Their lessons frequently remained as opposed to those of Vedic ministers of the time who stressed ceremonial practices and their own job as middlemen among mankind and the divine beings. Today, a fragment of India's populace recognizes as Jain, making it the smallest of the country's six significant religious gatherings after Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, and Buddhism. All Jains are vegetarians, per the direction to practice ahimsa (not hurting other life). Eating root vegetables is viewed as a type of viciousness in Jainism because consuming the foundation of a plant obliterates the plant. These dietary practices stretch out even outside their home as well. Jainism is a religion of self-help. There are no divine beings or profound creatures that will help human beings. The three core values of Jainism, the 'three gems', are correct belief, the right information, and the right conduct. The incomparable guideline of Jain living is peacefulness (ahimsa). This is one of the 5 mahavratas (the 5 extraordinary commitments).
The other mahavratas are non-connection to material assets, not lying, not stealing, and limit to sexuality (with chastity as the ideal). Mahavira is viewed as the one who gave Jainism its present-day structure. The texts containing the lessons of Mahavira are known as the Agamas. Jains are separated into two significant orders; the Digambara (signifying "sky-clad") group and the Svetambara (signifying "white-clad") organization. Jainism has no clerics. Its proficient religious individuals are priests and nuns, who have severely religious and plain existences. Jainism's lessons have affected numerous everywhere. However conceived as a Hindu, Mahatma Gandhi respected the Jains' obligation to practice peacefulness, and he integrated that conviction into his development for Indian freedom.
Q1. Who was Lord Mahavira?
Jains honor 24 Jinas, or Tirthankaras: otherworldly pioneers who accomplished edification and have been freed from the pattern of the resurrection. One of the most powerful Jinas was Mahavira, initially called Vardhamana, who is viewed as the 24th, and last, Jina. He was naturally a part of the Kshatriya class. At the point when he was 30 years of age, he revoked his regular life to carry on with the existence of a parsimonious (one who rehearses self-denial of material assets). After more than 12 years of serious fasting and reflection, Vardhamana accomplished edification and became Mahavira (signifying "Incredible Hero"). As indicated by custom, he laid out an enormous local area of Jain supporters: 14,000 priests and 36,000 nuns at the hour of his demise.
Q2. What does Jainism mean?
The name Jainism is derived from the Sanskrit action word Ji, "to vanquish." It alludes to the parsimonious battle that, it is accepted, Jain renunciants (priests and nuns) should battle against the interests and substantial faculties to acquire edification, or all-knowingness and immaculateness of soul. The most distinguished of those couple people who have accomplished illumination is called Jina (in a real sense, "Hero"), and the custom's devout and lay disciples are called Jain ("Follower of the Conquerors"), or Jaina.
Q3. What is the main book of
Tirthankaras disciples compiled their words into
texts, which are also called Agams/literature, which is divided into two parts.
Agam: These are the original texts from
tirthankaras, which are compiled by their disciples.
Non-Agams: These are the texts from elder monks,
they have collected the texts from the agams, and wrote in their own words.
Some books are the main authentic scriptures. Shatkhand-agam
Pratham-anuyoga (Dharma-kath-anuyoga) - Religious
Charn-anuyoga - Conduct
Karan-anuyoga (Ganit-anuyoga) - Description of the
Dravy-anuyoga - Philosophy.
So there are many books that come under these four
Anuyogas, and all are the main holy books.
Q4. What are the two books of
Jain Literature is called Jain Agamas, based on
Mahavira’s teachings in 46 texts:
· 12 Angas and sutras are as follows:
Acaranga sutra, Sutrakrtanga, Sthananga, Samavayanga, Vyakhyaprajnapti
or Bhagavati sutra, Jnatrdharmakathah,
Upasakadasah, Antakrddaasah, Anuttaraupapatikadasah, Prasnavyakaranani,
12 Upanga Agams; 6 Chedasutras; 4 Mulasutras, 10 Prakīrnaka
sutras; Culikasutras: These are texts which
further enhance or decorate the meaning of Angas.
Acharanga Sutra describes the conduct
and behavior of ascetic life and the description of the penance of Lord
Kalpa Sūtra: was written by Bhadrabahu. It
contains the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, most notably Parshvanath and
Mahavira, including the latter’s Nirvana.
Q5. What are the 5 Jain
Non-violence (Ahimsa): Lord Mahavira said,
“Ahimsa Paramo Dharma”. Non-hurting, non-harming, non-hating — not to stay in
the hostile state of hatred towards any form of life, knowingly or unknowingly.
Truthfulness (Satya) enables the being to
choose right and eternal in every stage of life.
Non-stealing (Achaurya) not to steal consider or
take away others’ things or possessions. Spiritually, it means not to consider
body-mind-intellect as our own.
Celibacy (Brahmacharya) : ‘Brahmacharya’ means to
stay in Brahma (Soul). Dropping the cravings of deriving pleasure from others’
life in the state of non-possessiveness of things, of people, and of thoughts.
Q6. How many books are there
The Jains - Paul Dundas
Life Force: The World of Jainism - Michael Tobias
The A to Z of Jainism - Kristi L. Wiley
The Central Philosophy of Jainism - Bimal Krishna
Philosophy of Jainism - Dr. KP Sinha
Jaina Theory Of Perception (Lala Sundar Lal Jain
Research Series, Vol Vii) by Pushpa Bothra
Ahimsa, Anekanta And Jainism - Tara Sethia
Outlines of Jainism - Jagomandar Lal Jaini
Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence - Manoj Jain
Acarya Umasvati's Tattvarthasutra: aspects of
reality in Jainism, through the eyes of a scientist - Dr. Duli Chandra Jain
Jainism: and its philosophical foundations -
Tattvartha Sutra - Acharya Umasvati
Q7. What holy book does
The Sacred Books of Jainism are collectively known
as Agams or Agam Sutras. It consists of the teachings of Lord Mahavir's
Agams are divided into two parts.
Agam: are the original texts from
tirthankaras compiled by their disciples.
Non Agams: are the texts from
elder monks, collected from the agams, and written in their own words.
· Acharanga Sutra (Aayarang)
· Sutrakritanga Sutra (Suyagdang)
· Sthananga Sutra (Thanang)
· Samavayanga Sutra
· Vyakhya Prajnapti or Bhagavati Sutra (Viyah Pannati)
· Jnata Dharma Kathanga Sutra (Nayadhammakahao)
· Upasak Dashang Sutra (Uvasagdasao)
· Antah Kradashanga Sutra (Anatagaddasao)
· Anuttaroupa Patika Dashanga Sutra (Anuttarov Vaiya
· Prashna Vyakarana Sutra (Panha Vagarnai)
· Vipaka Sutra (Vivasayam)
Q8. Who wrote books on Jain
Terapanth scholars AcharyaSri Tulasi (1913–1997) and
Acharya Mahaprajna (1920– 2010) have been influential intellectual figures in
modern Jainism, writing numerous works on Jain philosophy.
Umasvati (possibly between 2nd- 5th-century CE) –
The author of the first Jain work in Sanskrit, the Tattvartha Sutra, which
systematized Jain philosophy in a form acceptable to all sects of Jainism.
Samantabhadra (c. 2nd – 5th century CE) – The first
Jain writer to write on nyaya, (in his Apta-Mimamsa). He also composed the
Ratnakaran sravaka cara and the Svayambhu Stotra.
Shrimad Rajchandra (19th century) composed Shri
Atmasiddhi Shastra, a 142 spiritual treatise that expounds the 6 fundamental
truths of the soul.
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