From the Introduction:
P. 2.1: Survey of the Topics
1. As regards its contents, pada 1 of adhyaya 2 can be divided into three main sections, as follows:
A. P. 2.1.1-4. Here the basic conditions for cp.-formation are introduced together with the corresponding terms which are to be continued throughout that part of the A. which deals with cp.-formation, that is, up to P. 2.2.38, inclusive. These basic conditions are stated as samarthah 'conveying the same meaning', sup 'a case-inflected word'. Thus a cp. is defined in the A. as the combination of a case-inflected word with a case-inflected word which (combination) conveys the same meaning, namely, as the formally corresponding wordgroup.
B. P. 2.1.5-21. This section deals with avyayibhava cps. A theoretically important break in this section is provided by the rules P. 2.1.11-12 (read as one rule) and P. 2.1.18. Here the first mentioned rule contains the word vibhasa 'marginally, rather not', whereas the second rule contains the word va nityasamasa 'invariable cp.-formation', whereas those prescribed by P. 2.1.11/12-17 become cps marginally (the preferred option being the corresponding wordgroup).
C. P. 2.1.22-72 This section deals with tatpurusa cps. Within this section we have a large subsection dealing with karmadharaya cps whose defining feature has been stated earlier as samanadhikarana 'co-referential' (P. 1.2.42). The cps called dvigu come within this subsection. Panini devotes just one rule to this variety (P. 2.1.52). They have been declared to be tp. Cps earlier, by P. 2.1.23.
Out of the 72 rules of pada 1, some rules are of doubtful origin, especially those which come at the end of a section or subsection.
2. In somewhat greater detail the contents of the main sections may be summarized as follows:
3. A. P. 2.1.1 says that cp.-formation is an operation performed on finished words, and that in such an operation the same meaning should be conveyed.
Cps are samartha 'conveying the same meaning' (as the corresponding non-integrated wordgroup), when no special meaning for the cp. has been prescribed. If such a meaning has been prescribed, the cp. will be regarded as an instance of nityasamasa 'invariable cp.-formation'. Here a corresponding non-integrated wordgroup is simply lacking.
The traditional interpretations of samartha are first recorded by Katyayana Vt. I on P. 2.1.1 says that samartha means ekarthibhava 'becoming one single meaning'. Vt. IV says that, according to some grammarians, samartha means vyapeksa 'requirement, expectancy', namely, of semantic completion, that is, semantic dependency. Single integrated meaning is what we see in a cp. Semantic dependency is what we see in the wordgroup which provides the constituents of the cp. in Panini's derivational view of grammar. It is also what we see in a sentence. Thus, in the vyapeksa-interpretation the scope of the term samartha is substantially widened. In Sanskrit the term for both wordgroup and sentence is vakya. Although Panini uses the term vakya (notably in P. 8.1.8 and 8.2.82), he does not define the concept vakya. But Katyayana offers two definitions in Vts IX and X on P. 2.1.1 The idea is to introduce a section-heading, samanavakye 'within the same sentence', under which particular grammatical operations can be brought. But, to have that section heading, the concept vakya must be defined first.
For Panini's technique of cp.-formation and some general observations on the theory of cps see BDA, Introduction, p. i-xvii and p. xlvii-xlvii.
P. 2.1.2 deals with a question of accent, and is, therefore, out of place in section A. But, as stated under I, it contains the word sup which is traditionally required for supplementing P. 2.1.4
P. 2.1.3 introduces the term samasa 'compound' and informs us of the exact limit up to which this term is to be continued. Within this cp.-section the general designation samasa co-applies with special cp.-designations.
P. 2.1.4 supplies the words saha supa, which, when read together with the word sup in P. 2.1.2, provide a definition of samasa. In Paninian grammar a cp. is formed of case-inflected words. But what about cp.-formation of a preverb with a verb? Preverbs are known to Panini as a separate wordclass (upasarga, also called gati, P. 1.4.59-60). From the accent only . This indicates that cp.-formation must have taken place. Still, for this type of cp.-formation no provision has been made in the A. That might have been a reason for Patanjali's proposal to split P. 2.1.4, so that, with the rule read as saha, cp.-formation with any type of word can be justified. The examples quoted by Patanjali in this connection are precisely of preverbs, regarded as a subanta form, with a finite verb.
B. In his comment on P. 2.1.6 Patanjali introduces the concept of pradhanya 'dominance' with regard to the status of the cp.-constituents. What it amounts to is that the reference of the cp. as a whole is determined by a word which may or may not be one of the cp.-constituents. In an avyayibhava cp. it is the first cp. constituent. In a bv. cp. it is a word which does not form part of the cp. P. 2.1.6 itself categorizes the words functioning as the second (apradhana 'non-dominant') member of an avyayibhava cp.
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