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Books > Buddhist > Materials for the study of Aryadeva Dharmapala and Candrakirti: The Catuhsataka of Aryadeva, Chapters XII and XIIIth with the Commentaries of Dharamapala and Candrakirti
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Materials for the study of Aryadeva Dharmapala and Candrakirti: The Catuhsataka of Aryadeva, Chapters XII and XIIIth with the Commentaries of Dharamapala and Candrakirti
Materials for the study of Aryadeva Dharmapala and Candrakirti: The Catuhsataka of Aryadeva, Chapters XII and XIIIth with the Commentaries of Dharamapala and Candrakirti
Description
From the jacket

Aryadeva’s Catuhsataka along with the work of Nagarjuna provided the philosophical basis for much of subsequent Mahayana Buddhism. Like Nagarjuna’s Mulama-dhyamakakarikas, it too was commented upon by Vijnanavada or Idealist, thinkers as well as by those of the Madhyamaka or “Middle Way” school. Thus the Catuhsataka was interpreted in very different and yet philosophically rich fashion by its sixth century commentator’s dharmapala and Candrakirti the former saw it as only refuting ascription of imagined natures (parikalpitasvabhava) to phenomena while leaving real natures untouched; the latter interpreted Aryadeva’s work as a thoroughgoing rejection of all real intrinsic nature whatsoever. Tom Tillemans, in this reprint of his 1990 doctoral thesis takes up the key themes in Dharmapala and Candrakirti’s philosophies and translate two chapter from their respective works on catuhsataka both commentaries had a strong influence on subsequent Buddhism Candrakirti’s was imported for Tibetan development Dharmapala played a formative role in the increasingly marked differentiations between Vijnanavada and Madhyamaka philosophies.

Author of the book

Tom J.F Tillemans is an expatriate Canadian who since 1992 has been professor of Buddhist studies at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also the secretary- general of the international association of Buddhist studies.

His research centers on Madhyamaka philosophy and Buddhist logic and epistemology in Indian and Tibetan traditions His published books include scripture logic language essays on Dharmakirti and his Tibetan successor [studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism wisdom publication Boston 1999] as well as dharmakirti pramanavarttika An annotated translation of the fourth chapter (pararathanumana volume 1)[ Verlag der Oesterreichischen akademie der wissenschaften Vienna 2000]

Preface

The following work takes as it nucleus a series of seminars given by Prof. J. May during which over a number of summer semesters we read the Sanskrit text of Aryadeva’s Catuhsataka (CS) and Candrakirti’s Catuhsatakavrtti (CSV). Subsequently in Japan while working mainly on Dharmakirti with Prof. S. katsura, I began to read the Chinese commentary of Dharmapala and was impressed with the importance and philosophical interest of the latter text not only for understanding Aryadeva in a different manner, but also for its connections with the Epistemological school founded by Dignaga.

Below the reader will find translation of two chapters from Aryadeva Candrakirti and Dharmapala chapter which are diverse in style and contents, CS XII and its commentaries being largely rhetorical- a polemic against the infidels – while the subsequent chapter on perception and its commentaries are full of dense philosophical argumentations My approach has been in effect to show a representative sample of Candrakirti and Dharmapala’s interpretation of Aryadeva. Nonetheless two chapter are hardly exhaustive: we should mention that the eighth chapter Dharmapala’s commentary which is of considerable philosophical and historical interest remains to be translated.

The translations are preceded by a three chapter introduction. The first seeks to present the usual introductory matters such as material on previous research lives dates and works of the authors as well as few methodological points. The subsequent two chapter are loosely based on topics in the commentaries to CS XII and XIII numerous arguments, I have preferred to treat of the dominant themes in CS XIII and XIII by placing them in a larger context of Yogacara and madhyamaka philosophies Nonetheless the structure of the arguments themselves should be comprehensible from the subheading which I have added to the translation and from the presentation of rgyal tshab Dar ma rin chen’s topical outlines which I have appended to the introduction.

A few brief words are in order on the transcription of Tibetan and Chinese words and on some other conventions which I have adopted. Tibetan transcription is in the system recommended by the American Library Association and the “Verein Deutscher Bibliotheakre” that is with the n+ superdot (n) n+ tilde (n) z + accent aigu(z) and s+ accent aigu(s) instead of the ng, ny, zh, sh which one would us in the system of T. Wylie. (see e.g Steinkellner and Tauscher 1983 p. ix or Mimaki 1976 p.185 for the details) Chinese is transcribe in Pinyin with the first tone (flat) being indicated by macrons (i.e a, e, i) second tone (rising) by an accent aigu (i.e a, e, i etc) the third tone (falling rising) by a superscribed v (i.e a, e, i, o, u ) and fourth tone (falling) by means of an accent grave ( a, e, I, etc) I have repunctuated the Trish’s Chinese text by placing a small circle (i.e) beside the character which I take as ending the Chinese sentence The Taisho’s own rather misleading punctuation consisting in points after the character can safely be ignored Footnotes are used in the introductory chapter while endnotes figure in the translations. The former are indicated simply by superscribed numbers whereas the letter are indicated in the text by numbers in parentheses the actual endnotes themselves being found in the section “Notes to the Translation”. In cross-references and in the indexes “footnote” is abbreviation by “fn” and “endnote” by “en.” Finally it may be remarked that many Sanskrit words such as “Dharma” “karma” and “nirvana” have been left unutilized this is because they are now bona fide English words Nonetheless in many cases such as “Skanda”, “sraddha”, “Dharmakya” etc where the reader might very well have difficulties I have still followed a more conservative approach i.e. putting the term in italics and providing a translation for a partial list of these surprising new English words included in Webster’s third new International dictionary see Jackson(1982).

Numerous are those who have in one way or another assisted me in accomplishing this work amongst them let me single out a few names for special mention First and foremost is Jacques may who was the director of my theses and who has shown me great personal kindness and careful guidance over the years that I have been in Switzerland. My gratitude also goes to the other members of the jury i.e. J.F Billeter, J. Bronkhorst and D.S Ruegg, as well as to Shoryu Katsura and (last but not least) to Ernst steinkellner for his encouragement and willingness to publish this work Karen Lang, who has made and is making important contribution on the catuhsataka has kindly provided Prof. May and me with copies of her publication. Her work has been of constant use to me and has been consulted at every stage in working on the CS and CSV. As in the case of Richard Hayes recent book on Dignaga which is also a valuable contribution my occasional disagreements should not at all be misinterpreted they are hopefully constructive disagreement and are intended as such.

Tony Duff of help computer consulting in boulder, Colorado, has the incalculable merit satisfactorily solving the problem of printing Sanskrit Tibetan and pinyin diacritical marks Georges Dreyfus with whom I’ve had a running dialogue on common philosophical concerns for approximately ten years has had an important influence on the development of my ideas no doubt many of our discussion have in one way or another found their course into the position which I have adopted in this book finally my sincere thanks to my parents and especially to my wife Shelley whose support comments and patience were indispensable to my being able to accomplish this work.

Financial support was gratefully received from the Japanese Ministry of education (1983-85) the social science and humanities Research council of Canada (1984-85) and the Fonds national Suisse de la recherché scientific (1985 until the present ) the university partially subsidized the costs of publications.

Analytical Table of Contents

Volume I

Preface vii
Abbreviationsxv
Bibliographyxvii
1 Introductory remarks1
A. past research on the catuhsataka and its commentaries
the scope of our project
1
B. Lives and works of Aryaveda Dharmapala and
candrakirti
5
C. Some methodological remarks14
1. The question of an Indo-Tibetan approach 14
2. can we legitimately speak of Dignaga Dharmapala
and Dharmakirti as belonging to one unified school?
18
IIThe problem of Scriptural Authority23
A. The Epistemological school’s position24
B. Aryaveda Dharmapala and Candrakirti29
C. Some final remarks on appeals to authority32
IIICandrakirti and Dharmapala on Perception37
A. Candrakirti on perception and the status of the given41
B. Dharmapala on perception54
IVA summary of our arguments in chapter II and III67
A. The problem of scriptural authority 67
B. candrakirti on perception and the status of the given67
C. Dharmapala on perception68
Appendix I: texts and translations from PSV and PST;
A note on Dharmakirti’s and Dignaga’s apoha
69
Appendix II: remarks on the catuskoti 72
Appendix III. Rgyal Tshab Rje’s Topical outlines
to catusatakavrtti XII
77
Appendix III. Rgyal Tshab Rje’s Topical outlines
to catusatakavrtti XIII
81
English translation 85
Dharmapala’s Commentary to the Catuhsataka
Chapter IV Refutation of heretical Views 87
A. The Qualities of the auditors of the teaching 87
B. The outsider’s and Buddhist notions of liberation
compared
88
C. The problem of the authority of the outsiders
and Buddhist treatises and scriptures
90
1. The outsiders objection 90
2. The Buddhist reply appealing to voidness 91
3.Voidness 92
4. The outsiders are untrustworthy 93
5. Arguments against the Vaisesikas 94
6. Arguments against the Samkhyas 96
7. Conclusions and rhetorical97
D. The fear of nirvana99
E. Moral and philosophical faults compared102
F. Selflessness ( nairatmya)102
1. Debates 102
2. Consequence of inappropriately teaching
selflessness
104
3. Selflessness was not taught for the sake
of arguments
106
G. Arguments against the Brahmins and jains108
1. Refutation of the Vedas 109
2. Jains and Brahmins compared109
3. Refutation of asceticism and high birth
as means to liberation
110
H. Resume of the buddhadharma 112
I. Conclusions113
Catuhsatakavrtti XII Refutation of heretical views115
A. The qualities of the auditors of the teaching 115
B. The outsiders and Buddhists notions of liberation
compared
117
1. Citations and some grammatical remarks117
2. The outsiders do not know the method for
liberation
119
C. The problem of the authority of the outsiders
and Buddhist treatises and scriptures
120
1. Citations120
2. The untrustworthiness of the outsiders121
D. Fear of voidness and nirvana122
E. Moral and philosophical faults compared124
F. Selflessness (nairamya)125
1. Consequence of teaching selflessness 125
2. Explaining what selflessness is126
3. Selflessness was not taught for the sake of
argumentation
128
G. Arguments against the Brahmins and jains130
1. jains and Brahmins compared131
2. Refutation of asceticism and high birth as means
to liberation
132
H. Resume of the buddhadharma132
I. Conclusions133
Dharmapala’s Commentary to the catuhasataka
chapter V refutation of the sense organs and their
objects
135
Part I: Sense objects135
A. Against samkhya refuting sense object because
one never sees the whole
135
B. All sense objects are to be similarly refuted 136
C. One cannot see the whole object by merely seeing its
visual form
137
1. Discussion as to whether the visual form itself
is indeed perceptible
137
2. The whole form cannot be seen138
D. Against Buddhist vaibhasikas and other realists part whole
arguments used against various positions on the reality of atoms
139
1. Sadhyasama139
2. Atoms and aksara are anagous140
E. Examination of the Abhirdharma’s notion of the domain
of visual from (rupayatana) the relationship between
shape and colour
141
1. Shape is not different from colour141
2. Shape is not the same as colour143
3. Shape colour and atoms143
F. Critique of vaisesika position144
1. Refuting the Vaisesika views on colour and their
causes substance are not the cause for colour
145
2. Refuting the Vaisesika views on colour and their
causes colourness is not the cause for colour
145
3. The vaisesika view that the eye the body
apprehend earth water and fire
147
4. Substances like earth etc are in fact
imperceptible
148
5. General refutation of the outsiders and the
other Buddhist vehicles
149
Part II Sense Organs150
A. Refuting other Buddhist school’s positions on the
reality of the sense organs
150
1. All sense organs are like in being derivatives
from the elements why then do only the eyes see?
150
2. the view that the sense organs characters are
the same but their functions differ
150
3. Could the eyes and other organs have different
characters because they exist separately from the
elements?
151
4. The view that it is the combination of karma and
the elements which produces the different effects
such as vision hearing etc.
152
5. Does one karma cause different effects? 152
6. Could the powers of karma alone produce the
different effects?
153
7. Conclusion Karma is responsible for the sense
organs but its unanalydable and inconceivable
154
B. Refutation of the samkhyas view that form etc.
are apprehended by the sense organs and the inner mind
155
C. refuting prapyakaritvavada – contact between the
object and the sense organs
156
D. refuting aprapyakaritvavada – no contact between
the object and the sense organs
157
E. Refutations of the samkhyas position that the eye
and its object are fundamentally identical
159
F. Refutations of the aulukyas (vaiesesikas) 160
1. Refuting the vaisesikas four condition for
vision
161
2. Buddhist Hinayana views also refuted by the same
arguments
161
3. Conclusions 162
G. Critique of sounds and words 162
1. Critique of sounds universal characters 163
2. Refuting prapyakaritvavada and aprapyakaritavavada
with regard to sound
165
3. Sounds cannot be cognized in their totality 165
4. Temporal arguments against the reality of sounds 166
H. Critique of some Samkhyas view on the mind (manas)167
I. Discussion of notions (samjna) 168
J. The unreality of consciousness169
1. Debates about illusions 170
2. dharmapala’s position 171
K. Replying to the charge that the madhyamaka is
simply counterintuitive
171
L. Similes for dhrama’s mode of existence172
Catuhsatakavrtti XIII Refutation of the sense organs and
their objects
175
Part I sense objects 175
A. Refuting sense objects because one never sees
the whole
175
1. Debate with the logicians on pratyaksa176
2. Candrakirti’s view it is the object which is
prayaksa rather than the mind
178
3. Conclusions 179
B. All sense objects are to be similarly refuted 179
C. One cannot see the whole object by merely seeing its
visual form
180
D. Part whole arguments applied to visual form
and atoms
180
1. Sadhyasama 181
2. Atoms and aksara are analogous 181
E. Examination of the abhidharma notion rupayatana
the relationship between shape and colour
182
F. critique of form and its causes i.e the elements 183
1. The view that form and its causes are not
different
183
2. the view that form and its causes are different 184
G. Refuting perceptibility 184
Part II Sense Organs185
A. Refuting other Buddhist school’s positions on the
reality the sense organs
185
1. All sense organs are alike in being derivatives
from the elements why then do only the eyes see?
185
2. Karma is responsible for the sense organs but is
unanalysable and inconceivable
186
B. The view that the eyes etc must exist because we
observe their effects viz the sense consciousness
187
C. Refuting aprapyakaritvavada – contact between the
object and the sense organs
188
D. Refuting aprapyakaritvavada – no contact between the
object and the sense organs
189
E. Sight is not the nature of the eye 190
F. Refuting the Buddhist three conditions for vision 190
G. Critique of sounds and words 191
H. Critique of the mind (manas) 192
I. Discussion of notions (samjna) 193
J. The unreality of consciousness 194
K. Replying to the charge that the Madhyamaka is simply
counterintuitive
196
L. Similes for dharma mode of existence 197
1. Explanation 197
2. Citations 198
Notes to the Translations 201
A. Notes to Dharmapala’s commentary chapter IV 203
B. Notes to Catuhsatakavrtti XII 234
C. Notes to Dharmapala’s commentary chapter V 246
D. Notes to Catuhsatakavrtti XIII 271
Volume II
Preface to the texts and indexes iii
Table of contents v
Abbreviations and Sigla vi
Sanskrit and Tibetan texts of Catuhsatakavrtti XII 1
Sanskrit and Tibetan texts of Catuhsatakavrtti XIII 59
Chinese of dharmapala’s commentary 129
Chapter IV 131
Chapter V 138
Indexes147
Sanskrit terms 149
Tibetan terms 160
Chinese terms 165
Proper terms 180

Materials for the study of Aryadeva Dharmapala and Candrakirti: The Catuhsataka of Aryadeva, Chapters XII and XIIIth with the Commentaries of Dharamapala and Candrakirti

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From the jacket

Aryadeva’s Catuhsataka along with the work of Nagarjuna provided the philosophical basis for much of subsequent Mahayana Buddhism. Like Nagarjuna’s Mulama-dhyamakakarikas, it too was commented upon by Vijnanavada or Idealist, thinkers as well as by those of the Madhyamaka or “Middle Way” school. Thus the Catuhsataka was interpreted in very different and yet philosophically rich fashion by its sixth century commentator’s dharmapala and Candrakirti the former saw it as only refuting ascription of imagined natures (parikalpitasvabhava) to phenomena while leaving real natures untouched; the latter interpreted Aryadeva’s work as a thoroughgoing rejection of all real intrinsic nature whatsoever. Tom Tillemans, in this reprint of his 1990 doctoral thesis takes up the key themes in Dharmapala and Candrakirti’s philosophies and translate two chapter from their respective works on catuhsataka both commentaries had a strong influence on subsequent Buddhism Candrakirti’s was imported for Tibetan development Dharmapala played a formative role in the increasingly marked differentiations between Vijnanavada and Madhyamaka philosophies.

Author of the book

Tom J.F Tillemans is an expatriate Canadian who since 1992 has been professor of Buddhist studies at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also the secretary- general of the international association of Buddhist studies.

His research centers on Madhyamaka philosophy and Buddhist logic and epistemology in Indian and Tibetan traditions His published books include scripture logic language essays on Dharmakirti and his Tibetan successor [studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism wisdom publication Boston 1999] as well as dharmakirti pramanavarttika An annotated translation of the fourth chapter (pararathanumana volume 1)[ Verlag der Oesterreichischen akademie der wissenschaften Vienna 2000]

Preface

The following work takes as it nucleus a series of seminars given by Prof. J. May during which over a number of summer semesters we read the Sanskrit text of Aryadeva’s Catuhsataka (CS) and Candrakirti’s Catuhsatakavrtti (CSV). Subsequently in Japan while working mainly on Dharmakirti with Prof. S. katsura, I began to read the Chinese commentary of Dharmapala and was impressed with the importance and philosophical interest of the latter text not only for understanding Aryadeva in a different manner, but also for its connections with the Epistemological school founded by Dignaga.

Below the reader will find translation of two chapters from Aryadeva Candrakirti and Dharmapala chapter which are diverse in style and contents, CS XII and its commentaries being largely rhetorical- a polemic against the infidels – while the subsequent chapter on perception and its commentaries are full of dense philosophical argumentations My approach has been in effect to show a representative sample of Candrakirti and Dharmapala’s interpretation of Aryadeva. Nonetheless two chapter are hardly exhaustive: we should mention that the eighth chapter Dharmapala’s commentary which is of considerable philosophical and historical interest remains to be translated.

The translations are preceded by a three chapter introduction. The first seeks to present the usual introductory matters such as material on previous research lives dates and works of the authors as well as few methodological points. The subsequent two chapter are loosely based on topics in the commentaries to CS XII and XIII numerous arguments, I have preferred to treat of the dominant themes in CS XIII and XIII by placing them in a larger context of Yogacara and madhyamaka philosophies Nonetheless the structure of the arguments themselves should be comprehensible from the subheading which I have added to the translation and from the presentation of rgyal tshab Dar ma rin chen’s topical outlines which I have appended to the introduction.

A few brief words are in order on the transcription of Tibetan and Chinese words and on some other conventions which I have adopted. Tibetan transcription is in the system recommended by the American Library Association and the “Verein Deutscher Bibliotheakre” that is with the n+ superdot (n) n+ tilde (n) z + accent aigu(z) and s+ accent aigu(s) instead of the ng, ny, zh, sh which one would us in the system of T. Wylie. (see e.g Steinkellner and Tauscher 1983 p. ix or Mimaki 1976 p.185 for the details) Chinese is transcribe in Pinyin with the first tone (flat) being indicated by macrons (i.e a, e, i) second tone (rising) by an accent aigu (i.e a, e, i etc) the third tone (falling rising) by a superscribed v (i.e a, e, i, o, u ) and fourth tone (falling) by means of an accent grave ( a, e, I, etc) I have repunctuated the Trish’s Chinese text by placing a small circle (i.e) beside the character which I take as ending the Chinese sentence The Taisho’s own rather misleading punctuation consisting in points after the character can safely be ignored Footnotes are used in the introductory chapter while endnotes figure in the translations. The former are indicated simply by superscribed numbers whereas the letter are indicated in the text by numbers in parentheses the actual endnotes themselves being found in the section “Notes to the Translation”. In cross-references and in the indexes “footnote” is abbreviation by “fn” and “endnote” by “en.” Finally it may be remarked that many Sanskrit words such as “Dharma” “karma” and “nirvana” have been left unutilized this is because they are now bona fide English words Nonetheless in many cases such as “Skanda”, “sraddha”, “Dharmakya” etc where the reader might very well have difficulties I have still followed a more conservative approach i.e. putting the term in italics and providing a translation for a partial list of these surprising new English words included in Webster’s third new International dictionary see Jackson(1982).

Numerous are those who have in one way or another assisted me in accomplishing this work amongst them let me single out a few names for special mention First and foremost is Jacques may who was the director of my theses and who has shown me great personal kindness and careful guidance over the years that I have been in Switzerland. My gratitude also goes to the other members of the jury i.e. J.F Billeter, J. Bronkhorst and D.S Ruegg, as well as to Shoryu Katsura and (last but not least) to Ernst steinkellner for his encouragement and willingness to publish this work Karen Lang, who has made and is making important contribution on the catuhsataka has kindly provided Prof. May and me with copies of her publication. Her work has been of constant use to me and has been consulted at every stage in working on the CS and CSV. As in the case of Richard Hayes recent book on Dignaga which is also a valuable contribution my occasional disagreements should not at all be misinterpreted they are hopefully constructive disagreement and are intended as such.

Tony Duff of help computer consulting in boulder, Colorado, has the incalculable merit satisfactorily solving the problem of printing Sanskrit Tibetan and pinyin diacritical marks Georges Dreyfus with whom I’ve had a running dialogue on common philosophical concerns for approximately ten years has had an important influence on the development of my ideas no doubt many of our discussion have in one way or another found their course into the position which I have adopted in this book finally my sincere thanks to my parents and especially to my wife Shelley whose support comments and patience were indispensable to my being able to accomplish this work.

Financial support was gratefully received from the Japanese Ministry of education (1983-85) the social science and humanities Research council of Canada (1984-85) and the Fonds national Suisse de la recherché scientific (1985 until the present ) the university partially subsidized the costs of publications.

Analytical Table of Contents

Volume I

Preface vii
Abbreviationsxv
Bibliographyxvii
1 Introductory remarks1
A. past research on the catuhsataka and its commentaries
the scope of our project
1
B. Lives and works of Aryaveda Dharmapala and
candrakirti
5
C. Some methodological remarks14
1. The question of an Indo-Tibetan approach 14
2. can we legitimately speak of Dignaga Dharmapala
and Dharmakirti as belonging to one unified school?
18
IIThe problem of Scriptural Authority23
A. The Epistemological school’s position24
B. Aryaveda Dharmapala and Candrakirti29
C. Some final remarks on appeals to authority32
IIICandrakirti and Dharmapala on Perception37
A. Candrakirti on perception and the status of the given41
B. Dharmapala on perception54
IVA summary of our arguments in chapter II and III67
A. The problem of scriptural authority 67
B. candrakirti on perception and the status of the given67
C. Dharmapala on perception68
Appendix I: texts and translations from PSV and PST;
A note on Dharmakirti’s and Dignaga’s apoha
69
Appendix II: remarks on the catuskoti 72
Appendix III. Rgyal Tshab Rje’s Topical outlines
to catusatakavrtti XII
77
Appendix III. Rgyal Tshab Rje’s Topical outlines
to catusatakavrtti XIII
81
English translation 85
Dharmapala’s Commentary to the Catuhsataka
Chapter IV Refutation of heretical Views 87
A. The Qualities of the auditors of the teaching 87
B. The outsider’s and Buddhist notions of liberation
compared
88
C. The problem of the authority of the outsiders
and Buddhist treatises and scriptures
90
1. The outsiders objection 90
2. The Buddhist reply appealing to voidness 91
3.Voidness 92
4. The outsiders are untrustworthy 93
5. Arguments against the Vaisesikas 94
6. Arguments against the Samkhyas 96
7. Conclusions and rhetorical97
D. The fear of nirvana99
E. Moral and philosophical faults compared102
F. Selflessness ( nairatmya)102
1. Debates 102
2. Consequence of inappropriately teaching
selflessness
104
3. Selflessness was not taught for the sake
of arguments
106
G. Arguments against the Brahmins and jains108
1. Refutation of the Vedas 109
2. Jains and Brahmins compared109
3. Refutation of asceticism and high birth
as means to liberation
110
H. Resume of the buddhadharma 112
I. Conclusions113
Catuhsatakavrtti XII Refutation of heretical views115
A. The qualities of the auditors of the teaching 115
B. The outsiders and Buddhists notions of liberation
compared
117
1. Citations and some grammatical remarks117
2. The outsiders do not know the method for
liberation
119
C. The problem of the authority of the outsiders
and Buddhist treatises and scriptures
120
1. Citations120
2. The untrustworthiness of the outsiders121
D. Fear of voidness and nirvana122
E. Moral and philosophical faults compared124
F. Selflessness (nairamya)125
1. Consequence of teaching selflessness 125
2. Explaining what selflessness is126
3. Selflessness was not taught for the sake of
argumentation
128
G. Arguments against the Brahmins and jains130
1. jains and Brahmins compared131
2. Refutation of asceticism and high birth as means
to liberation
132
H. Resume of the buddhadharma132
I. Conclusions133
Dharmapala’s Commentary to the catuhasataka
chapter V refutation of the sense organs and their
objects
135
Part I: Sense objects135
A. Against samkhya refuting sense object because
one never sees the whole
135
B. All sense objects are to be similarly refuted 136
C. One cannot see the whole object by merely seeing its
visual form
137
1. Discussion as to whether the visual form itself
is indeed perceptible
137
2. The whole form cannot be seen138
D. Against Buddhist vaibhasikas and other realists part whole
arguments used against various positions on the reality of atoms
139
1. Sadhyasama139
2. Atoms and aksara are anagous140
E. Examination of the Abhirdharma’s notion of the domain
of visual from (rupayatana) the relationship between
shape and colour
141
1. Shape is not different from colour141
2. Shape is not the same as colour143
3. Shape colour and atoms143
F. Critique of vaisesika position144
1. Refuting the Vaisesika views on colour and their
causes substance are not the cause for colour
145
2. Refuting the Vaisesika views on colour and their
causes colourness is not the cause for colour
145
3. The vaisesika view that the eye the body
apprehend earth water and fire
147
4. Substances like earth etc are in fact
imperceptible
148
5. General refutation of the outsiders and the
other Buddhist vehicles
149
Part II Sense Organs150
A. Refuting other Buddhist school’s positions on the
reality of the sense organs
150
1. All sense organs are like in being derivatives
from the elements why then do only the eyes see?
150
2. the view that the sense organs characters are
the same but their functions differ
150
3. Could the eyes and other organs have different
characters because they exist separately from the
elements?
151
4. The view that it is the combination of karma and
the elements which produces the different effects
such as vision hearing etc.
152
5. Does one karma cause different effects? 152
6. Could the powers of karma alone produce the
different effects?
153
7. Conclusion Karma is responsible for the sense
organs but its unanalydable and inconceivable
154
B. Refutation of the samkhyas view that form etc.
are apprehended by the sense organs and the inner mind
155
C. refuting prapyakaritvavada – contact between the
object and the sense organs
156
D. refuting aprapyakaritvavada – no contact between
the object and the sense organs
157
E. Refutations of the samkhyas position that the eye
and its object are fundamentally identical
159
F. Refutations of the aulukyas (vaiesesikas) 160
1. Refuting the vaisesikas four condition for
vision
161
2. Buddhist Hinayana views also refuted by the same
arguments
161
3. Conclusions 162
G. Critique of sounds and words 162
1. Critique of sounds universal characters 163
2. Refuting prapyakaritvavada and aprapyakaritavavada
with regard to sound
165
3. Sounds cannot be cognized in their totality 165
4. Temporal arguments against the reality of sounds 166
H. Critique of some Samkhyas view on the mind (manas)167
I. Discussion of notions (samjna) 168
J. The unreality of consciousness169
1. Debates about illusions 170
2. dharmapala’s position 171
K. Replying to the charge that the madhyamaka is
simply counterintuitive
171
L. Similes for dhrama’s mode of existence172
Catuhsatakavrtti XIII Refutation of the sense organs and
their objects
175
Part I sense objects 175
A. Refuting sense objects because one never sees
the whole
175
1. Debate with the logicians on pratyaksa176
2. Candrakirti’s view it is the object which is
prayaksa rather than the mind
178
3. Conclusions 179
B. All sense objects are to be similarly refuted 179
C. One cannot see the whole object by merely seeing its
visual form
180
D. Part whole arguments applied to visual form
and atoms
180
1. Sadhyasama 181
2. Atoms and aksara are analogous 181
E. Examination of the abhidharma notion rupayatana
the relationship between shape and colour
182
F. critique of form and its causes i.e the elements 183
1. The view that form and its causes are not
different
183
2. the view that form and its causes are different 184
G. Refuting perceptibility 184
Part II Sense Organs185
A. Refuting other Buddhist school’s positions on the
reality the sense organs
185
1. All sense organs are alike in being derivatives
from the elements why then do only the eyes see?
185
2. Karma is responsible for the sense organs but is
unanalysable and inconceivable
186
B. The view that the eyes etc must exist because we
observe their effects viz the sense consciousness
187
C. Refuting aprapyakaritvavada – contact between the
object and the sense organs
188
D. Refuting aprapyakaritvavada – no contact between the
object and the sense organs
189
E. Sight is not the nature of the eye 190
F. Refuting the Buddhist three conditions for vision 190
G. Critique of sounds and words 191
H. Critique of the mind (manas) 192
I. Discussion of notions (samjna) 193
J. The unreality of consciousness 194
K. Replying to the charge that the Madhyamaka is simply
counterintuitive
196
L. Similes for dharma mode of existence 197
1. Explanation 197
2. Citations 198
Notes to the Translations 201
A. Notes to Dharmapala’s commentary chapter IV 203
B. Notes to Catuhsatakavrtti XII 234
C. Notes to Dharmapala’s commentary chapter V 246
D. Notes to Catuhsatakavrtti XIII 271
Volume II
Preface to the texts and indexes iii
Table of contents v
Abbreviations and Sigla vi
Sanskrit and Tibetan texts of Catuhsatakavrtti XII 1
Sanskrit and Tibetan texts of Catuhsatakavrtti XIII 59
Chinese of dharmapala’s commentary 129
Chapter IV 131
Chapter V 138
Indexes147
Sanskrit terms 149
Tibetan terms 160
Chinese terms 165
Proper terms 180
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