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Books > Philosophy > A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy (New and Revised Edition) Sanskrit Terms Defined in English
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A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy (New and Revised Edition) Sanskrit Terms Defined in English
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A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy (New and Revised Edition) Sanskrit Terms Defined in English
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Back of the Book

This new and revised third edition presents a comprehensive dictionary of Indian philosophical terms, providing the terms in both devanagari and roman transliteration along with an English translation. It offers special meanings of words used as technical terms within particular philosophical systems. It contains etymological roots and the meanings of terms fundamental to epistemology, metaphysics, and practical teachings of the heterodox and orthodox schools of Indian philosophy. Cross-referencing has been provided and various charts are included that provide information regarding relationships, categories, and sourcebooks relevant to the individual schools.

Foreword to the Third Edition

In recent years we have witnessed an increasing awareness by seekers of the value of Indian philosophy, particularly its ability to provide clear guidelines with respect to our relationship to the world and the higher principles which govern our activity and sense of identity. The major barrier for those who wish to delve into the riches of this tradition is that the important texts are in Sanskrit. Though there are many competent translations a person who wants to search deeper into the relationship between the various concepts does require some understanding of the individual words and their inter-connectedness.

John Grimes is a recognized academic authority of Advaita Vedanta. He studied at the prestigious Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy at the University of Madras where he was awarded a masters and Phd. Degree in philosophy under the tutelage of such great scholars as T.M.P. Mahadevan, R. Balasubramanian and P. Sundaram. He is the author of numerous books on Advaita and related subjects. In particular, he has translated and comprehensively commented on Sankara's Vivekachudamani, one of the key texts in the Advaita canon. This publication has created a standard for any future study of this great Advaitic scripture.

In he course of his studies Grimes compiled a concise dictionary of Indian philosophy terms which, over time, was expanded into a comprehensive work suited both to the scholar and the layman. The dictionary was first published by the Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study, Madras and then published by the State University of New York Press in the USA and became a standard text for college students and post-graduate students whose area of interest and expertise is Indian philosophy.

There are now a number of other dictionaries available for those interested in the exact meaning of important Sanskrit concepts and each has its own particular advantage. John Grimes' dictionary is designed specifically for those interested in Indian philosophy in general and Vedanta in particular and provides clear, succinct definitions which are readily accessible for both the student and a person further advanced in the study of Indian philosophy's intricate and subtle epistemological and metaphysical doctrines. It is a valuable tool for those who seek to broaden their understating with easily referenced and authoritative definitions.

About the Author

John A. Grimes received his B.A. in Religion from the University of California at Santa Barbara and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Indian Philosophy from the University of Madras. He has taught at Universities in India, Canada, Singapore, and the United States. His book publications include: the Vivekacudamani: Sankara's Crown Jewel of Discrimination; Ramana Maharshi: Darshan in Darshana; Ganapati: Song of the Self; Problems and Perspective in Religious Discourse: Advaita Vedanta Implications; Sapta Vidha Anupapatti: The Seven Great Untenables; Sankara and Heidegger: Being, Truth, Freedom; and The Naiskarmyasiddhi of Suresvara. He presently spends his time writing and traveling between California and Chennai.

Preface to the Third Edition

A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy (Sanskrit Terms Defined in English) is the outcome of a personal, experienced need in the field of Indian philosophy. The original work was compiled as an introduction to the basic terms found in the major schools of classical Indian philosophy. The terms fundamental to epistemology, metaphysics, and practical teachings were found therein. The schools dealt with include: Buddhism, Jainism, Carvaka, Nyaya, Vaisesika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, Vedanta (mainly but not exclusively Advaita, Visistadvaita, Dvaita), Saiva Siddhanta, Vira Saivism, Kashmir Saivism, and Sivadvaita.

This new and revised third edition has come about due to a continued correspondence with many readers of the first two editions. Not only have I rearranged the placement of the devanagari script (to avoid the impression that it is not alphabetically correct), but I have added to "old" definitions as well as adding some five hundred new terms.

In the original work I strove to provide mainly philosophical terms since other dictionaries, encyclopaedias, and word books exist in regard to Indian religious or, as I would prefer to call them, popular Hinduism, terms. My correspondence has led me to include at least some of these terms in this new edition.

Like its predecessors, this dictionary, I hope, will serve as an introductory sourcebook with cross-references wherever relevant. I have attempted to give the common or non-technical definition of a word first, and then, if this word has a special meaning or meanings within a particular philosophical system, I have listed such. For example, a word like jiva (individual soul) has fourteen different technical definitions listed since each school conceives of this concept differently.

I have endeavored to cover, at the least, the basic concepts fundamental to each individual system. Further, if there is a technical definition given by one school which coincides with that given by another school (e.g. Nyaya and Sankhya or Bhatta Mimamsa and Advaita Vedanta), I have only listed the most common reference. I have also endeavored to give cross-references wherever appropriate. For instance, consider the close interaction of the term avidya with the related terms: maya, anirvacaniya, sadasadvilaksana, anadi, bhavarupa, jnananivartya, avarana, and viksepa.

This books aims at being both basic and, in some areas, comprehensive. It is basic in that it (1) includes virtually all the words basic to the various Indian philosophical systems, and (2) defines these terms in their dictionary or common and literal meanings. The book is comprehensive in that it defines many of its terms with the specific meanings that a word has for a specific school.

The purpose of this book is to provide not only the academic community but also the interested lay individual with a dictionary of most Indian philosophical terms. The terms are listed both in roman transliteration and devanagari script along with definitions in English.

At the end of the book are given fourteen charts that provide, at a glance, information regarding relationships, categories, and sourcebooks relevant to the individual schools. These charts are referred to in the main body of the text and the reader can consult them wherever appropriate. Also, there has been added a fifteenth chart providing a list of the most frequently quoted Indian philosophy authors and their major philosophical works.

Since this book is intended primarily for individuals who are not specialists in Sanskrit, I have compiled the Sanskrit terms in the order of the English alphabet. Wherever relevant, I have illustrated the definitions with the traditional examples used in Endian philosophical texts; for example, for savyabhicara-fire and smoke –or, for asraya-asiddha – a sky-lotus. One will also find a "scheme of transliteration" and a "scheme of pronunciation" to assist the reader.

John A. Grimes received his B.A. in Religion from the University of California at Santa Barbara and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Indian Philosophy from the University of Madras. He has taught at Universities in India, Canada, Singapore, and the United States. His book publications include: The Vivekacudamani: Sankara's Crown Jewel of Discrimination; Ramana Maharshi: Darshan in Darshana; Ganapati: Song of the Self; Problems and Perspectives in Religious Discourse: Advaita Vedanta Implications; Sapta Vidha Anupapatti: The Seven Great Untenables; Sankara and Heidegger: Being, Truth, Freedom; and The Naiskarmyasiddhi of Suresvara. He presently spends his time writing and traveling between California and Chennai.

 

Contents

 

A Pantheon of Words 7
Foreword to the Third Edition 9
Preface to the Third Edition 11
Scheme of Transliteration 14
Scheme of Pronunciation 15
A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy 17
Charts  
The Vedas 429
Sourcebooks of the Nastika Systems 432
Sourcebooks of the Astika Systems 433
Source books of the Saiva Schools 437
Padarthas (Categories) 439
Vaisesika Padarthas (Categories) 441
Jainism Categories 442
Saiva Siddhanta Tattva (s) 443
Kashmir Saivism Tattva (s) 443
Scheme of Visistadvaita 444
Jaina Epistemology 446
Evolution of Prakrti According to Sankhya 448
Cakras 449
Angasthala 450
Authors and Their Philosophical Works 451

 

Sample Pages





















A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy (New and Revised Edition) Sanskrit Terms Defined in English

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Back of the Book

This new and revised third edition presents a comprehensive dictionary of Indian philosophical terms, providing the terms in both devanagari and roman transliteration along with an English translation. It offers special meanings of words used as technical terms within particular philosophical systems. It contains etymological roots and the meanings of terms fundamental to epistemology, metaphysics, and practical teachings of the heterodox and orthodox schools of Indian philosophy. Cross-referencing has been provided and various charts are included that provide information regarding relationships, categories, and sourcebooks relevant to the individual schools.

Foreword to the Third Edition

In recent years we have witnessed an increasing awareness by seekers of the value of Indian philosophy, particularly its ability to provide clear guidelines with respect to our relationship to the world and the higher principles which govern our activity and sense of identity. The major barrier for those who wish to delve into the riches of this tradition is that the important texts are in Sanskrit. Though there are many competent translations a person who wants to search deeper into the relationship between the various concepts does require some understanding of the individual words and their inter-connectedness.

John Grimes is a recognized academic authority of Advaita Vedanta. He studied at the prestigious Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy at the University of Madras where he was awarded a masters and Phd. Degree in philosophy under the tutelage of such great scholars as T.M.P. Mahadevan, R. Balasubramanian and P. Sundaram. He is the author of numerous books on Advaita and related subjects. In particular, he has translated and comprehensively commented on Sankara's Vivekachudamani, one of the key texts in the Advaita canon. This publication has created a standard for any future study of this great Advaitic scripture.

In he course of his studies Grimes compiled a concise dictionary of Indian philosophy terms which, over time, was expanded into a comprehensive work suited both to the scholar and the layman. The dictionary was first published by the Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study, Madras and then published by the State University of New York Press in the USA and became a standard text for college students and post-graduate students whose area of interest and expertise is Indian philosophy.

There are now a number of other dictionaries available for those interested in the exact meaning of important Sanskrit concepts and each has its own particular advantage. John Grimes' dictionary is designed specifically for those interested in Indian philosophy in general and Vedanta in particular and provides clear, succinct definitions which are readily accessible for both the student and a person further advanced in the study of Indian philosophy's intricate and subtle epistemological and metaphysical doctrines. It is a valuable tool for those who seek to broaden their understating with easily referenced and authoritative definitions.

About the Author

John A. Grimes received his B.A. in Religion from the University of California at Santa Barbara and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Indian Philosophy from the University of Madras. He has taught at Universities in India, Canada, Singapore, and the United States. His book publications include: the Vivekacudamani: Sankara's Crown Jewel of Discrimination; Ramana Maharshi: Darshan in Darshana; Ganapati: Song of the Self; Problems and Perspective in Religious Discourse: Advaita Vedanta Implications; Sapta Vidha Anupapatti: The Seven Great Untenables; Sankara and Heidegger: Being, Truth, Freedom; and The Naiskarmyasiddhi of Suresvara. He presently spends his time writing and traveling between California and Chennai.

Preface to the Third Edition

A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy (Sanskrit Terms Defined in English) is the outcome of a personal, experienced need in the field of Indian philosophy. The original work was compiled as an introduction to the basic terms found in the major schools of classical Indian philosophy. The terms fundamental to epistemology, metaphysics, and practical teachings were found therein. The schools dealt with include: Buddhism, Jainism, Carvaka, Nyaya, Vaisesika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, Vedanta (mainly but not exclusively Advaita, Visistadvaita, Dvaita), Saiva Siddhanta, Vira Saivism, Kashmir Saivism, and Sivadvaita.

This new and revised third edition has come about due to a continued correspondence with many readers of the first two editions. Not only have I rearranged the placement of the devanagari script (to avoid the impression that it is not alphabetically correct), but I have added to "old" definitions as well as adding some five hundred new terms.

In the original work I strove to provide mainly philosophical terms since other dictionaries, encyclopaedias, and word books exist in regard to Indian religious or, as I would prefer to call them, popular Hinduism, terms. My correspondence has led me to include at least some of these terms in this new edition.

Like its predecessors, this dictionary, I hope, will serve as an introductory sourcebook with cross-references wherever relevant. I have attempted to give the common or non-technical definition of a word first, and then, if this word has a special meaning or meanings within a particular philosophical system, I have listed such. For example, a word like jiva (individual soul) has fourteen different technical definitions listed since each school conceives of this concept differently.

I have endeavored to cover, at the least, the basic concepts fundamental to each individual system. Further, if there is a technical definition given by one school which coincides with that given by another school (e.g. Nyaya and Sankhya or Bhatta Mimamsa and Advaita Vedanta), I have only listed the most common reference. I have also endeavored to give cross-references wherever appropriate. For instance, consider the close interaction of the term avidya with the related terms: maya, anirvacaniya, sadasadvilaksana, anadi, bhavarupa, jnananivartya, avarana, and viksepa.

This books aims at being both basic and, in some areas, comprehensive. It is basic in that it (1) includes virtually all the words basic to the various Indian philosophical systems, and (2) defines these terms in their dictionary or common and literal meanings. The book is comprehensive in that it defines many of its terms with the specific meanings that a word has for a specific school.

The purpose of this book is to provide not only the academic community but also the interested lay individual with a dictionary of most Indian philosophical terms. The terms are listed both in roman transliteration and devanagari script along with definitions in English.

At the end of the book are given fourteen charts that provide, at a glance, information regarding relationships, categories, and sourcebooks relevant to the individual schools. These charts are referred to in the main body of the text and the reader can consult them wherever appropriate. Also, there has been added a fifteenth chart providing a list of the most frequently quoted Indian philosophy authors and their major philosophical works.

Since this book is intended primarily for individuals who are not specialists in Sanskrit, I have compiled the Sanskrit terms in the order of the English alphabet. Wherever relevant, I have illustrated the definitions with the traditional examples used in Endian philosophical texts; for example, for savyabhicara-fire and smoke –or, for asraya-asiddha – a sky-lotus. One will also find a "scheme of transliteration" and a "scheme of pronunciation" to assist the reader.

John A. Grimes received his B.A. in Religion from the University of California at Santa Barbara and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Indian Philosophy from the University of Madras. He has taught at Universities in India, Canada, Singapore, and the United States. His book publications include: The Vivekacudamani: Sankara's Crown Jewel of Discrimination; Ramana Maharshi: Darshan in Darshana; Ganapati: Song of the Self; Problems and Perspectives in Religious Discourse: Advaita Vedanta Implications; Sapta Vidha Anupapatti: The Seven Great Untenables; Sankara and Heidegger: Being, Truth, Freedom; and The Naiskarmyasiddhi of Suresvara. He presently spends his time writing and traveling between California and Chennai.

 

Contents

 

A Pantheon of Words 7
Foreword to the Third Edition 9
Preface to the Third Edition 11
Scheme of Transliteration 14
Scheme of Pronunciation 15
A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy 17
Charts  
The Vedas 429
Sourcebooks of the Nastika Systems 432
Sourcebooks of the Astika Systems 433
Source books of the Saiva Schools 437
Padarthas (Categories) 439
Vaisesika Padarthas (Categories) 441
Jainism Categories 442
Saiva Siddhanta Tattva (s) 443
Kashmir Saivism Tattva (s) 443
Scheme of Visistadvaita 444
Jaina Epistemology 446
Evolution of Prakrti According to Sankhya 448
Cakras 449
Angasthala 450
Authors and Their Philosophical Works 451

 

Sample Pages





















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