Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
Share
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Your Cart (0)
Books > Philosophy > A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy
Displaying 2180 of 2697         Previous  |  NextSubscribe to our newsletter and discounts
A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy
A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy
Description
PREFACE
The present work is substantially my thesis " Indian Philosophy—its origin and growth from the Vedas to the Buddha," submitted in 1917 to the University of London and approved in the same year for the DQ Lit degree. I can no longer regard it as the same Doctorate thesis, since it has been revised, altered and enlarged, though slightly, in the light of subsequent research. Consequently the title of the original thesis has been done away with and replaced by the present title “A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy." The Supplementary Discussions in Chapter XII, the Post- Script in Chapter XXI and the whole of the concluding chapter are later additions. None the less, the original thesis remains almost intact in this work in that the changes made therein are immaterial, the general arrangement of its chapters and sections as well as its main conclusions having suffered no violent alteration.

It would no doubt have been of some advantage to me, a novice that I am, to get the thesis printed and published in its approved form with the stamp of the University of London upon it. I could not really have made up my mind to publish the thesis in its present form, with certain additions and alterations specified above, but for the precious suggestions from Professor T. W. Rhys Davids and the kind encouragement of the Hon’ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, the President of the Council of Post-Graduate Teaching in Arts and the present Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University. I have nevertheless the satisfaction of seeing the work now published with the stamp of my former Alma Meters, the University- of Calcutta, and it has been to me not a little matter of pride that I found myself on my return from England in the midst of a band of arduous and talented researchers in the vast field of ancient Indian literature, history and culture, brought together from different parts of the world to advance the cause of learning under the guidance of so eminent a leader, scholar and educationist as Sir Asutosh. Nothing indeed could give me greater satisfaction than the relief I had felt on being back in the midst of my community which has not regarded me as an outcast, as well as my University which has not tailed to afford me facilities for work ; for, however rebellious in spirit one may he in matters of one’s social and religious views, and however insignificant may he one’s attainments abroad, nothing can he more painful and disappointing, I think, to a man than to and himself a stranger at home.

What this strangeness of situation means to an Indian returning home from foreign sojourn and to an Indian student of ancient Indian literature, history and culture returning to the institutions of his country can better be imagined than told. Just fancy what chagrin a sensible man is apt to feel when after long absence he returns home only to find that his parents, brothers, sisters and others whom he regards as very dear and near to him, are all reluctant, because of the fear of society, to receive him back freely in their midst, or how depressing is the atmosphere to a student who finds, in spite of his earnestness, that in the educational institutions of his country the subjects generally neglected and undervalued are precisely those which are productive and really matter most. Happily the times are being changed.

While I leave the book to he judged for what it is worth, I must say that it is not a dissertation on the history of Buddhism or Buddhist philosophy, the subject being re- served for a separate work. The investigation in it has been closed at n. point where the philosophical thoughts and scientific speculations of ancient India reached a stage of development, advanced enough to provide for a necessary antecedent condition of the rise of a powerful movement of thought, wholly Indian in origin and character, seeking to evolve a system of religious philosophy with the theory of causal genesis as its mainstay or fundamental and central idea. Lint the genetic connection of this work with Buddhism is twofold; (1) that it embodies the results of an investigation which was at first undertaken, at the instance of the late Rev.

Gunalankara Mahathera of Chittagong, to ascertain the immediate historical background of Buddhist thought; and (2) that the original data for the conception of a chronology of early Indian philosophy were derived from the Buddhist canon. It was mainly by the light of the evidence of the Tripitaka that I came to perceive three great synthetic divisions in the development of earlier thought. It was again a close comparative study of the first volume of the Digha Nikaya, published by the Pali Text Society, and the six Upanishads, edited and translated by Pandit Sitanath Tattva- bhusan, that first suggested to me the prospect of a very fruitful study of Buddhism, keeping it in constant relation to the earlier and contemporary indian thoughts in the midst of which it arose and without reference to which its true historical significance and value could not be properly comprehended, even if there were a hundred Buddhist commentators and exegetists like Buddhaghosa to write powerful expositions thereon. Further, l chanced upon a number of parallel passages in the Buddhist Pitakas, the Jaina Angas and the Mahabharata, having hearing upon many daring philosophical ideas new found embodied in the older Upanishads, the Aranyakas and a few selected later hymns of the Rig and Atharvavedasamhita. The evidences of these authorities have been found invaluable as throw in abundant light upon a very obscure hut highly important period of thought evolution that had immediately preceded the rise of Jainism, Buddhism and other later systems of Indian thought.

An independent study of the Upanisads and the canonical works of the Jains and the Buddhists made it increasingly clear to me that the so-called traditional interpretation of the ancient Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit texts had much in it which was an after-thought on the part of the learned scholiasts who, as it seemed to me, were guided more by an etymological conjecture than by a true spirit of research which one must always understand as a quest of truth for its I own sake. That there are immense possibilities of modern historical researches in the field of ancient Indian literature, history and culture can be accepted as a truism. When these researches will advance far enough, one is sure to find that the idea that has hitherto been formed of ancient Indian life and civilisation on the basis of traditional interpretation is in many regards misleading.

I can say that this work is to a large extent the result of an attempt to interpret the texts in their own light and inter-connection as well as to trace up the development of early Indian philosophy on divergent lines, out of a common background and substratum, and that in defiance of the persistent endeavors of the Indian commentators to prove that in the Vedic hymns and the Upanisads there are to be found only the unsystematic ideas of Vedanta. But to minimize the importance of their works in all respects would be to push off the ladder whereby one climbs up; for the indirect value of their writings as mine of historical information and suggestiveness is immense. The present work, when judged as a whole and contrasted with the previous works on the subject, will, I think, appear in many respects new of its kind. But here again to overlook the importance of the spade work done by the pioneers will be to show oneself wanting in gratitude for the invaluable services they have jointly and severally rendered. It is so easy or an unthinking youth to run into a mood of irreverence and to think that he is wiser than all his predecessors. My experience is that whenever a man begins to think he has discovered a new truth, he will be surprised some day to find that he was in some way or other anticipated by those who had gone before him. It is also my firm belief that no attempt is made in vain, and no work is useless if we know how to make proper use of it.

In a sense this book is the first definite expression of a dominant will to do some useful work in the world, regardless of the consideration of personal circumstances and equipment, no doubt under the belief, turning with every new success into stronger and stronger confidence, that present circum- stances may be unfavorable and equipment nil, yet the very desire to do something and constant acting up to it render at last what was once thought impossible, possible. ’|‘hat is to say, it is the first visible fruition of a series of attempts on the part of a student to fulfill in all earnestness the expectations entertained of him by his teachers and many benefactors, Indian and English, who have in manifold ways helped his will to follow its natural bent.

Looking into the genesis of the work, that is, back into my own life, I find that I am just one of the many students of modern Bengal whom Sir Asutosh gave, by timely concessions and patronage, the opportunity of working out the innermost scholarly ambition of their lives. I am doubly indebted to Sir Asutosh for the arrangements he so generously made |`or the publication of the work by the Calcutta University and the opportunity he gave me for continuing my research work in Calcutta. I am one of those persons who, though born in poor circumstances, have been able to struggle in the race of life with the kind help and encouragement of their kinsmen and countrymen. Almost from the beginning of my school career the Government have liberally helped me by the grant of free-studentship and special scholarships in prosecuting my studies in India and in England. W need hardly say that but for such generous help from Government the desire that impelled me to move in this direction would have been baffled. The foremost among those whose sympathy was of great service to me in securing Government help, particularly in obtaining a special State scholarship in 19144 for the scientific study of Pali in Europe is the Hon’ble Mr. H. Sharp, Secretary to the Education Department of the Government of India. In connection with this State scholarship my gratitude is also due `to H. E. Sir Harcourt Butler, then Education Member of the Governor General’s Council and Sir E. Denison Ross, Keeper of Imperial Records, Calcutta, now Director of the School of Oriental Studies in London, who made out a special case for the Buddhist community of Bengal on the representation of its interests by the Chittagong and Bengal Buddhist Associations. Among my Indian teachers, the late Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, Principal of the Sanskrit College, Calcutta, had always fostered my literary aspirations and tried in every possible way to make my path smooth. His unexpected death has left a gap in the ranks of Oriental scholarship that will yet take a long time to be filled up in Bengal.

I owe a very deep debt of gratitude to Professor T. W. Arnold, and then Secretary, in the India Office, for Indian students, for it was mainly through his kind guidance and keen personal interest that I was able to complete my course of studies in England leading to the D. Lit degree. I am also grateful to him for procuring for me permission of the authorities of the London County Council to use its library and see the working of the primary and secondary schools under its control. Here I must also mention the names of Mr. N. C. Sen, then Local Adviser to Indian Students in London, Mr. R. E. Field, Warden at 2l, Cromwell Road and Miss E. J. Beck, Honorary Secretary to the National Indian Association, who by their sympathy and encouragement helped me a great deal in peacefully carrying on my research work. I would pay but a scanty tribute to Dr. Mabel H. Bode, then Lecturer in Pali, University College, London, were I merely to say that she ably guided me in my work, for she really helped me in a hundred other ways, particularly by placing me into close touch with many erudite scholars. I am ever so much indebted to Professor T. W. Rhys Davids and Mrs. Rhys Davids, neither of whom failed to guide me in my researches by their precious suggestions and constructive criticism. The fourteen discourses of Professor Rhys Davids on the scientific method of investigation, delivered at the instance of the India Office for my guidance, helped me considerably in imbibing the modern western spirit of research. But it is Dr. Dawes Hicks, Senior Professor of Philosophy, University College, London, who had initiated me in the present historical method of the study of philosophy. I must acknowledge that his lectures on Greek philosophy and modern European thought from Descartes to Kant were found much helpful to me.

A deep debt of gratitude is due also to Professor L. T. Barnett, Keeper of Oriental Manuscripts in the British Museum, for he was the first to reuse in me an interest in the study of Jaina literature, and he helped me also considerably by calling my attention to a few important Tamil works bearing upon my subject. I do not and words to express my obligation to Dr. F. W. Thomas in whom and in whose wife I found much hospitality, the door of whose cottage was open always to the Indologists hailing from all parts of the world. Dr. Thomas never failed to show me kindness in allowing me, in the midst of his arduous duties as Librarian of the India Office Library, to read to him the successive chapters of my thesis as they were written out. I derived much benefit from discussion of several disputed points of interpretation and history, with him and with l) Barnett. Professor L. T. Hobhouse has placed me under a deep obligation by revising the thesis from the European point of view, particularly in regard to the interpretation of Greek Philosophy, before it was handed over to the press.

The points in which he has different have been mentioned in the foot-notes. The kind words of encouragement from Mr. H. M. Percival, late Professor, Presidency College, Calcutta, my friend Dr. Pramatha Nath Banerjea, Minto Professor of Economics, Calcutta University, then in England, the late lamented Sir Henry Cotton, Dr. Carveth Read and Sir Thomas Gregory Foster, Provost, University College, London, served as a great stimulant to my research "work especially at its inception. Vivid in my mind is the memory of the goodness of Mr. and Mrs. Grubb, under whose roof and beneficent care I revised my work and portably spent the last year of my sojourn in England in seeing g something of the present social, religious and political life of the country. Sir Michael E. Sadler, late President of the Calcutta University Commission, has done me much honour by his courtesy in going through portions of the thesis and offering me some fruitful suggestions.

In this connation I have also to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. P. J. Hartog, Vice-Chancellor of the Dacca University, who as the then Academic Registrar of London University, had done all he could to see me established in Calcutta. Mr. W. R. Gourlay, Private Secretary to H. E. the Governor of Bengal and Rai Dr. Chunilal Bose Bahadur, Sheriff of Calcutta, are two of those kind-hearted gentlemen who have hitherto taken a keen interest in me and my research works at the Calcutta University. I must also put on record my deep sense of gratitude to H. E. Lord Ronald shay, Governor of Bengal, who has very generously shown genuine sympathy with my researches in the Held of early Indian Philosophy, particularly in that of Buddhism. His Excellency enjoys the reputation of a great champion of the cause of I11dian Philosophy in that he has always tried to impress the importance of the subject on the minds of the framers of the University education scheme, and expressed it as a profound anomaly that the subject has not been given any place in Indian colleges.

My gratitude is also due to Mr. W. C. Wordsworth, Officiating Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, for the encouragement I received from him and his kind enquiries concerning the work I had done in England. He himself is interested in the study of Indian philosophy as he expressed to me in course of conversation, and he too regretted the absence of any provision for the proper study of this subject in this country. Some important additions to the original thesis made in this work, were kindly suggested to me by Kabibhaskar Sreejut sasankra Mohan Sen, "Gopaldas Chowdhury" Lecture in Bengali, Calcutta University, in whom I have found a great Bengali poet and a thoroughbred student of Hindu literature and philosophy. My sincere tl1anks are also due to my friend and colleague Professor Sailendranath Mitra, and to Rai Saheb Dineschandra Sen, the historian of Bengali literature, Mr. Johan Van Manen, Librarian of the Imperial Library, Calcutta, and my friend Babu Prabhat Chandra Chakrabartty, Lecturer in Sanskrit, Calcutta University, for kindly aiding me by reading occasionally through the proofs of the book and offering me some valuable suggestions. I am thankful to my pupil, friend and colleague Babu "Prabodh Chandra Bengali, Lecturer in Ancient Indian history and Culture, for the kind help he has rende1 and me by preparing the Indexes. Lastly, I must offer my sincere thanks to Mr. A. C. Ghatak, Superintendent of the Calcutta University Press, and his assistants for the keen personal interest they have taken in seeing the book through the press.

About the Book:

The Present work is designed to survey the evolution of philosophical thought in the Vedic and post-Vedic periods preceding the rise of Jainism and Buddhism. The author has traced up the development of early Indian philosophy on divergent lines on the basis of the Rgveda, Atharvaveda, Aranyakas, the order Upanisads and the allied literature.

The work is divided into four parts: each part is divided into several chapters. Part I deals with Vedic philosophy; Part II with post-Vedic philosophy; Part III with the philosophy of transitional period before Mahavira and Buddha and Part IV with the philosophy of Mahavira.

The author has exploited the original Indian sources and in defiance of several scholiasts has proved that the process of early Indian thought evolution is neither unscientific nor unsystematic.

The work throws abundant light upon a very obscure and highly important period of Indian thought. It is also a very useful study for ascertaining the immediate background of Buddhistic philosophy.

CONTENTS

Praface

PART I
VEDIC PHILOSOPHY
Introductory

CHAPTER I
Aghamarsana
Prajapati Paramesthin
Brahmanaspati
Anila

CHAPTER II
Dirghatamas and Narayana

CHAPTER III
Hiranyagarbha and Visvakarman

PART II
POST-VEDIC PHILOSOPHY
Introductory

CHAPTER IV
Mahidasa Aitareya

CHAPTER V
Of the Thinkers before Uddalaka
  1. Suravira-Sakalya
    Mandukeya-Kauntharvya
    Raikva
    Badhva
    Sandilya
    Satyakama Jabala
    Jaivali
CHAPTER VI
  1. Gargyayana
CHAPTER VII
  1. Pratardana
CHAPTER VIII
Uddalaka

CHAPTER IX
Varuna

CHAPTER X
Balaki and Ajatasatru

CHAPTER XI
Yajnavalkya

CHAPTER XII
Supplementary Discussions

PART III
PHILOSOPHY BEFORE MAHAVIRA AND BUDDHA
Introductory

[1. The Metaphysicians 196-198.]
CHAPTER XIII
[Exponents of] the Doctrine of Time

CHAPTER XIV
Asuri

CHAPTER XV
Pippalada

CHAPTER XVI
Bharadvaja

CHAPTER XVII
Naciketas

CHAPTER XVIII
Purna Kasyapa

CHAPTER XIX
Kakuda Katyayana

CHAPTER XX
Ajita Kesakambalin

CHAPTER XXI
Maskarin Gosala

[2. The Sceptics - 318-324]
CHAPTER XXII
Sanjaya

[3. The Moralists - 332-336.]
CHAPTER XXIII
Teachers of Erotic Morals

CHAPTER XXIV
Teachers of Political Morals

CHAPTER XXV
Teachers of Juristic Morals


PART IV
PHILOSOPHY OF MAHAVIRA
Introductory

CHAPTER XXVI
Mahavira

CHAPTER XXVII
Conclusion
Notes and Appendix
Indexes
Bibliography

A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy

Item Code:
IDD470
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1998
Publisher:
Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN:
81-208-0796-0
Language:
English
Size:
10" X 6.5"
Pages:
466
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 850 gms
Price:
$40.00   Shipping Free
Notify me when this item is available
Notify me when this item is available
You will be notified when this item is available
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 5539 times since 1st Oct, 2010
PREFACE
The present work is substantially my thesis " Indian Philosophy—its origin and growth from the Vedas to the Buddha," submitted in 1917 to the University of London and approved in the same year for the DQ Lit degree. I can no longer regard it as the same Doctorate thesis, since it has been revised, altered and enlarged, though slightly, in the light of subsequent research. Consequently the title of the original thesis has been done away with and replaced by the present title “A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy." The Supplementary Discussions in Chapter XII, the Post- Script in Chapter XXI and the whole of the concluding chapter are later additions. None the less, the original thesis remains almost intact in this work in that the changes made therein are immaterial, the general arrangement of its chapters and sections as well as its main conclusions having suffered no violent alteration.

It would no doubt have been of some advantage to me, a novice that I am, to get the thesis printed and published in its approved form with the stamp of the University of London upon it. I could not really have made up my mind to publish the thesis in its present form, with certain additions and alterations specified above, but for the precious suggestions from Professor T. W. Rhys Davids and the kind encouragement of the Hon’ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, the President of the Council of Post-Graduate Teaching in Arts and the present Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University. I have nevertheless the satisfaction of seeing the work now published with the stamp of my former Alma Meters, the University- of Calcutta, and it has been to me not a little matter of pride that I found myself on my return from England in the midst of a band of arduous and talented researchers in the vast field of ancient Indian literature, history and culture, brought together from different parts of the world to advance the cause of learning under the guidance of so eminent a leader, scholar and educationist as Sir Asutosh. Nothing indeed could give me greater satisfaction than the relief I had felt on being back in the midst of my community which has not regarded me as an outcast, as well as my University which has not tailed to afford me facilities for work ; for, however rebellious in spirit one may he in matters of one’s social and religious views, and however insignificant may he one’s attainments abroad, nothing can he more painful and disappointing, I think, to a man than to and himself a stranger at home.

What this strangeness of situation means to an Indian returning home from foreign sojourn and to an Indian student of ancient Indian literature, history and culture returning to the institutions of his country can better be imagined than told. Just fancy what chagrin a sensible man is apt to feel when after long absence he returns home only to find that his parents, brothers, sisters and others whom he regards as very dear and near to him, are all reluctant, because of the fear of society, to receive him back freely in their midst, or how depressing is the atmosphere to a student who finds, in spite of his earnestness, that in the educational institutions of his country the subjects generally neglected and undervalued are precisely those which are productive and really matter most. Happily the times are being changed.

While I leave the book to he judged for what it is worth, I must say that it is not a dissertation on the history of Buddhism or Buddhist philosophy, the subject being re- served for a separate work. The investigation in it has been closed at n. point where the philosophical thoughts and scientific speculations of ancient India reached a stage of development, advanced enough to provide for a necessary antecedent condition of the rise of a powerful movement of thought, wholly Indian in origin and character, seeking to evolve a system of religious philosophy with the theory of causal genesis as its mainstay or fundamental and central idea. Lint the genetic connection of this work with Buddhism is twofold; (1) that it embodies the results of an investigation which was at first undertaken, at the instance of the late Rev.

Gunalankara Mahathera of Chittagong, to ascertain the immediate historical background of Buddhist thought; and (2) that the original data for the conception of a chronology of early Indian philosophy were derived from the Buddhist canon. It was mainly by the light of the evidence of the Tripitaka that I came to perceive three great synthetic divisions in the development of earlier thought. It was again a close comparative study of the first volume of the Digha Nikaya, published by the Pali Text Society, and the six Upanishads, edited and translated by Pandit Sitanath Tattva- bhusan, that first suggested to me the prospect of a very fruitful study of Buddhism, keeping it in constant relation to the earlier and contemporary indian thoughts in the midst of which it arose and without reference to which its true historical significance and value could not be properly comprehended, even if there were a hundred Buddhist commentators and exegetists like Buddhaghosa to write powerful expositions thereon. Further, l chanced upon a number of parallel passages in the Buddhist Pitakas, the Jaina Angas and the Mahabharata, having hearing upon many daring philosophical ideas new found embodied in the older Upanishads, the Aranyakas and a few selected later hymns of the Rig and Atharvavedasamhita. The evidences of these authorities have been found invaluable as throw in abundant light upon a very obscure hut highly important period of thought evolution that had immediately preceded the rise of Jainism, Buddhism and other later systems of Indian thought.

An independent study of the Upanisads and the canonical works of the Jains and the Buddhists made it increasingly clear to me that the so-called traditional interpretation of the ancient Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit texts had much in it which was an after-thought on the part of the learned scholiasts who, as it seemed to me, were guided more by an etymological conjecture than by a true spirit of research which one must always understand as a quest of truth for its I own sake. That there are immense possibilities of modern historical researches in the field of ancient Indian literature, history and culture can be accepted as a truism. When these researches will advance far enough, one is sure to find that the idea that has hitherto been formed of ancient Indian life and civilisation on the basis of traditional interpretation is in many regards misleading.

I can say that this work is to a large extent the result of an attempt to interpret the texts in their own light and inter-connection as well as to trace up the development of early Indian philosophy on divergent lines, out of a common background and substratum, and that in defiance of the persistent endeavors of the Indian commentators to prove that in the Vedic hymns and the Upanisads there are to be found only the unsystematic ideas of Vedanta. But to minimize the importance of their works in all respects would be to push off the ladder whereby one climbs up; for the indirect value of their writings as mine of historical information and suggestiveness is immense. The present work, when judged as a whole and contrasted with the previous works on the subject, will, I think, appear in many respects new of its kind. But here again to overlook the importance of the spade work done by the pioneers will be to show oneself wanting in gratitude for the invaluable services they have jointly and severally rendered. It is so easy or an unthinking youth to run into a mood of irreverence and to think that he is wiser than all his predecessors. My experience is that whenever a man begins to think he has discovered a new truth, he will be surprised some day to find that he was in some way or other anticipated by those who had gone before him. It is also my firm belief that no attempt is made in vain, and no work is useless if we know how to make proper use of it.

In a sense this book is the first definite expression of a dominant will to do some useful work in the world, regardless of the consideration of personal circumstances and equipment, no doubt under the belief, turning with every new success into stronger and stronger confidence, that present circum- stances may be unfavorable and equipment nil, yet the very desire to do something and constant acting up to it render at last what was once thought impossible, possible. ’|‘hat is to say, it is the first visible fruition of a series of attempts on the part of a student to fulfill in all earnestness the expectations entertained of him by his teachers and many benefactors, Indian and English, who have in manifold ways helped his will to follow its natural bent.

Looking into the genesis of the work, that is, back into my own life, I find that I am just one of the many students of modern Bengal whom Sir Asutosh gave, by timely concessions and patronage, the opportunity of working out the innermost scholarly ambition of their lives. I am doubly indebted to Sir Asutosh for the arrangements he so generously made |`or the publication of the work by the Calcutta University and the opportunity he gave me for continuing my research work in Calcutta. I am one of those persons who, though born in poor circumstances, have been able to struggle in the race of life with the kind help and encouragement of their kinsmen and countrymen. Almost from the beginning of my school career the Government have liberally helped me by the grant of free-studentship and special scholarships in prosecuting my studies in India and in England. W need hardly say that but for such generous help from Government the desire that impelled me to move in this direction would have been baffled. The foremost among those whose sympathy was of great service to me in securing Government help, particularly in obtaining a special State scholarship in 19144 for the scientific study of Pali in Europe is the Hon’ble Mr. H. Sharp, Secretary to the Education Department of the Government of India. In connection with this State scholarship my gratitude is also due `to H. E. Sir Harcourt Butler, then Education Member of the Governor General’s Council and Sir E. Denison Ross, Keeper of Imperial Records, Calcutta, now Director of the School of Oriental Studies in London, who made out a special case for the Buddhist community of Bengal on the representation of its interests by the Chittagong and Bengal Buddhist Associations. Among my Indian teachers, the late Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, Principal of the Sanskrit College, Calcutta, had always fostered my literary aspirations and tried in every possible way to make my path smooth. His unexpected death has left a gap in the ranks of Oriental scholarship that will yet take a long time to be filled up in Bengal.

I owe a very deep debt of gratitude to Professor T. W. Arnold, and then Secretary, in the India Office, for Indian students, for it was mainly through his kind guidance and keen personal interest that I was able to complete my course of studies in England leading to the D. Lit degree. I am also grateful to him for procuring for me permission of the authorities of the London County Council to use its library and see the working of the primary and secondary schools under its control. Here I must also mention the names of Mr. N. C. Sen, then Local Adviser to Indian Students in London, Mr. R. E. Field, Warden at 2l, Cromwell Road and Miss E. J. Beck, Honorary Secretary to the National Indian Association, who by their sympathy and encouragement helped me a great deal in peacefully carrying on my research work. I would pay but a scanty tribute to Dr. Mabel H. Bode, then Lecturer in Pali, University College, London, were I merely to say that she ably guided me in my work, for she really helped me in a hundred other ways, particularly by placing me into close touch with many erudite scholars. I am ever so much indebted to Professor T. W. Rhys Davids and Mrs. Rhys Davids, neither of whom failed to guide me in my researches by their precious suggestions and constructive criticism. The fourteen discourses of Professor Rhys Davids on the scientific method of investigation, delivered at the instance of the India Office for my guidance, helped me considerably in imbibing the modern western spirit of research. But it is Dr. Dawes Hicks, Senior Professor of Philosophy, University College, London, who had initiated me in the present historical method of the study of philosophy. I must acknowledge that his lectures on Greek philosophy and modern European thought from Descartes to Kant were found much helpful to me.

A deep debt of gratitude is due also to Professor L. T. Barnett, Keeper of Oriental Manuscripts in the British Museum, for he was the first to reuse in me an interest in the study of Jaina literature, and he helped me also considerably by calling my attention to a few important Tamil works bearing upon my subject. I do not and words to express my obligation to Dr. F. W. Thomas in whom and in whose wife I found much hospitality, the door of whose cottage was open always to the Indologists hailing from all parts of the world. Dr. Thomas never failed to show me kindness in allowing me, in the midst of his arduous duties as Librarian of the India Office Library, to read to him the successive chapters of my thesis as they were written out. I derived much benefit from discussion of several disputed points of interpretation and history, with him and with l) Barnett. Professor L. T. Hobhouse has placed me under a deep obligation by revising the thesis from the European point of view, particularly in regard to the interpretation of Greek Philosophy, before it was handed over to the press.

The points in which he has different have been mentioned in the foot-notes. The kind words of encouragement from Mr. H. M. Percival, late Professor, Presidency College, Calcutta, my friend Dr. Pramatha Nath Banerjea, Minto Professor of Economics, Calcutta University, then in England, the late lamented Sir Henry Cotton, Dr. Carveth Read and Sir Thomas Gregory Foster, Provost, University College, London, served as a great stimulant to my research "work especially at its inception. Vivid in my mind is the memory of the goodness of Mr. and Mrs. Grubb, under whose roof and beneficent care I revised my work and portably spent the last year of my sojourn in England in seeing g something of the present social, religious and political life of the country. Sir Michael E. Sadler, late President of the Calcutta University Commission, has done me much honour by his courtesy in going through portions of the thesis and offering me some fruitful suggestions.

In this connation I have also to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. P. J. Hartog, Vice-Chancellor of the Dacca University, who as the then Academic Registrar of London University, had done all he could to see me established in Calcutta. Mr. W. R. Gourlay, Private Secretary to H. E. the Governor of Bengal and Rai Dr. Chunilal Bose Bahadur, Sheriff of Calcutta, are two of those kind-hearted gentlemen who have hitherto taken a keen interest in me and my research works at the Calcutta University. I must also put on record my deep sense of gratitude to H. E. Lord Ronald shay, Governor of Bengal, who has very generously shown genuine sympathy with my researches in the Held of early Indian Philosophy, particularly in that of Buddhism. His Excellency enjoys the reputation of a great champion of the cause of I11dian Philosophy in that he has always tried to impress the importance of the subject on the minds of the framers of the University education scheme, and expressed it as a profound anomaly that the subject has not been given any place in Indian colleges.

My gratitude is also due to Mr. W. C. Wordsworth, Officiating Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, for the encouragement I received from him and his kind enquiries concerning the work I had done in England. He himself is interested in the study of Indian philosophy as he expressed to me in course of conversation, and he too regretted the absence of any provision for the proper study of this subject in this country. Some important additions to the original thesis made in this work, were kindly suggested to me by Kabibhaskar Sreejut sasankra Mohan Sen, "Gopaldas Chowdhury" Lecture in Bengali, Calcutta University, in whom I have found a great Bengali poet and a thoroughbred student of Hindu literature and philosophy. My sincere tl1anks are also due to my friend and colleague Professor Sailendranath Mitra, and to Rai Saheb Dineschandra Sen, the historian of Bengali literature, Mr. Johan Van Manen, Librarian of the Imperial Library, Calcutta, and my friend Babu Prabhat Chandra Chakrabartty, Lecturer in Sanskrit, Calcutta University, for kindly aiding me by reading occasionally through the proofs of the book and offering me some valuable suggestions. I am thankful to my pupil, friend and colleague Babu "Prabodh Chandra Bengali, Lecturer in Ancient Indian history and Culture, for the kind help he has rende1 and me by preparing the Indexes. Lastly, I must offer my sincere thanks to Mr. A. C. Ghatak, Superintendent of the Calcutta University Press, and his assistants for the keen personal interest they have taken in seeing the book through the press.

About the Book:

The Present work is designed to survey the evolution of philosophical thought in the Vedic and post-Vedic periods preceding the rise of Jainism and Buddhism. The author has traced up the development of early Indian philosophy on divergent lines on the basis of the Rgveda, Atharvaveda, Aranyakas, the order Upanisads and the allied literature.

The work is divided into four parts: each part is divided into several chapters. Part I deals with Vedic philosophy; Part II with post-Vedic philosophy; Part III with the philosophy of transitional period before Mahavira and Buddha and Part IV with the philosophy of Mahavira.

The author has exploited the original Indian sources and in defiance of several scholiasts has proved that the process of early Indian thought evolution is neither unscientific nor unsystematic.

The work throws abundant light upon a very obscure and highly important period of Indian thought. It is also a very useful study for ascertaining the immediate background of Buddhistic philosophy.

CONTENTS

Praface

PART I
VEDIC PHILOSOPHY
Introductory

CHAPTER I
Aghamarsana
Prajapati Paramesthin
Brahmanaspati
Anila

CHAPTER II
Dirghatamas and Narayana

CHAPTER III
Hiranyagarbha and Visvakarman

PART II
POST-VEDIC PHILOSOPHY
Introductory

CHAPTER IV
Mahidasa Aitareya

CHAPTER V
Of the Thinkers before Uddalaka
  1. Suravira-Sakalya
    Mandukeya-Kauntharvya
    Raikva
    Badhva
    Sandilya
    Satyakama Jabala
    Jaivali
CHAPTER VI
  1. Gargyayana
CHAPTER VII
  1. Pratardana
CHAPTER VIII
Uddalaka

CHAPTER IX
Varuna

CHAPTER X
Balaki and Ajatasatru

CHAPTER XI
Yajnavalkya

CHAPTER XII
Supplementary Discussions

PART III
PHILOSOPHY BEFORE MAHAVIRA AND BUDDHA
Introductory

[1. The Metaphysicians 196-198.]
CHAPTER XIII
[Exponents of] the Doctrine of Time

CHAPTER XIV
Asuri

CHAPTER XV
Pippalada

CHAPTER XVI
Bharadvaja

CHAPTER XVII
Naciketas

CHAPTER XVIII
Purna Kasyapa

CHAPTER XIX
Kakuda Katyayana

CHAPTER XX
Ajita Kesakambalin

CHAPTER XXI
Maskarin Gosala

[2. The Sceptics - 318-324]
CHAPTER XXII
Sanjaya

[3. The Moralists - 332-336.]
CHAPTER XXIII
Teachers of Erotic Morals

CHAPTER XXIV
Teachers of Political Morals

CHAPTER XXV
Teachers of Juristic Morals


PART IV
PHILOSOPHY OF MAHAVIRA
Introductory

CHAPTER XXVI
Mahavira

CHAPTER XXVII
Conclusion
Notes and Appendix
Indexes
Bibliography
Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Related Items

Pre-Dinnaga Buddhist Texts On Logic From Chinese Sources
by Giuseppe Tucci
Paperback (Edition: 1998)
Pilgrims Books House, Nepal
Item Code: IDI636
$29.50
History of The Punjab (From Pre-Historic Times to The Age of Asoka)
by L. M. Joshi
Hardcover (Edition: 1997)
Publication Bureau Punjab University
Item Code: NAJ588
$30.00
BUDDHIST MONKS AND MONASTERIES OF INDIA (Their History and Their Contribution to Indian Culture)
by SUKUMAR DUTT
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDD463
$50.00
Buddhist Philosophy in India and Ceylon
by A. Berriedale Keith
Hardcover (Edition: 2002)
Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office
Item Code: IDG323
$27.50
A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two
by Hajime Nakamura
Hardcover (Edition: 2004)
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDE528
$50.00
Indian Philosophy (3 Vols. Set)
by Jadunath Sinha
Hardcover (Edition: 2015)
Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDD348
$275.00
Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (Set of 20 Books)
Hardcover
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAL124
$995.00
A Historical-Development Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals
by Rajendra Prasad
Hardcover (Edition: 2009)
Centre For Studies in Civilizations
Item Code: NAD614
$85.00
A Conceptual-Analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals
by Rajendra Prasad
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
Centre For Studies in Civilizations
Item Code: NAD619
$70.00
Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (Volume -IV) Samkhya
by Larson & Bhattacharya
Hardcover (Edition: 2012)
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Item Code: IHE074
$60.00
Outlines of Indian Philosophy
by M. Hiriyanna
Paperback (Edition: 2014)
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDE225
$25.00
Logic, Language and Reality {Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues}
by Bimal Krishna Matilal
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Item Code: IDK358
$45.00
SOLD
Outlines of Indian Philosophy
by M. Hiriyanna
Hardcover (Edition: 2005)
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDE224
$26.00

Testimonials

I’ve received my blue scarf and I am delighted. I am impressed by your professionalism. Thank you so much! I will place another order soon.
Celine, France
Received the consignment in time. Excellent service. I place on record your prompt service and excellent way the product was packed and sent. Kindly accept my appreciation and thanks for all those involved in this work. My prayers t the Almighty to continue the excellent service for the many more years to come. Long live EXOTIC INDIA and its employees
N.KALAICHELVAN, Tamil Nadu
A very thorough and beautiful website and webstore. I have tried for several years to get this Bhagavad Gita Home Study Course from Arshavidya and have been unable. Was so pleased to find it in your store!
George Marshall
A big fan of Exotic India. Have been for years and years. I am always certain to find exactly what I am looking for in your merchandise.
John Dash, western New York, USA
I just got my order and it’s exactly as I hoped it would be!
Nancy, USA.
It is amazing. I am really very very happy with your excellent service. I received the book today in an awesome condition. Thanks again.
Shambhu, New York.
Thank you for making available some many amazing literary works!
Parmanand Jagnandan, USA
I have been very happy with your service in selling Puranas. I have bought several in the past and am happy with the packaging and care you exhibit. Thank you for this Divine Service.
Raj, USA
Thank you very much! My grandpa received the book today and the smile you put on his face was priceless. He has been trying to order this book from other companies for months now. He only recently asked me for help and you have made this transaction so easy. My grandpa is so happy he wants to order two more copies. I am currently in the process of ordering 2 more.
Rinay, Australia
I would just let you know that today I received my order. It was packed so beautifully and what lovely service.
Caroline, Australia
TRUSTe online privacy certification
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2016 © Exotic India