Sadhana6
IIIEvidence of the Aitareya Upanisad7
IVSqueezing of Soma As Symbolic Of Yogic Sadhana8
VTapas And Yoga10
2Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals15
IProblem of Relationship Between The Vedic And Indus Civilization17
IIYogic Motifs concerning Asanas17
IIIThe Motif Of The Yogin In Sanbhavi Mudra18
IVYogic Message Of The Pasupati Seal19
VResemblance Between The Pasupati Seal And The Content Of Vedic Mantras20
VICorroboration By The Ayurvedic Evidence25
3Yogic Sadhana of Vedic Seers29
Visvamitra31
Vamadeva41
Bharadvaja55
Vasistha71
Dirghatamas81
Agastya and the Sadhana of Reconciliation between the vital and the spiritual93
Vatsa kanva101
Narayana and the Possibility of Transformation of the Human into the Divine115
Hiranugarbha125
Vagambhrni135
Patanga145
Aghamarsana155
4Yoga as the Cradle of the Vedic system of Education168
IBearing of Yajna in the Development of Yoga169
IIUpanisadic Vidyas As a Link Between Education And Yoga173
IIIIntegrative Role of Yoga In Education177
5Consciousness and Yogic Sadhana in Saivism181
IVedic Origin Of Saivism183
IISiva As the Auspicious Aspect of Rudra184
IIIDiscovery of Siva By Upanisadic Sage Through Meditation185
IVEquivalence Of Macrocosm And Microcosm As The Basis Of Yogic Sadhana In Saivism187
VNadis And Cakras IN Saivsm As a Vedic Heritage189
6A Critique of Patanjali194
IAdverse Effect Of The Sankhya Metaphysics195
IIConsequence of Departure From Kapila's Fundamental Standpoint198
IIIBrahmi-sthiti Versus Kaivalya202
IVDisruption Of The Integrality Of The Transcendental Experience Through Differentiation IN the States Of Samadhi207
VConfusion Of Kriya-Yoga And Raja-Yoga209
VILeaning To The Buddhist Ethos211
VIISankar's Criticism Of Patanjali216
7Vedic Vision of Bondage and Liberation219
Index229
Volume II
Table of transliterationii
Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Introductionxv
1Consciousness, States and Grades1
IConsciousness As The Essence of The Universe3
IIConsciousness And Self-Consciousness4
IIIConcentricity And Expansiveness of Consciousness5
IVLuminosity of Consciousness6
VCreativity of Consciousness9
VIConsciousness And Physical Energy10
VIITra And Consciousness12
VIIICause of Gradation In Consciousness14
IXConsciousness And The Unman fest of The Sankhyas22
XConsciousness And The purusa22
XIStates Of Consciousness24
XIIThe Fourth State of Consciousness And Its Luminousness26
XIIIPurpose Behind the Dynamics of Consciousness27
2Consciousness as a Metaphysical Force29
IVision of Dirghatamas and The Gayatri31
IINature of Consciousness As Reflected In Ambhrni's Hymn32
IIIBharadvaja's Vision Of Consciousness35
3Existential Value of Consciousness41
ITruth And Existence43
IICoherence To The Real44
IIITruth As An Imperative Of The Real46
IVTruth And Knowledge of the Reality48
VRelationship Between Truth and Untruth49
VIConsciousness And The Space Time Continuum51
VIISelf Consciousness52
VIIIQuantum Mechanics And The Nature of Consciousness54
IXExpansiveness And Concentricity of Consciousness54
XDynamism of Consciousness55
XIConsciousness And Its Projectivity56
XIIConsciousness As the Basic Stuff of Creation57
4Concentricity And Universal Creativity of Consciousness59
IImplications of The Vaisvanara Vidya61
IIConcentric Movement of Consciousness As An Elucidated In The Gargya- Ajatasatry Dialogue70
IIIMessage of The Dahara Vidya73
IVImplications of The Instruction To Svetaketu75
VConcurrence of The Brhadaranyaka upanisad77
VIConfirmation from The Aitareya Upanisad82
5Consciousness of The Unconscious91
IContrariety of Terminology93
IIPenetrability of Anrta By Rta94
IIIDaksa of The Divine As An Aid To The Penetration95
IVSense of Guilt And Its Remedy96
VDaiva Manas As An Antidote To The Problems of The Unconscious99
6Ordeals of the Unconscious in the Quest for Consciousness107
ISeer's Encounter With the Unconscious109
IISemblance of The Unconscious To Darkness And Water111
IIISleep of Vrtra And The Unconscious115
IvVrtra As Tama Of The Sankhyas116
VVrtra And The Black Hole118
VIIntervention of The Sacramental In The Indra-Vrtra Conflict120
VIIVrtra And Panis122
VIIIOrdeals Of Bhujyu123
IXRebha's Encounter With The Unconscious125
7Contribution of Angiras, Ayasya, Bhrgy and Dadhyan to the Discovery of the way to Consciousness127
IConsciousness As The foundation Of Indian Culture129
IIAngiras And His Role in the Discovery Of The Way130
IIIDiscovery of The Mukhya Prana132
IVBVAk And The Mukhya Prana135
VAyasya's Discovery of The Fourth state of Consciousness136
VIMukhya Prana And The Libido138
VIIBhrgu Varuni's Relation of Matter As the Ultimate Reality138
VIIIVital Force As The Ultimate Reality140
IXMind As The Ultimate Reality141
XConsciousness As The Ultimate Reality142
XIBhrgu's Contribution To The Analysis of The Layers of the Human Psyche And Personality145
XIIDadhyan's Discovery of The suprarenal State of Harmony146
XIIIDadhyan As Seer of The Upanisad148
XIVAllegorical Significance of His Story149
XVSingularity of Dadhyan;s Vision of The Reality152
XVIPractical Implications of Dadhyans Vision154
XVIISeers’ Venture from In conscience to the suprarenal Consciousness156
8Consciousness and Immortality159
IImmortality Through progeny161
IIImmortality Through Noble Deeds162
IIISavitr and Immortality163
IVRbhus'Bowl As A Symbol and Vision of The reality as the way to immortality165
VDevotion, Equipoise, Service And Vision of The Reality As The Way To Immortality167
VITeaching of Ghora angirasa169
VIIRole of Angiras in the discovery of the way to Immortality170
VIIIRole of other Accomplishments of The Rbhus in their immortalization173
IXSupramundane status of consciousness as the basis of immortality177
XAgni-vidya and the secret of immortality179
XIImmortality through soma182
XIIHigher knowledge as The way to immortality185
XIIIImmortality and liberation186
XIVProblem of physical transformations189
9Yoga and Vak191
IConcept of vak in the veda193
IIAnalysis of the Frog Hymn in relationship to vak197
IIICow and vak201
IVAditi as vak207
VUltimate Reality as the Source of vak208
vISarsvatias vak215
VIISarasvati as the illuminator of Delight and Rasa218
VIIIConcept of Vak in The Brahmanas227
IXVak in Saivism And Tantra235
10Aesthetics and Yoga243
IInadequacy of the Path of Restraint245
IISoma As the symbol of Aesthetic rapture247
IIIRelationship Between Aesthetic Joy And Spiritual Bliss249
IVBhakti Rasa as the Connecting Link Between Aesthetic Joy And Delight of Yogic Experience254
VAesthetic Joy As The Foretaste of The Delight of Yogic Experience262
11Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra as a Way to Immortality269
IMeaning of Tryambaka271
IIParallelism Between Tryambaka an savitr274
IIISignificance of the Simile of Melon275
IVTryambaka And The Fourth State of Consciousness276
VSiva And Mahadeve277
VIDeath And Redemption279
VIIUse of the Maha Mrityunjaya as Assurance to a Life of Hundred Years282
VIIIVayu, Prana and Immortality283
IxSecret of The Ten Rudras284
Index287
Volume III
Table of Transliterationii
Forewordxiii
Prefacexv
Introductionxvii
Part-I Asanas For Beginners
A. Jivana Tattva Sadhana
1Introduction5
2Sarvottana (Stretching the Entire Body)6
3Skandha Calana (Shoulder Rotation)9
4Paga Calana (Feet Movement)13
5Nabhi Calana (Rolling of The Navel)15
6Janu Prasara (Expansion of Thighs)17
7Nadi Calana (Exercise for the Nerves)19
8Bala Macalana (Child's Playful Pose)22
B. Yogic Suksma Vyayama27
Introduction29
I.Pharynx, Intellect, Memory Hearing Power And Neck Exercises
9Uccarana-Sthala Tatha Visuddha-Cakra Suddhi (Pharynx Purification)31
10Prarthana (Prayer Pose)33
11Buddhi Tatha Dhrti Sakti Vikasaka (Development of Intellect and Willpower)35
12Smarana Sakti Vikasaka (Improving Memory)37
13Medha Sakti Vikasaka (Development of Intellect Power)39
14Netra Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Eyes)41
15Kapola Vardhaka (Rejuvenation and Toning of Cheeks)44
16Karna Sakti Vikasaka (Improving The Power Of Hearing)46
17Griva Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening of Neck)48
IIShoulders, Arms And Wrists Exercises
18Anguli-Mula Vikasaka (Toning of Finger Joints)53
19Anguli Vikasaka (Toning of Fingers)56
20Mani-Bandha Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of The Back of the Palms)58
21Kara-Prstha Sakti Vikasaka (Toining of Wrists)61
22Kara- Tala Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Palms)64
23Bhuja-Bandha Vikasak (Toning of Forearms)66
24Bhuha-Valli Vikasaka (Toning of Arms)68
25Purna-Bhuja Sakti vikaska (Strengthening and Toning of Arms)70
26Kapohni Vikasaka (Toning of Elbows)72
27Skandh Tatha Bahu Mula Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening of Shoulder and Joints)75
IIIStrengthening of Chest, Back And Abdomen Muscles
28Vaksa-Sthala Sakti Vikassaka (Toning of Chest)79
29Kati Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening and Toning of The Back)82
30Udara Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening of Abdominal Muscles)90
IVStrengthening of Things, Knees. Legs. Ankles And Toes
32Jangha Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Thighs)105
33Gulha-Pada-Prstha-Tala Sakti Vikasaka (Toning of Ankles and Feet)107
34Janu Sakti Vikasak (Toning of Knees)109
35Padanguli Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening and Toning of Toes)111
36Pindalli Sakti Vikasaka (Strenghtening and Toning of Calves)113
37Pada Mula Sakti Vikasaka (Strengthening and Toning of th Soles)115
38Upastha Tatha Svadhisthana Cakra Suddhi (Toning of Genital Organs)117
39Muladhara Cakra Suddhi (Toning of Rectum)119
Part II: Asanas For Advanced Practitioners
ISitting Postures
40Dandasana (Staff Pose)133
41Siddhasana (Adept's Pose)137
42Padmasana (Lotus Pose)147
43Vajrasana (Adamantine or Thunderbolt Pose)154
44Bhadrasana (Decent or Gracious Pose)158
45Virasana (Hero Pose)167
46Svastikasana (Auspicious Pose)171
47Sukhasana (Comfortable or Easy Pose)174
48Kasana (Crow's Pose)178
49Gomukhasana (Cow's Face Pose)180
50Kokilasana (Cuckoo Pose)185
51Simhasana (Roaring Lion Pose)187
52Baddha Padmasana196
53Brahmacaryasana (Ccellibate Pose)201
54Goraksasana (Yogi Gorakhanatha's Pose)203
55Kukkutasana (Rooster Pose)207
56Kurmasana (Tortoise Pose)211
57Mandukasana (Frog Pose)217
58Matsyendrasana (Spinal Twist Pose)221
59Parvatasan (Mountain Pose)231
60Sasankasana (Hare Pose)238
61Utthitasana (Uplilfted Lotus Pose)240
62Udarakarsannasana (Abdominal Massage Pose or Belly Suction Pose)243
63Ustrasana (Camel Pose)246
64Utkatasana (Chari Pose)252
65Yogasana (Yoga Pose)256
66Balasana (Child's Pose)262
67Eka Padamgusthasana (One Foot-Toe Balance Pose)265
68Krauncanusadana (Crane or Heron's Pose)268
69Pascimottansana (Sated Forward Bend Pose)272
70uttanakurmasana (Lifted Tortoise Pose)282
71Vrsasana (Bull Pose)286
72Tribandhasana (Triple Lock Pose)289
73Bhunamanasana292
74Janu-Bhumi Sthirasana (Knee Support Pose)295
75Marjari asana(Cat Stretch Pose)299
75Lolasana (Pendant Pose)302
76Akarna Dhanurasana (Stretched Bow Pose)305
Postures311
IISupine Posture
77Supta Vajrasana (Sleeping Adamantine or Thunderbolt Pose)329
78Matsyasana (Fish Pose)335
79Paryankasana (Couch or Bed Pose()343
80Pavanmuktasana347
81Halasana (Plough Pose)351
82Cakrasana (Wheel Pose)359
83Setu Asana (Bridge Pose)363
84Supta Padangustha-Nasa Sparsasana (Supine Toe and Nose Pose)366
85Tolangulasana (Weighing Scale Pose)369
86Uttanamandukasana (Raised Scale Pose)375
87Uttanapadasana (Raised Leg Pose)383
88Savasana (cropse Pose)386
89Supta Udarakarsana (Supine Abdominal Massage Pose)392
Postures395
IIIProne Posture
90Dhanurasana (Bow Pose)403
91Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose)411
92Salaghasana (Locust Pose)414
93Naukasana (Boat or Yacht Pose)431
94Mayurasana (Peacock Pose)438
95Makarasana (Corcodle Pose)444
96Matsya kridasana (Flapping Fish Pose)451
Postures454
IVStandng Postures
97Urdhva Hastotanasanas (UP stretche Hand Pose)461
98Asvatthasana (Holy Fig Tree Pose)464
99Garudasana (Eagle Pose)466
100Hasta-Padangusthasana (Hand Toe Pose)469
101Kati Cakrasana (Waist Movement Pose)472
102Natarajasana (Dancing Siva Pose)475
103Padahastasana (Hand to Foot Pose)477
104Sankatasana (Contracted or Difficult Pose)481
105Konasana (Angle Pose)484
106 Tadasabna (Palm Tree Pose) 487
107Vatayanasan (Horse Pose)490
108Vrksasana (Tree Pose)492
Postures495
VInverted Postures
109Sarvamgasana503
110Sirsa-urdhava-padasana or Sirsasana (Head Stand)509
515Postures515
Index517
Volume IV
Table of Transliterationii
Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Introductionxv
ISatkarma
1Dhauti kriyas3
2Vastr Dhauti6
3Danda Dhauti13
4Baghi17
5Agnisara20
6Mula Sodhana25
7Gajakarani28
8Neto lroua34
9Trataka47
10Kapalabhati52
11Nauli59
12Sankhapraksalana66
13Vasti77
14Cakri karma84
IIMudra
Importance of Mudras87
Bandhas
1Jalandhara Bandha93
2Uddiyana Bandha97
3Mula Bandha102
Adhara Mudras
1Asvini Mudra107
Mudras With Combination of Bandhas
1Maha Mudra111
2Maha Babdga117
3Maha Vedha122
Postural Mudras
1Tadagi Mudra131
2Matangini Mudra137
3Pasini Mudra139
4Yoga Mudra145
5Viparitakarani148
6Kaki Mudra154
7Bhujangini Mudra158
Meditation Mudras
1Sambhave Mudra163
2Khecari Mudra167
3Nabho Mudra172
4Sanmukhi Mudra175
5Panca Tattva Dharan Mudras182
6Satkticalani mudra186
7Manduuki Mudra190
IIIPranayama
Prana And Consciousness193
1Indran's Proposition of Prana as Consciousness193
2Relationship Between Air And Prana194
3Air as the Cosmic Energy195
4Primacy of pranayama198
5Convertibility of Prana into Consciousness201
6Development of Self from within the Viral202
7Transformation of the Physical into the Vieal and Mental204
8Germ of the Instincts of Self-Protection and Procreation206
9Sygyzy of Life -Force and Consciousness209
10Consciousness and the Instinct for Possession212
Pranayama215
1Importance of Pranayama215
2Suitable Place for Practice216
3Who should Start the Practice e of Pranayama218
4Best Seasons for Starting the Practice of Pranayama218
5Diet during the Practice of Pranayama219
6Prohibited Food and Acts during the Practice221
7Method of Pranayama223
8Time of Practice and Duration226
9Attitude during Practice226
10Safety in the Practice of Pranayam226
11Obstacles in the Path of Yoga229
12Benefits Aim of Sahita Kumbhaka230
13Final Aim of Sahita Kumbhaka233
Pranayama For Beginners
1Sukhapurvaka (Rhythmic/Yogic Breathing)237
2Anuolma-Violma (Alternate Nostril Breathing )241
3Nadi Sodhana245
Pranayama For Advanced Practitioners
1Surya-Bheda Jumbhaka (Piercing of the Pingala Nadi)257
2Ujjayi (Snoring Breath265
3Bhastrika (Bellows Breathing)272
4Bhramari (Beetle Droning)280
5Sitali (Cooling Breath)287
6Sitakari (Hissing Breath)294
7Murccha (Swooming Breath)299
8Plavini303
9Candra-Breath (Piercing of the Ida Nadi)305
Unclassified Pranyamas From The Upanisdas311
KUmbhaka Paddhati Of Raghuvira317
Pratyahara323
Index333
Volume-5
Table of Transliterationii
List of Abbreviationvi
Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Introductionxv
1Dharana
IPatanjali Definition of Dharana3
IIDharana as Suggested by Seer Dadhyan Atharvana3
IIIDharana as Suggested by Seer Visvamitra4
IVDharana of Seer Kavasa Ailusa5
VDharana of Seer Narayana6
VISeer Prajapati Paramesthin's Dharana on the Being in the Negativity of the Entire Creation7
VIISeer Hiranyagarbha's Dharaba on the Golden Egg Lying in Trabcendence of Time and Space8
VIIISeer Dilrghatamas' Dharana on the Absolute Formed Through Contemplation
on the Six Planes of the Universe8
IXSeer Dadhyan Atharvana's Dharana on Universal Friendship9
XSeer Dirghatamas' Dharana on Visnu10
XISeer Kutsa Angirasa's Dharana onSurya as Self10
XIISeer Gotama Rahugana's Dharana on Aditi as All in All11
XIIISeer Gaya Plata's Dharana on the Cosmos as a Divine Boat Sailing Towards the Final State of Emancipation11
XIVSeer Vasistha's Dharana on Varuna's House of Redemption from the Drudgery of the earthly Life12
XVSeer Vamadeva's Dharana on Rta: The Principle of Universal Dynamics12
XVIA Yajurvedoc Seer's Dharana on the Supreme Being as “That" in Abstractions as the Source of All14
XVIIDharana on Rudra as the Supreme Being15
2Dhyana And Samadhi
IImperative for Dhyana Imparted by Seer Visvamitra20
IIDhyana, Kindalilni and Samadhi23
IIISoma as Symbolic of the Beatific Experience of Samadhi26
IVSeer Vamadeva's Realization of Himself as Indra: The Divine Supreme28
VSeer Mabhamcedistha's Experience of Access to the Centre of His Being and Revelation of the Structure of the Reality30
VISeer Visvamitra's Experience of the Oneness of His self with Agni33
VIIA Yajurvedoic Seer's way to Samadhi Through Assimilation of All to Oneself37
VIIISeer Bharadvaa's Ecstatic Experience of the Inner Light Unfolding Itself as the Supreme Being38
IXSeer Narayana's Yoga Leading to Entrance into the State of Samadhi40
XSeer Vatsa Kanva's Account of the First Ecstatic Experience of the Earliest Vedic Seers44
3Samadhi
IExperience of Samadhi in the Vedas51
IIConcept of Samadhi in Buddhism51
IIIConcept of Samadhi in Patanjali's Yoga-Sutra53
IVConcept of Samadhi in the Bhagavad-Gita57
VConcept of Samadhi in Later Upanisads61
VIConcept of Samadhi in Vedanta66
VIIConcept of Samadhi in Vaisnavism70
VIIIConcept of Samadhi in Saivism72
IXThe Hatha-Yogic Concept of Samadhi78
4Meditation on the Sacred Syllable Om As An Aid To Samadhi86
Role Of The Kundalini In The Attainment of Samadhi101
Role of The Nervous System And Centers In It In The Task Of Insulation of The Spiritual Consciousness115
Introverted Perusal Of Light, Sound And Taste As Ways To Samadhi129
Fundamental of The Epistemology of Yoga 161
Appendices
IMethods of Meditation from Vijnana Bhairava179
IIMethods of Meditation in Sri Malininvijayottara Tantra207
1Chapter II209
2Chapter XII210
3Chapter XIII215
4Chapter XIV228
5Chapter XV232
6Chapter XVI240
7Chapter XVII251
8Chapter XVIII256
9Chapter XIX257
10Chapter XXI258
11Chapter XXII263
12Chapter XXIII268
IIIMeditation Methods by Abhinavagupta Abhinavagupta's Girartha Sangraha273
IVA Tractatus of Yoga279
1Foundation of Yogfa281
2The Yogin and The Yogic Methodology292
3Suitable Place for Yoga301
4Pillars of Yoga302
5Mantra304
6Prana, Nada and Kundalini306
7Brahmacarya312
8Buddhi and Manas313
9Detachment315
10Satsang317
11Cognition318
12Sublimation of The Desire for Sex321
Index323
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