Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
Sign In  |  Sign up
Your Cart (0)
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend

What is Maya? A Conceptual Analysis

Article of the Month - July 2010
Viewed 39669 times since 15th Jul, 2010

In the seventh chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna makes a promise to Arjuna:

Shri Krishna's Gita Updesha to Arjuna on the Battle Field of Kurushetra
Shri Krishna's Gita Updesha to Arjuna on the Battle Field of Kurushetra







"I will explain to you how to know me fully and clearly. I will give you the knowledge, after knowing which, nothing more will remain to be known by you. It is only the rarest of men who come to know me in my true essence." (7.1-3).








Having made this exciting promise, Krishna begins His explanation by saying:

"I have two kinds of Maya – lower (apara) and superior (para). The first is the cause of the inert world, and the second is my shakti in the form of prana which sustains this world. Because My Maya, in these two forms, is the cause of this entire world, it is actually Me, who is the ultimate source and dissolution of the world." (7.4-5)

Promising to give a 'full and clear' description of Himself, Krishna begins with Maya. Actually, this is the only way we can understand God. The Upanishads state:

'The speech and mind return without reaching the ultimate God' (Taittriya Upanishad 2.4.1).

The implication thus is that our sense organs are not capable enough to discern the ultimate God. Therefore, the only way to understand Him is through His creation, namely this world, which is perceptible to our senses.

Objection: You mean to say that that the One God can be known through this infinitely varied world? How is this possible?

Resolution: The Shrimad Bhagavatam says that the One God has become many through His Maya (12.9.6). The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad says: 'God takes on many forms through His Maya. He takes on these various forms to reveal His own self' (2.5.19). The great Shankaracharya, while commenting on this Upanishad verse says: "If these various names and forms had not been made manifest, then it would not have been possible to realize God."

Prasthanatraya (The Bhagavad Gita) (The Only Edition with Shankaracharya's Commentary in the Original Sanskrit with English Translation)
Prasthanatraya (The Bhagavad Gita) (The Only Edition with Shankaracharya's Commentary in the Original Sanskrit with English Translation)








Thus this world is but the manifest form of God, created by Him to facilitate our realization of Him. Moreover, it is this Maya, which, during creation, takes on the form of the world: 'It is God's Maya which takes on the shape of the world. The purpose of this transformation is to facilitate both, the reaping of the fruits of our karma, and also to facilitate our Moksha (God-realization)', Shankaracharya's Introduction to the 13th Chapter of the Gita.







Since the supremely compassionate God is ever interested in the Moksha of all human beings, each of whom is conditioned by a different set of samskaras and backgrounds, it is but imperative that there be as many means to realize God as there are variety of people. Hence the diversity in this world.

Objection: The Gita verse 7.4-5 you have quoted above contains the word Prakriti, which you have interpreted as Maya. How do we know they both mean the same?

Resolution: The Shvetashvatara Upanishad clearly states: "Know Maya to be the same as Prakriti." (4.10)

What is Maya?

Prasna Upanisad: With the Commentary of Sankaracarya (Shankaracharya)
Prasna Upanisad: With the Commentary of Sankaracarya (Shankaracharya)








Shankaracharya Ji puts it as follows 'Maya means showing oneself as something else from the outside' (Commentary on the Prashna Upanishad, 1.16).








We know from the example of science that even as water is opposed to fire, its cause, namely hydrogen and oxygen, both are supporters of combustion. To explain this transformation, science postulates a force named valence bond. Any science, in order to explain the transformation of a cause to an effect different from it, has to postulate a force characteristic of the cause. Vedanta too is an objective science. Therefore, there comes into play Maya, which efficiently explains the transformation of the non-inert, unchanging Brahman, into the inert, changing world. Maya is that which hides the fundamental transcendental form (svarupa) of God and presents it as something else.

Without this Maya, or Shakti, it is not possible to prove God as creator of the world – 'Without Shakti or Maya, God cannot be the creator, because in absence of Maya, there cannot be an inclination (pravritti) to create in God' (Shankaracharya's commentary on the Brahmasutras 1.4.3).

Synonyms of Maya:

Shankaracharya Ji has been much castigated and it has been insinuated that he is the one who has laid undue stress on the term Maya. However, this is not justified because it is the scriptures themselves which use this word to explain the power or Shakti of God (Brahman ). The Brhadaranyaka and Prashna Upanishads use it while the Shvetashvatara Upanishad also mentions it several times. The Bhagavad Gita uses the word Maya four times, and its synonym Prakriti more than 20 times. In fact, in addition to Prakriti, all sacred scriptures use the word Maya in one or more of the following synonyms:

1)Shakti: Because it is the power of God which creates the world.

2)Akasha: Because of its unlimited extent, or because it is the cause of akasha.

3)Akshara: meaning indestructible.

4)Maya: Because of this wonderful creation, which shows God in a form discernable to us.

5)Avyakta: Meaning unmanifest, because at the time of dissolution (pralaya), it remains latent inside God.

Maya is under the Control of God:

This world is created by Maya to facilitate the reaping of our karma. Not only this, getting attached to Maya, attempting to 'lord' over it or possess it, we perform various karma, accumulating both Dharma and Adharma in the process and thus are forced to take birth again and again. In this manner, all beings are under the control of Maya. However, Krishna says: “I take Avatara keeping My Maya under control” (Bhagavad Gita 4.6). Thus, unlike the jivas, Maya is under the command of God.

How is the World Created Through Maya?

We have seen above Krishna saying that He creates this world using His two types of Mayas, lower and superior. The first, called in Bhagavad Gita as the 'apara prakriti', is responsible for creation of the material world, which is inert. The second superior Shakti, known as 'para prakriti', upholds and sustains the world through 'prana', or life breath. The former is contaminated, while the second is pristinely pure.

Actually, the ultimate reason behind the creation of this world is avidya, our ignorance about our true status as being one with God. Due to avidya we see the world as different from God (ourselves), and thus get entangled in a plethora of attachment (raga) and hatred (dvesha). Inspired by these emotions, we perform more and more karma to bring that which we like near us, and push what we dislike away from us. To reap the fruits of these new actions God has to create this world again for us. It is like the father who gets his wailing child a toy to play with, even though he is himself totally uninterested in the toy itself (udasin). The desire for this world is ours; the capability to create it is God's.

'First prana is created by the superior form of Lord's Maya. It is our avidya which then actuates the lower form of Maya This Maya creates the various bodies fit enough to reap the fruits of the karmas of our previous lives. Thus the para prakriti sustains this world through prana or 'life breath', and the apara prakriti is responsible for the bodies, which if it hadn't been for the prana would have been lifeless' (Shankaracharya's Commentary on Bhagavad Gita 7.5).

Doubt: It is still not clear why one of the Maya is called lower (impure) and the other pure?

Resolution: Apara prakriti is said to be the inferior form of the Lord's Maya because it is actuated by our avidya. Para prakriti is pure, uncontaminated by our avidya. Even though the exhortation (pravritti) to create the world comes from avidya, the power to create is solely God's. This apara power, because of this association with our avidya is called impure.

Shri Shankaracharya says clearly:

'Within Maya is avidya, the impure seed of the world' (Commentary on the Gita: 12.3).

'Even though God (Brahman) is essentially quiet and neutral, It creates the world by this Maya which is joined with the avidya of beings' (Commentary on the Brahmasutras 2.2.2).

'The avidya of beings situated inside Maya is responsible for the creation of the world' (Gita Commentary 13.21).

Maya is Eternal:

We know that this world was created to reap the fruits of karma performed by us in previous lives. Similarly, the world before this, was created for the fruits of our karma of lives previous to that and so on. Therefore, there is no world which can be said to have been created 'first of all'. A few rare beings may be able to overcome their avidya and become free from this cycle of life and death. They will not be born again, that is why they does not need the world again. However, the number of beings is infinite (Atharvaveda 10.8.24). Therefore, how so many people may become free, there will always remain many who would be bound to the circle of life. Thus, the creation and dissolution of the world too is a never-ending process, and this timeless cycle is both beginningless and endless.

'As tiny sparks come forth from fire, so does this diverse world always come forth from God, sustains in It and also dissolves back into It' (Shankaracharya's Commentary on Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.1.20). Since the world is continuously being created and dissolved, the Maya required for this cyclic process too is eternal.

Status of Maya vis-à-vis God:

Bhagavan Shankaracharya puts it clearly:

Shiva and His Shakti - Inseparable from Each Other
Shiva and His Shakti - Inseparable from Each Other








'Shakti is fundamentally the same as its cause' (karanasya atmabhuta shakti), Commentary on the Brahmasutras 2.1.18.









'Shakti is none other than God, because Shakti is non-different from the one who wields it.' (sa shakti Brahm ev, shakti shaktimato ananyatvat), Gita Commentary 14.27. 'It is My Maya, which is non-different from Me (svabhuta), which creates all beings', (Commentary on the Gita 14.3)

'That which is called as Mula-prakriti, it is the same as our God (Brahman)', Commentary on the Brahmasutras 2.3.9.

We go and lift a stone. Can we say that the power (Shakti) we used to achieve the task is different from us? Similarly, Brahman, the Supreme God, and His Maya are one and the same.

Why Then Maya?

Objection: If God and His Maya are one and the same, why introduce the concept of Maya at all?

Resolution: We know that God created this world. We also know that this world is extremely different from the nature of God as stated in the ancient scriptures, which are infallible. Therefore, Maya is the force, power or Shakti, which efficiently explains the transformation of the non-inert, unchanging Brahman, into an inert, changing world.

Maya thus presents the cause as an effect having a nature different from the cause. It is the latent force which is activated every time God creates this world prompted by our avidya. When we speak solely of God, there is no need to bring in Maya, but as soon as we talk of this world or its creation we cannot communicate without understanding the concept of Maya.

God wants the jivas to understand Him, therefore, He dons that form which they can understand and comes before them in the form of this world. After that, He provides them with the Shastras (Vedic Scriptures), which explain how to realize Him by understanding how He is non-different from the world.









However, the world is very attractive, and we get bound to its outward appearance, failing to apprehend its Ultimate Source.








Actually, the world is like a language and God is its meaning. We concentrate on the beauty of the language, rather than look at the meaning behind it. When can we understand the meaning? When we give less importance to the language (world), keeping our interaction with it to the bare, minimum necessity, and fix our attention solely on the meaning (God). However, at the same time we have to realize that meaning cannot reveal itself without the word; God cannot be known without the world.

Doubt: All this talk about going beyond Maya is all very good. However, it has still not been explained how one actually goes about achieving this?

Resolution: This is a very important question. Krishna answers it in the Bhagavad Gita in a manner which is beautiful in its simplicity, yet profound in implication. He says:

"Only those who take refuge in Me can cross over My Maya." (7.14)

Consider this: We believe the peak of our pleasure to lie between the legs of a woman. It is highest form of pleasure we know. However, have we ever paused to reflect why God has located the locus of this pleasure at the dirtiest spots in the bodies of the two partners? Even if we have pondered on this question, have we still not failed to overcome our intense physical desires? After trying our best and still not being able to win over our desires, what way other than praying and surrendering to God remains for us? Our revered saints, the ones that have crossed over Maya, are unanimous in declaring that taking refuge in Krishna and sincerely praying to Him to help us overcome our desires is the only sure shot way to succeed.

Is Maya 'Illusion'?

In the Shrimad Bhagavatam Krishna says to His Maya: "People will worship you with much fanfare and gifts. You will grant people whatever boons they ask for”. In addition, in Gita 7.14, Krishna calls His Maya divine (daivi). Would Krishna call an 'illusion' divine,? Or, can something which is mere illusion, be capable of fulfilling our wishes and desires?

Nearly all Vedantic Texts translated into English read Maya as 'illusion'. This is very disturbing. God has many a times called it 'My Maya'. When we speak of a compassionate God, will such a God subject His beloved beings to illusion? Such a God would be malicious and not benevolent. Maya is real (bhava-rupa). It is there for us to perceive the reality of God in terms we can understand. Thus in India women are named after Maya, considering it to be sacred. Numerous temples honoring her adorn this land from top to bottom. Ultimately, we have seen, Maya is non-different from God. Does this mean God is an illusion too? There is no substance in such an interpretation.


The desire for the world is ours, but the capability to create it is God's. Maya not only just does its job – create the world for us to reap the fruits of our pervious karma, but at the same time also facilitates our Moksha by presenting God in terms we can understand. For this we need to be grateful to Maya. That we get attached to Maya, and create more karma in order to possess it is but our own faulty ignorance. The Mahabharata puts it crisply:

'It is not the fault of Maya but mine, that, looking away from God, I became attached to it' (Moksha Dharma 307.34).

This article is based almost entirely on the teachings of Param Pujya Swami Paramanand Bharati Ji. However, any error is entirely the author's own.

References and Further Reading:

  • Baba, Bhole. Shri Shankaracharya's Commentary on the Brahma Sutras with the Sub-Commentary 'Ratnaprabha' (Text and Hindi Translation), Varanasi, 2006.
  • Bharati, Swami Paramananda. Foundations of Dharma. Bangalore 2008.
  • Bharati, Swami Paramananda. Lectures on Vedanta (80 MP3 Files).
  • Bharati, Swami Paramananda. Vedanta Prabodh:. Varanasi, 2010.
  • Chaturvedi, Shri Giridhar Sharma. Shri Gita Pravachanmala (Discourses on the Gita in Three Volumes): Varanasi.
  • Chinmayananda, Swami. The Holy Geeta: Mumbai, 2002.
  • Date, V.H. Vedanta Explained (Samkara's Commentary on The Brahma-sutras in Two Volumes): Delhi, 1973.
  • Devi, Uma S. Maya in Shankara's Advaita Vedanta (Paper Read at Asian Philosophy Congress, New Delhi, 2010). Unpublished.
  • Goyandka, Shri Harikrishnadas. Ishadi Nau Upanishad (Nine Principal Upanishads with Word-to-Word Meaning in Hindi), Gorakhpur, 2004.
  • Goyandka, Shri Harikrishnadas. Shrimad Bhagavad Gita (Translation of Shankaracharya's Commentary into Hindi): Gorakhpur, 2006.
  • Goyandka, Shri Harikrishnadas. Translation of Shankaracharya's Commentary on the Eleven Upanishads (Hindi): Gorakhpur, 2006.
  • Gupta Som Raj. Upanisads with the Commentary of Sankaracarya, Five Volumes. Delhi
  • Jacob, G.A. A Concordance to the Principal Upanisads and Bhagavadgita. Delhi, 1999.
  • Ramsukhdas, Swami. Sadhaka-Sanjivani (Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita): Gorakhpur, 2005.
  • Saraswati, Swami Akhandananda (tr). Shrimad Bhagavata Purana (2 Volumes): Gorakhpur, 2004.
  • Devi, Uma S. Maya in Shankara's Advaita Vedanta (Paper Read at Asian Philosophy Congress, New Delhi, 2010). Unpublished.

Post a Comment
Post Review
  • Namaste,

    I always loved that name, Maya, and have known it for some strange reason since I am a kid, although I am French by birth and had no exposure to Hinduism until much later.

    Anyhow, it always bothered and disturbed me that it meant "illusion" - or was translated as such. It did not correspond to what I felt.

    Thank you for finally bringing me its real meaning and clearing-up this little internal conflict that I had.

    by Anna on 17th Aug 2010
  • Love it! Thank you for a different perspective. I have been studying the Tantric philosophy and I have summarized all 18 chapters in the Bhagavad Gita. I really enjoyed reading this.

    Thank You!
    by Lynn Geddes on 23rd Jul 2010
  • I really enjoyed this article... as a student of Yoga it is my aim to understand these concepts and to place myself in a position to realize these concepts ...Yoga is 99% practice and 1% knowledge. Prem om.
    by Cor Lennon on 20th Jul 2010
  • Thanks for your article on Maya,it was interesting.
    by Allan Quigley, Cairns, Australia. on 20th Jul 2010
  • Thank you so much for the very instructive articles at your website.

    by Peter den Haring, Past live therapist, The Hague, Holland on 19th Jul 2010
  • Thank you very much friends.

    They can not imagine what I've learned from India since I discovered your site on Google. First to buy a Sari that occurred to me as a fad. Second, continued to buy 'things', but little by little I started to descibrir culture. I'm fascinated! Almost in love.

    India is the other side of the world to me, I'm Mexican. But I dream to come and visit this country very soon.

    Thanks for sharing your culture.
    by Rosa Elena on 19th Jul 2010
  • I really appreciate the article. I was born in a Christian family and I became recently interested in Kriya Yoga and the Vedic Knowledge. I learned a lot from this article.

    Thank you
    by Leandro on 19th Jul 2010
  • Guruji, so if all form are maya, outside an prana is inside then it is self realization for you just meet your self or own created thoughts till you raise your vibration to the no thing silence.
    by Ann on 18th Jul 2010
  • I am trying to comprehend your religion and philosophy. I find it so difficult, and I don't understand much. I am French speaking, and I understand English fairly well.. but I am lost a lot of times with the Sanskrit names and explanations.

    Nevertheless, I am still trying to reach an understanding. It is very hard.

    I thank you for your teaching: I have so much to learn.

    I am happy to receive your emails. I read all of them, some with ease, some I have to read two or three times.

    Again, thank you, You bring peace in my heart, every time.
    by Danielle St-Pierre on 17th Jul 2010
  • Thanks for the wonderful translation. What a difference between languages and their ideas.
    by Ed on 17th Jul 2010
  • Thank you for this article. Since my approach to the Sutras has always been by way of English translations, it has always been difficult to comprehend why a very real, tangible, essential level of our daily experience/reality - the material world, has so often been described as illusory. Your article resolves this issue beautifully and accords with my own deepest private thoughts.

    You have also supported my long held opinion that mankind's increasing technological advance and domination of the apara realm has been through Godless attachment to it and at ever increasing cost, not just to the planet (pollution, food shortages, climate change, species extinction etc) but to our very existence on this planet and ability to approach Brahman though contemplation of it's beauty as his Creation.

    Some down to earth examples you have given are also very useful - water opposing fire while consisting of the two elements that would otherwise support fire is one and the idea of a father giving a child a toy with which to play while having no personal interest in the toy is another, though I am minded of the father who buys his son a model railway set and then plays with it as much as his son!

    Thank you again forthis article

    by John Hatchard on 17th Jul 2010
  • Thanks. This is well edited and extremely comprehensive and useful for reference.

    With regards,
    by Malli Varanasi on 16th Jul 2010
    by RAMAN LAL RANIGA on 16th Jul 2010


    by RAMAN LAL RANIGA on 16th Jul 2010
  • Thank you for sharing this article, it brought back memories from when I took Philosophy classes last year when I first became exposed to Bhagavata Gita , Advaita Vedanta, Upanishad. How long ago was this literature written in India? 2,000 years over 5,000 years? The article was a great read!
    by Aleda on 15th Jul 2010
Great service. Keep on helping the people
Armando, Australia
I bought DVs supposed to receive 55 in the set instead got 48 and was in bad condition appears used and dusty. I contacted the seller to return the product and the gave 100% credit with apologies. I am very grateful because I had bought and will continue to buy products here and have never received defective product until now. I bought paintings saris..etc and always pleased with my purchase until now. But I want to say a public thank you to whom it may concern for giving me the credit. Thank you. Navieta.
Navieta N Bhudu
I have no words to thank you and your company. I received the Saundarananda Maha Kavya that I have ordered from you few weeks ago. I hope to order any more books, if I will have a need. Thank you
Ven. Bopeththe, Sri Lanka
Thank you so much just received my order. Very very happy with the blouse and fast delivery also bindi was so pretty. I will sure order from you again.
Aneeta, Canada
Keep up the good work.
Harihar, Canada
I have bought Ganesh Bell in past and every visitors at my home has appreciated very much. You have quality product and good service. Keep it up with good business. This time I am buying Ganesh-Laxmi bells.
Kanu, USA
I am a long-time customer of Exotic India for gifts for me and friends and family. We are never disappointed. Your jewelry craftspeople are very skilled artists. You must treasure them. And we always look forward to the beautifully decorated boxes you use to ship your jewelry.
Diane, USA
I have always enjoyed browsing through the website. I was recently in south India, and was amazed to note that the bronze statues made in Kumbakonam and Thanjavur had similar pricing as Exotic India.
Heramba, USA
Thank you very much for your services. I ordered a Dhanvantari Deity from this site and it came quickly and in good condition. Now Sri Dhanvantari ji is worshipped regularly before seeing each client and in the offering of our medicinal products. Thanks again.
Max, USA
Thank you for shipping my 2 Books! Absolutli a great job in this short time, 3 working days from India to Switzerland it`s fantastic!!! You have won some new clients!
Ruedi, Switzerland
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Share with friends
Related Links
"Here is a fragment from one of the most poignant episodes of Indian history…. This piece of history is from the Mahabharata…. She was dying with shame but inside, like a true kshatrani (woman of the warrior race), she was burning with anger…. I have heard that women who follow dharma were never brought before a public court….Greed is the destroyer of dharma. I do not desire a third boon…. Draupadi was as forgiving as mother earth herself…. Just then Arjuna saw his dear friend Bhagawan Krishna approaching him…. “Leave him, leave him. He is a brahmin and worthy of our worship. Their mother should not cry, like I have at the death of my children."
Analyzing the Eternal Dimensions of Dharma Through Itihasa (History)
"Whenever he gets the time, he should go and live amongst people who have given up worldly life…. A wise person should serve his body and family only to the extent that is functionally necessary…. The person who lays claim on the surplus wealth is nothing but a thief…. He should share all objects of enjoyment with everyone, right down to dogs, sinners…. Such is the attachment to one’s wife….How despicable is this body, which if buried is going to become the food of worms, or excreta if eaten by animals….Since a son is to thus revere his elders even after their death, what to say that he is expected to serve them when they are alive…. The person wishing to follow the path of dharma should steer clear of the five forms of Adharma."
Narada Teaches Yuddhishtra a Householder’s Dharma
"She has always believed that this would redeem her of her distress….A coconut, otherwise an ordinary dried fruit or the source of edible, or at the most, beauty oil, has always been revered as an auspicious object effecting good and well-being and the food that gods most loved….The tree in the Buddhist tradition was later identified as Bodhi-tree, seated under which Buddha had attained Enlightenment….Body gestures and symptoms, signs, indications among others must have been the early man’s tools of communicating oneself and knowing and understanding the world around….Kirttimukha was initially conceived as a mystical mask….Lion does not figure in the wide range of animal toys or figurines excavated from Indus sites."
Auspicious Symbols in Indian tradition
"Only a certain fraction of this karma is chosen by God in order to form the blueprint of our next birth…. The fruit that one experiences in this birth is due to prarabdha and a portion of the present agami…. Similarly, a fish in the Ganga does not accrue punya because of always living in Ganga…. A good karma can be annulled by a bad karma and a bad one by a good one…. Sometimes we also hear that prarabdha cannot be got rid of. It has to be spent through…. Bhagawan Vyasa says that for the full result of the karma to manifest, three things are necessary…. Then how to understand the statement that prarabdha should unavoidably be experienced?"
Theory and Practice of Karma: Some Salient Features
"Contrarily metaphysicians and theologians perceived his form as it manifested in the Upanishads and Puranas….The ‘Advaita’ philosophy also contends that the entire Creation is just the extension of One…. Dance illustrates one of the ever-first cosmic acts with which Shiva seems to have tamed violent motion and separated from it rhythm, moves that communicated emotions and states of mind – human mind and the cosmic, and disciplined and defined pace…. Unlike Vishnu who resorted to dance for accomplishing a contemplated objective, Shiva has been conceived more or less as a regular dancer performing for accomplishing an objective as also for pure aesthetic delight…. Unfurling locks of hair and his snakes floating into space portray the dynamics of the act."
Shiva, the Nataraja
"But to pull this statement out of context and give it as an advice for anyone is far from correct…. But how is one to recognise the guru? Obviously, he will be able to understand the difficulties of the disciples and clarify to them the meaning of the scriptures on the basis of logic and experience…. They will have to search in their own neighbourhood only….The guru chosen by him should be at least better than himself!…. Of course, if the ideal guru whose features have been enumerated in the beginning is available, then the sadhaka should immediately go and surrender to him…. It is just like going to another teacher for higher education, after completing the education in a school."
The Qualities of a Guru and How to Find One
"We assume that our happiness is the result of an interaction with external objects…. Suppose that an individual is deprived of sleep and food and pleasurable objects for a long time and then all of them are simultaneously offered to him…. Actually, seeking the answer to this question is the most significant pursuit in life…. The veil comes up again and the duality returns…. In this background, we can now analyse the nature of dukha (grief)."
Ananda: Understanding the True Nature of Happiness
"It concedes that for an orderly social life a division into four groups based on the principle of varnadharma is necessary…. Each individual sometimes acts in a sattvika manner while at other times he may act in rajasic or tamasic manner, which means that the manifestation of a particular guna depends on circumstances…. Though all the three gunas are present in everyone, different persons are driven to act differently…. The karma that I have to perform should depend on my inherent gunas and should have the ability to regulate these gunas…. There is no instant transition to moksha…. An individual has to make his way towards moksha only through worldly life."
Varnashrama Dharma: A Logical View
"Her epithet in the Devi-Mahatmya is Mahalakshmi. She is the wrathful four-armed goddess of battlefield represented holding in them various weapons…. A form of Lakshmi seated over a lotus laid over a golden seat and a pair of white elephants…. Except in some classical forms in Lakshmi-Narayana imagery Lakshmi is ordinarily two-armed…. Incarnation theory is the crux of Vaishnavism. Vishnu incarnates alone but Lakshmi also incarnates in simultaneity…. Though very rare some enthused artists have conceived on Ardhanarishvara line also Vishnu’s Ardhanarishvara images."
Iconography of Vaishnava Deities: Goddess Lakshmi
"One uniqueness of our Vedic religion is that it allows for salvation not only through renunciation (nivritti) but also through the path of material happiness (pravritti).... If dharma makes it mandatory that conjugal pleasure be restricted to the life partner, how is it that Krishna indulged in the amorous sport of Rasa with others' wives?.... Some stopped cooking, some stopped feeding, some stopped eating, some stopped washing clothes etc. and ran away.... Upanishads call the jiva in waking state as Vishwa and the dreaming jiva as Taijasa (Mandukya Upanishad Mantras 3-4)."
Krishna's Rasa Lila: The Vedantic Perspective
"This middle path lies in between extreme asceticism on one side, and extreme indulgence on the other…. When standing under a Ashok tree, tired and exhausted, she raised her right hand for seeking support of a branch of the tree…. The unique balance that defined his entire life was pre-determined in this duality….One day, in the palace garden he frightened his attendants…. He ate less and less till his diet reduced to a sesame seed, and himself, to a mere skeleton…. Seven days after the attainment of enlightenment gods sent food for breaking his fast…. However, he postponed his ‘nirvana’ for three months till he visited the places he had reminiscences of."
The Light That Enlightened Millions
(The life of Buddha in the popular mind)
"Actually, the one who worships Bhagwan Vishnu should get rich and the one who worships Shiva should become an avadhuta like Him…. Then he works hard again to acquire wealth. I render all his efforts futile…. However, Bhagawan Vishnu is not like that, it takes longer to please Him…. As a consequence, they later harassed the great God Himself…. On the seventh day, he bathed in the holy waters of Kedarnath and began to cut his head with an axe to offer into the fire…. The boy bowed respectfully before the demon and asked…. No one who commits sin against a great person can be safe and happy in this world."
Shiva and Vishnu: A Unique Aspect of Their Worship
"There is Rama, the son of Ayodhya's king Dasharatha in his human birth, and there is Rama's divinity, his divine aura that overwhelms the Tulasi's entire Ramacharit-manas, one manifest - with attributes, and the other, unmanifest - without attributes. With main emphasis on his majesty in South Indian tradition this crown is taller than usual. His 'khadgasana' images are usually in three modes; one with his right foot moved forward represents him in a commander's disposition ready to rush for protecting a devotee in crisis or redeem him from some calamity. Harihara, a form in which he shares with Shiva half of the body. Basically a bird Garuda is seen for ages as Vishnu's ardent devotee, a learned human being and an auspicious presence, and in iconographic tradition often conceived with a man's face, anatomy, ornaments and ensemble. The Puranas are replete with tales of Garuda's divine exploits."
Iconography of Vaishnava Images: Vishnu
"During one such sacrifice, nine spiritually charged men entered the sacrificial hall….As for Bhagavat Dharma, it is the dharma spoken by God directly from his own mouth…. Like a person eating food finds himself gratified simultaneously in three ways…. We are all constantly taught by spiritual texts to offer or dedicate all our actions to God. However, the question remains as to how to practically carry out this injunction…..The only fruit of wealth is dharma... Therefore, there is no need for the Vedas to enjoin us to these things for which we already have a tendency….The real intention of the Vedic injunctions in these matters is to make a person abstain from them…”
Nine Teachings from Nine Yogis: The Essence of Bhagavat Dharma
"The Bhagavad Gita, while describing the qualities of a wise person says…. This verse is vividly illustrated in the story of king Rantideva occurring in the Srimad Bhagavatam…. He did not believe in hoarding, was above all attachments and was highly patient…. They were all trembling due to starvation and thirst….bowed to the dogs and their owner…. What I want is only this: That I be able to go and live in the hearts of all beings and undergo sufferings on their behalf, so that they may become free from all miseries."
An Example of Living Vedanta: The Story of King Rantideva
Show More
All rights reserved. Copyright 2018 © Exotic India