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Books > Yoga > Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu: Vol 3. Vibhutipada
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Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu: Vol 3. Vibhutipada
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From the Jacket

This is the first time that an attempt to render the Yogavarttika into English has been made. Its syncretic nature and the difficulty of understanding it without the aid of the sutra and bhasya has always deterred the undertaking of this work for a study in such detail. The present work gains added importance due to the critical notes given under every varttika. The bringing together of all the three-the sutra, bhasya and varttika-will serve the scholar and layman alike and will fulfil the need along felt for such a work. The first two volumes in this series, the Samadhipada and the Sadhanapada have had a very good response and have been well received by scholars both in India and abroad. 

The splitting of the Bhasya and the Varttika topic wise, provision of accurate and lucid English translation with copious explanations and footnotes and an erudite glossary of technical terms make this work extremely useful.

About the Author

Dr. T.S. Rukmani is presently chairperson, Hindu Studies, Department of Religion, University of Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Her published works are: A Critical Study of the Bhagavata Purana, with special reference to bhakti (Varanasi, 1970); Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu, 4 vols. (New Delhi, 1981-89); and Sankara: The Man and His Philosophy (New Delhi, 1991). She also contributes research papers regularly in both Indian and International journals. 

Preface

There has been a long delay in publishing the third volume of the Yogavarttika series due to certain compelling commitments both professional and personal. But the constant demand by scholars for the remaining volumes has finally demand by scholars for the remaining volumes has finally resulted in the publication of this volume after a gap of three and a half years. I would like to assure the readers that the fourth and a half years. I would like to assure the readers that the fourth volume will be out within the next six months. In that way I hope to make amends for the long gap between the second and the third volumes.

The enthusiasm with which the first two volumes have been received by the world of scholars has given me the strength to complete the other volumes as well. I thank them for the encouragement and hope that this volume also meets with the same response.

 

Introduction

This is the third volume in the series on the ‘Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu’ covering the Vibhi3tipäda. This volume has the same plan of separating the three texts (the Yogasutras, the Yogas Utrabhaya and the Yogavarttika through 14 Pt. black, 12 Pt. black and 12 Pt. white respectively as has been done in the earlier two volumes- The texts consulted for the preparation of this volume have also been the same i.e. the Calcutta edition (Cal. edition) published by Jivananda Vidyasagara Bhattacarya in 1897, the Chowkbamba Sanskrit Series text (CSS. edition, Varanasi) published in 1935 and the Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan edition (BVP edition) published in 1971.

Since the introduction to Vol. 1. (Samadhipada) covers many points related to Vinanabhiksu such as his date, works and general philosophical views, the interested reader can consult that volume for such details. In this volume whenever volumes I and H have been referred to in the notes, the author’s name (Rukmani) has been left out. Thus Vol. 1 Samadhipma and Vol. II Sadhanapada in the notes refer to the first two volumes in this series.

While the Samidhipada concerns itself mainly with samadhi for the superior aspirant and the Sâdhanapada de9ls with the means to yoga for any aspirant, the Vibhutipada mainly elaborates on the various powers which come to one who practices dharaua, dhyana and samadhi (Sam. yama) in the prescribed manner.

The second pada (Sadhanapada) dealt with the first five aids or external aids to yoga i.e., yama, niyama, ñsana, praãyãma and pratyähära. It is in the VibhUtipada that the last three aids or internal aids have been defined and explained. Dharaga, dhyana and samadhi are defined in sütras 1-3 (111.1-3). The special spots for fixing the mind (dharaoa) are given. Bhiku, quoting from the Garwja Puräna, points out that only when concentration (dharana) lasts as long as it takes to complete twelve Pranayamas can it be called ‘dharanã’. So also only that is ‘dhyana’ when ii is qualified by the time taken to complete twelve ‘dharauas’ and ‘samadhi’ is that qualified by the time taken for twelve ‘dhyanas’ (111.1-3).

In sutra 4 (111.4) the technical word ‘sarpyama’ is defined and in sütra 5 (111.5) the rise of the effulgence of prajiia (prajiialokab) through mastery of ‘sarpyama’ is mentioned. Sütras 13-15 (111.13-15) contain repetition of many ideas found already in the second pida in the context of the definition of a substance (dharmi).

From sutra 16 onwards to the end of the chapter (141.16-54) are dis- cussed the various powers (siddhis) that come to a yogi by the practice of ‘samyama’ on various objects. Sütra 17 (111.17) is significant as it clearly assumes the sphoa theory. Bhiku discusses at length the ‘sphota’ theory under this sütra which is not surprising, as it was well established much before Bhikus’s time. But Bhiksu is mainly concerned in this sutra with the erroneous and indiscriminate superimposition on each other of a word, its meaning and the thought it conveys, when a word is uttered. Since the three are distinct from each other ‘sarpyama’ practiced on each of them separately (taipravibhagasarpyamat) results in knowledge of the sounds of living beings. In this context Bhiksu not only accepts ‘sabdasphota’ but ‘vákyasphota’ as well.

Amongst the various ‘siddhis’ which can be acquired by the yogi are knowledge of earlier births (Purvajatijnanam, III.18), knowledge of other peoples minds (paracittajilanam, 111.19), being invisible to others (antardhãnam, 111.21), knowledge of death (aparäntajnanam. 111.22), knowledge of various worlds (bhuvanajnänam, 111.26), cessation of hunger and thirst (ksutpipasanivrttiti, 111.30), omniscience (sarvamjãnãti, 111,33), knowledge of one’s own mind (cittasaipvit, 111.34), one’s mind entering another’s body (paraariraveab, 111.38), movement in space (akaagamanam, 111.42) mastery over the elements (bhütajayab, 111.44), and mastery over the sense-organs (indriyajay4, 111.47). But these powers are obstructions in ‘samadhi’ as they hinder the realization of the ultimate truth obtained in that state (samadhavupasarga, 111. 37).

From sutra 49 onwards there is a description of that yogi who is fit for ‘kaivalya’. The various stages in ‘samadhi’ like prathamakalpika, madhumati, prajñajyoti and atikrãntabhãvanlyal3, are described in 111.49, 50 and 51. These stages are also known as madhumati, madhu pratika vioka and saipskiiraesa. Discriminate-discernment or insight (vivekajnanam, 111.52) and the powers which accrue to such a yogi are described in sutras 111.52-54. In fact this state is described as the deliverer (tarakain) and is identified with ‘pratibhajñana’ (III. 33) and is the stage just before liberation (kaivalya) takes place. And in III. 55 the state of liberation is described as the equal state of purity of both the purua and the sattva- intellect (sattvapurusayob suddhisamye).

The third pada is thus devoted mainly to the ‘siddhis’ or ‘vibhitis’ which accrue to one practicing ‘sarpyama’. As in the previous adas, in this pada also, l3hiksu continues his attack on the Vedantins calling them ‘adhunikavedñntibruva’ (111.13, 35), At many places Bhiksu differs from Mira in his interpretation of many a yogic idea. (cf. 111.16, 18, 23, 36, 48). Bhiksu’s theistic commitment comes out clearly at various places in this pada. Thus even though dharaijii, dhyana and samadhi are indispensable in a yogi’s progress towards liberation, Bhiksu says that if there is grace of Isvara there is no need for these aids (111. I). Not only can one devoted to Isvara dispense with these aids he is also able to reach the higher stage of Discriminate-discernment without having to go through samyama on the lower stages. While Kaivalya is a stage of isolation and abiding in a oneself as defined by Patanjali Bhiksu defines it alternatively as a stage when the yoga remains undivided in Isvara which is very much a theistic concept.

 

Contents

 

Preface vii
Abbreviation viii
Introduction ix
Vidhutipada 1
Glossary 215
Index 223

 

Sample Pages















Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu: Vol 3. Vibhutipada

Item Code:
IDD295
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2010
ISBN:
9788121500579
Language:
Text with English trans. and critical alongwith the text and English trans. of the Patanjala Yogasutras and Vyasabhasya
Size:
9.9" x 6.5"
Pages:
240
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 575 gms
Price:
$32.00   Shipping Free
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From the Jacket

This is the first time that an attempt to render the Yogavarttika into English has been made. Its syncretic nature and the difficulty of understanding it without the aid of the sutra and bhasya has always deterred the undertaking of this work for a study in such detail. The present work gains added importance due to the critical notes given under every varttika. The bringing together of all the three-the sutra, bhasya and varttika-will serve the scholar and layman alike and will fulfil the need along felt for such a work. The first two volumes in this series, the Samadhipada and the Sadhanapada have had a very good response and have been well received by scholars both in India and abroad. 

The splitting of the Bhasya and the Varttika topic wise, provision of accurate and lucid English translation with copious explanations and footnotes and an erudite glossary of technical terms make this work extremely useful.

About the Author

Dr. T.S. Rukmani is presently chairperson, Hindu Studies, Department of Religion, University of Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Her published works are: A Critical Study of the Bhagavata Purana, with special reference to bhakti (Varanasi, 1970); Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu, 4 vols. (New Delhi, 1981-89); and Sankara: The Man and His Philosophy (New Delhi, 1991). She also contributes research papers regularly in both Indian and International journals. 

Preface

There has been a long delay in publishing the third volume of the Yogavarttika series due to certain compelling commitments both professional and personal. But the constant demand by scholars for the remaining volumes has finally demand by scholars for the remaining volumes has finally resulted in the publication of this volume after a gap of three and a half years. I would like to assure the readers that the fourth and a half years. I would like to assure the readers that the fourth volume will be out within the next six months. In that way I hope to make amends for the long gap between the second and the third volumes.

The enthusiasm with which the first two volumes have been received by the world of scholars has given me the strength to complete the other volumes as well. I thank them for the encouragement and hope that this volume also meets with the same response.

 

Introduction

This is the third volume in the series on the ‘Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu’ covering the Vibhi3tipäda. This volume has the same plan of separating the three texts (the Yogasutras, the Yogas Utrabhaya and the Yogavarttika through 14 Pt. black, 12 Pt. black and 12 Pt. white respectively as has been done in the earlier two volumes- The texts consulted for the preparation of this volume have also been the same i.e. the Calcutta edition (Cal. edition) published by Jivananda Vidyasagara Bhattacarya in 1897, the Chowkbamba Sanskrit Series text (CSS. edition, Varanasi) published in 1935 and the Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan edition (BVP edition) published in 1971.

Since the introduction to Vol. 1. (Samadhipada) covers many points related to Vinanabhiksu such as his date, works and general philosophical views, the interested reader can consult that volume for such details. In this volume whenever volumes I and H have been referred to in the notes, the author’s name (Rukmani) has been left out. Thus Vol. 1 Samadhipma and Vol. II Sadhanapada in the notes refer to the first two volumes in this series.

While the Samidhipada concerns itself mainly with samadhi for the superior aspirant and the Sâdhanapada de9ls with the means to yoga for any aspirant, the Vibhutipada mainly elaborates on the various powers which come to one who practices dharaua, dhyana and samadhi (Sam. yama) in the prescribed manner.

The second pada (Sadhanapada) dealt with the first five aids or external aids to yoga i.e., yama, niyama, ñsana, praãyãma and pratyähära. It is in the VibhUtipada that the last three aids or internal aids have been defined and explained. Dharaga, dhyana and samadhi are defined in sütras 1-3 (111.1-3). The special spots for fixing the mind (dharaoa) are given. Bhiku, quoting from the Garwja Puräna, points out that only when concentration (dharana) lasts as long as it takes to complete twelve Pranayamas can it be called ‘dharanã’. So also only that is ‘dhyana’ when ii is qualified by the time taken to complete twelve ‘dharauas’ and ‘samadhi’ is that qualified by the time taken for twelve ‘dhyanas’ (111.1-3).

In sutra 4 (111.4) the technical word ‘sarpyama’ is defined and in sütra 5 (111.5) the rise of the effulgence of prajiia (prajiialokab) through mastery of ‘sarpyama’ is mentioned. Sütras 13-15 (111.13-15) contain repetition of many ideas found already in the second pida in the context of the definition of a substance (dharmi).

From sutra 16 onwards to the end of the chapter (141.16-54) are dis- cussed the various powers (siddhis) that come to a yogi by the practice of ‘samyama’ on various objects. Sütra 17 (111.17) is significant as it clearly assumes the sphoa theory. Bhiku discusses at length the ‘sphota’ theory under this sütra which is not surprising, as it was well established much before Bhikus’s time. But Bhiksu is mainly concerned in this sutra with the erroneous and indiscriminate superimposition on each other of a word, its meaning and the thought it conveys, when a word is uttered. Since the three are distinct from each other ‘sarpyama’ practiced on each of them separately (taipravibhagasarpyamat) results in knowledge of the sounds of living beings. In this context Bhiksu not only accepts ‘sabdasphota’ but ‘vákyasphota’ as well.

Amongst the various ‘siddhis’ which can be acquired by the yogi are knowledge of earlier births (Purvajatijnanam, III.18), knowledge of other peoples minds (paracittajilanam, 111.19), being invisible to others (antardhãnam, 111.21), knowledge of death (aparäntajnanam. 111.22), knowledge of various worlds (bhuvanajnänam, 111.26), cessation of hunger and thirst (ksutpipasanivrttiti, 111.30), omniscience (sarvamjãnãti, 111,33), knowledge of one’s own mind (cittasaipvit, 111.34), one’s mind entering another’s body (paraariraveab, 111.38), movement in space (akaagamanam, 111.42) mastery over the elements (bhütajayab, 111.44), and mastery over the sense-organs (indriyajay4, 111.47). But these powers are obstructions in ‘samadhi’ as they hinder the realization of the ultimate truth obtained in that state (samadhavupasarga, 111. 37).

From sutra 49 onwards there is a description of that yogi who is fit for ‘kaivalya’. The various stages in ‘samadhi’ like prathamakalpika, madhumati, prajñajyoti and atikrãntabhãvanlyal3, are described in 111.49, 50 and 51. These stages are also known as madhumati, madhu pratika vioka and saipskiiraesa. Discriminate-discernment or insight (vivekajnanam, 111.52) and the powers which accrue to such a yogi are described in sutras 111.52-54. In fact this state is described as the deliverer (tarakain) and is identified with ‘pratibhajñana’ (III. 33) and is the stage just before liberation (kaivalya) takes place. And in III. 55 the state of liberation is described as the equal state of purity of both the purua and the sattva- intellect (sattvapurusayob suddhisamye).

The third pada is thus devoted mainly to the ‘siddhis’ or ‘vibhitis’ which accrue to one practicing ‘sarpyama’. As in the previous adas, in this pada also, l3hiksu continues his attack on the Vedantins calling them ‘adhunikavedñntibruva’ (111.13, 35), At many places Bhiksu differs from Mira in his interpretation of many a yogic idea. (cf. 111.16, 18, 23, 36, 48). Bhiksu’s theistic commitment comes out clearly at various places in this pada. Thus even though dharaijii, dhyana and samadhi are indispensable in a yogi’s progress towards liberation, Bhiksu says that if there is grace of Isvara there is no need for these aids (111. I). Not only can one devoted to Isvara dispense with these aids he is also able to reach the higher stage of Discriminate-discernment without having to go through samyama on the lower stages. While Kaivalya is a stage of isolation and abiding in a oneself as defined by Patanjali Bhiksu defines it alternatively as a stage when the yoga remains undivided in Isvara which is very much a theistic concept.

 

Contents

 

Preface vii
Abbreviation viii
Introduction ix
Vidhutipada 1
Glossary 215
Index 223

 

Sample Pages















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