Hindu Techniques of Mental Health

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Item Code: IHL565
Author: Rachna Sharma
Language: English
Edition: 2000
ISBN: 817226412
Pages: 246
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Weight 450 gm
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Book Description

According to Aristotle (1928) a definition is summan genus et differentia. Operational definition of a concept describes how it operates or functions in a socio—cultural milieu. Operational definition follows from the scope of the concept defined. To quote Cohen and Nagel (1961), "Real definitions are definitions of words, and at the same time are analyses of the universals symbolised by both the definitiens and the definiendum." Thus, an operational definition pf mental health will involve its role in the general make up of the healthy individual. Secondly, it will be relative to time, setting and circumstances of a socio—cu1tural group. This has been demonstrated in a WFMH cross cultural study (1963) "Mental Health and value System". Thirdly, mental health may be assessed in quantitative terms. Thus, an operational definition of mental health may be “that anything that can be done to raise the capacity of the individual to come to terms with himself and to achieve the full realization of his own potential; and, conversely, anything that can be done to reduce negative aspects of individual behaviour, could contribute positively to mental health in the community? (Soddy and Ahrenfeldt 1967).

Western Views on Mental Health

Mental health is a part of general public health which has been described by W.H.O. as "a sound mind, in a sound body in a sound society." Western thinkers have generally defined Mental Health negatively. As RV Lewkin points out, a mentally healthy individual is well adjusted within himself and in his environment. To quote KA. Menninger, "Let us define mental health as the adjustment of human beings to the world and to each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness? N.E. Cutts and N. Moslay also support this view. As Abbe Arkoff (1968) puts it, "Good adjustment and mental health are almost synonymous concepts these days ...Mental health is sometimes used to designate very desirable personal characteristics? According to Gerald Caplan (1964), the psychiatrist has three major areas of work (1) Primary prevention, in which he attempts to reduce and control the incidence of mental illness ; (2) Secondary prevention, which includes the typical activities of psychiatrists in attempting to alleviate psychiatric conditions and to control their duration and (3) tertiary prevention, in which the psychiatrist attempts to develop community resources and programmes that help alleviate the degree of impairment suffered by persons with psychiatric conditions. Agreeing with this preventive description of Mental Health James C. Coleman (1976) defines prevention as including 1. Physical health measures, 2. Psychosocial health measures and 3. General socio- cultural measures. As the American National Institute of Mental Health (1969) summarises it. "In the final analysis, the mental health of each citizen is affected by the maturity and health of our society from the smallest unit to largest."

Besides the preventive approach, Mental Health has been defined by Western thinkers in more positive terms. Clifford Beers (1928) started Mental Hygiene Movement with the explicit purpose of educating public about the meaning and prevention of mental disorders and preservation of mental health. Jahoda (1958) and Smith (1959) defined Mental health as a value laden concept. They have used the terms "psychologist effectiveness" and "personal competence" for mental health. Offer and Shabshin have defined mental health as the condition not sick or that which is reasonably healthy. According to Maslow (1954) and Goldstein (1939) a mentally healthy person is constantly progressing on the path of self actualization. All port (1961) calls him a mature personality. The mentally healthy person, according to Ralph Linton (1956), shows marked comforrnity with social norms. Jahoda (1958) has analysed many definitions of mental health and has offered the criteria as correctness of self concept, self actualization, integration, autonomy, perception of reality and environmental mastery. Shoben (1957) proposed for mentally {healthy personality, a model of “integrative adjustment" which is characterised by “self control, personal responsibility, social responsibility, democratic social interests and ideals." After describing various characteristics of mentally healthy person in terms of ideal criterion Korchin said, "Finally, the healthy personality is comfortable with himself and valued by others." To sum up, the western thinkers interpret mental health as an ideal condition of personal integration and social adjustment having characteristics of emotional maturity, self confidence, optimism, realistic self assessment, self acceptance, self actualization, self autonomy, sincerity, spontaneity, sociability, lack of mental conflicts, high morale and the last but not the least a healthy personal and social philosophy.

Hindu Views on Mental Health

Since the Vedic times, Indian thinkers have been busy in finding out techniques of conquering the mind, integrating personality, adjusting with the environment— social and natural and attaining self knowledge, self realization and self autonomy. The Atharva Veda describes the human personality on physical side as having three components or gunas; Vatta, Pitta and Shleshma or Kaph. The treatment means the restoration of equilibrium. Thus, Atharva Veda deals with the therapeutics. It touches the subject of mental desire and therapeutics briefly.

Ancient Indian Psychology has given a theory which pinpointed the causes of mental disease and offered as many as 16 major types of techniques for curing psychic disorders. In Upanishads one finds psychological investigation through self analysis and introspection. Adepts in these practices, called Yogins, developed highly sophisticated ways and means of attaining mental control and mental autonomy in Raja Yoga, Hatha Yoga, Mantra Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Karma Yoga and Laya Yoga, etc. These led to the attainment of the real self. Thus self psychology developed in India since the times of Vedas. Mental health was attained through the balance of the three gunas, the Sattva, the Rajas and the Tamas. Patanjali Yoga particularly recommends the cessation of sanskaras of the Chitta to attain Mental Health. As Akhilanand (1952) puts it, "The five sanskaras are to be conquered by resolving them into their causal state; by meditation their modifications are to be rejected." According to Hindu thinkers, as long as man accepts hedonism and pursues pleasure as the primary objective of life, frustrations and tensions are inevitable. "The central secret is, therefore, to know that the various passions and feelings, and emotions in the human heart are not wrong in themselves, only they have to be carefully controlled and given a higher und higher direction, until they attain the very highest condition of excellence. The highest direction is that which takes us to God."

Western Techniques of Attaining Mental Health

The objectives of Mental Health Programme according to Western thinkers are the treatment and removing of mental disorders, prevention of` personality complications and safeguard of mental balance. According to Lawrence F Shaffer (1936) the science of Mental Health is concerned with the prevention of inadequate adjustment or with those processes or methods which adjust the maladjusted individual. Clarifying Western techniques of attaining mental health Abe Arkoff (1968) has said, "In order to change adjustment, we may attempt to modify our physical or psychological nature or the nature of the environment in which we find ourselves. Approaches of the first kind may be called somatotherapy; the second kind psychotherapy; and the third, socio—therapy." Somatotherapy includes Shock therapy and Drug Therapy, while Psychotherapy includes Catharsis, Insight and learning, Group therapy, Family therapy, Dramatic therapy and Play therapy. Socio-therapy is preventive rather than corrective. It aims at forestalling mental ill health on the one hand and enhancing mental health on the other in Family, Neighborhood, School, College, Work environments and institutional environments. Some current trends in the field of techniques of attaining Mental Health in the West are : change of approaches from person to person—in—the environment ; from part to comprehensive planning, from professional to lay involve- ment ; from custody to correction ; from correction to prevention (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary) ; from prevention to enhancement of mental health.

Hindu Techniques of Attaining Mental Health

Hindu techniques of mental health particularly emphasise the following necessary requisites for attainment of mental health: Cosmic perspective of human life, real concept of self, integral value system, integral view of human personal--in—an integral environment and multisided social adjustment in four Ashramas. Like the classification of western techniques given above Hindu techniques also include Somato—therapy such as Hatha Yoga, Psychotherapy such as the eightfold yoga and Sociotherapy which includes the rules of behaviour and norms of conduct in various Ashramas prescribed by various Dharma Shastras. The field of Hindu Psychotherapy is very wide since the central theme of Mental Health in Hindu Psychology is the understanding and self control of mind. The understanding of the nature, types and stages of mind is a necessary prelude to any attempt at attainment of mental health. Various techniques of mental control, in fact, are the important techniques in Hindu Psycho- therapy. Besides the eightfold Yoga, these psychotherapeutic techniques include: Suggestions concerning a sound philosophy of life; Good sanskaras or impressions; Bhakti and Prapatti or faith healing; intro- spection and self Analysis; Chintan or Discriminative thinking; Manan or Concentration g Nididhyasana or Meditation; Observation of Yamas or Abstainment; Observation of Niyamas or spiritual norms, Sanyasa or Renunciation, Paramarsha or spiritual guidance and Thought Culture. Various types of yoga prescribe various practices with far reaching consequences upon attainment of mental health.

Objectives of the Study

(1) To give a summary of systematised Hindu concepts and Techniques of Mental Health in terms of modern psychology.

(2) To find out Hindu concepts and Techniques of Mental Health which may be helpful in attaining an integrated and well adjusted personality in student life, household life, life in neighbourhood and life in society in general.

(3) To compare Hindu concepts with Humanistic and Existential Psychology and Hindu techniques with those formulated in the West.

(4) To construct an inventory on the subject in the form of a questionnaire on every topic in the Hindu concepts and techniques.

(5) To find out the effectiveness of the Hindu concepts and Techniques in attainment of Mental Health in the life of those who have practiced it for at least a decade.

1. The present study has been aimed at throwing light upon the long established Indian concepts of mental health which are more beneficial in the development of integrated personality in contrast to the western longing for the material comforts as the ultimate end of human life.

2. As there is a wide difference and some similarities in Hindu and Western techniques of mental health, a comparison of the two has been fruitful.

3. The study is significant in being the first attempt to systematise the concepts and identify the techniques of Mental Health in Hindu Psychology.

4. The study is helpful in providing personal guidance to Indian youths and middle aged persons to solve their problems of adjustment through our own heritage in psychology.

5. The study enlightens Indian and Western psychologists, consultant’s und psychiatrists about the significance and efficacy of Hindu concepts und Techniques of mental health


Some thinkers maintain that there is no such study as Indian psycho- logy, there is only Indian philosophy and spiritualism. This, however, is far from true. Though self has been the main subject of Indian psycho- logical investigation since the Upanisads to Sri Aurobindo, mind (Citta) has been an equally important subject of deliberation. It should he remembered that while self realisation is the positive side of Indian psycho- logy, mental control has been its negative aspect. All the techniques developed in the name of Yogas in India aimed at both there targets. While they aimed at self realisation, the path to this aim passed necessarily through self control. As a prelude to self control Indian psychologists analysed the nature of Citta or mind in details. This involved the study of the working of sense organs, the organs of actions the inner mechanism {Antahkarana) the chakras, the intellect and the memory, etc. Self and mind have been the two most important subjects of Indian psychology. Its approach has been both theoretical and practical. Practice and renunciation have been considered as the two most important weapons for self control. According to Patanjali, Maitri Karuna, Mudita and Upeksha lead to purification of self.1 Yoga Vashishtha recommends hearing of scriptures, company of spiritual persons and absolute remunciation for the same purpose.

Relationship with Philosophy and Religion

Indian psychology is both philosophical and religious. These, again, are the characteristics of Indian culture. Indian thinkers and psycho- logists, from the seers of ancient Upanisads to contemporary Sri Aurobindo, have been great philosopher, and intensely religious persons. They were spiritual persons, saints who utilised philosophy, religion and psychology for the purpose of self development and self realisation. Thus Indian psychology is and has been an integral part of Indian philosophy and Hindu religion. In the words of M. Hiriyanna, "Indian psychology is fact science of self."3 While Western and Indian psychology, thus differ in definition, nature, scope and methods, both of these deliberate on individual behaviour and aim at knowing the individual, knowing our real nature.4 So far as relationship with philosophy is concerned, even Wilhelm Woundt and Norman L. Munn admit that psychology cannot be absolutely separated from philosophy. It is wrong to brand Indian psychology as fatalist since as Mrs. Geraldine Coster has admitted, "It represents man as the sole and absolute master of his own fate for ever." However, it has been rightly pointed out by H.V. Divatiya that while western psychology does not admit any existence of mind apart from being a function of the brain, Indian psychologist has given it an independent existence.

Scope of Indian Psychology

Indian psychology studies self, mind, intellect, ego, chitta and their activities and processes. Of these, mind and its modifications is the most important subject matter of Indian psychology. This is particularly useful in achieving mental health through mental control, modification and transformation. Nyaya philosophy calls mind the sixth sense. It is mind which is activated in pleasure—pains, attachment—repulsion and desire. According to Yoga Vashishtha, Chitta and Buddhi are synonyms of mind. In Samkhya philosophy mind has been called the eleventh Indriya besides the five sense organs and five organs of action. Mind develops into Mahat This Buddhi is both internal and external. It controls both the mind and the ego. This Buddhi (intellect or reason) occupies an important place in Indian psychology. According to Vedanta Paribhasha, Antahkaran includes ego, chitta, action and imagination along with doubt, decision, and memory. In the scope of Indian psychology are included the four states of consciousness jagrat, Swapna, Sushupti and Turiya. Indian psycho- logists have deeply analysed samgya sharira which includes five sense organs and five organs of action. They have believed in four types of bodies, vis., sthula (gross), sukshma (subtle), Karana (ausal) and Chinmaya (Conscious). Indian psychologists have also analysed testimonies (Pramanas). These are Pratyaksha (perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Agama or Sabda (Scripture), Arthapatti (Inherence) and Anuplabdhi (Non-existence). These testimonies are related to the mind. These are the instruments of worldly. And other worldly knowledge. To quote Swami Akhilananda, “Almost all the psychologists of the east and west accept the perception as the most direct method of obtaining knowledge.

Indian psychology studies smriti (memory). It is a mental element. It plays a very significant role in mental activities. Without it there can be no mundane or supramundance activity. A person with lost memory cannot do anything coherent in his life. However, as a spiritual stage, forgetting is helpful in integrating personality.

Indian psychology also studies pleasure—pain, death, loss of consciousness, lust, ignorance, attachment and repulsion, doubt, illusion, hallucination, feeling, desire, motivation, instincts, suggestion and samadhi.

Above all, Indian psychologists have made a deep and wide study of personality. They have analysed both physico—mental and spiritual aspects of personality. Physical appearance, according to the Indian Psychologists, is not the real persona. Indian psychologists laid particular emphasis on the spiritual aspect of human personality which is particularly neglected by the Western psychologists. According to the Indian psychologist the Spiritual persona is the real personality. It is the real self which transmigrates and which do not die along with body.

Personality, according to the Indian psychologists, is based on Shraddha (faith). It is identical with antakarana. The nature of a person is according to his sharddha. If it is attached to enjoyments of objects, his personality will also be obsessed by worldly enjoyments. According to Bhtigawad Gita, "Human personality is based upon Shraddha." "If Sharddha is tamasic, the personality is tamasic, if shraddha is sattvic the personality is sattvie as well.

While Western psychology does not care much about reconciliation of conflicts, Indian psychologists have made an almost science of it. According to the Indian psychologists the first and foremost goal of the psychologists and even of the layman is to create a. personality which naturally resolves all conflicts, or in other words, which is free from all conflicts. Various techniques have been developed by the Indian psychologists to rid the human mind of all the tensions and conflicts. These include good samskaras, good company, good practice, renunciation, knowledge, devotion and Nishkama karma. These have been discussed in details in our separate chapter upon Techniques of Mental Health.

The above discussion about the nature and scope of Indian Psychology shows it superiority over western psychology so far as mental health is concerned. Indian psychologists firmly believe that though man has been born as an animal with certain basic tendencies, these can be modified, reformed and even transformed. More than a biological being man is a cultural being. This characteristic is not in his biological set up but in his cultural possibilities, his spiritual transformation. This, however, requires an inner change, an inner revolution. Thus, it is characteristic of Indian psychology that it provides the spiritual techniques through which an ideal personality may be developed, though at the same time, by the very nature of its objective, it lacks very wide use of experimental method. Though logical analysis was not accepted as a very important method by Indian philosophers, it has been widely used by Indian psychologists No Indian psychologist is prepared to admit that complete knowledge of mind is possible through experimental methods. But Introspection in Indian psychology is not just looking within, it is self analysis, it is more comprehensive and deeper than what we know by that method in western psychology. Spiritual experience of mental tendencies is the only and chief means of knowing the mind.

Mental Health in Indian Psychology

There has recently developed a keen interest in ancient Indian approach towards the maintenance of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. The techniques of Yoga and Meditation have been quite widely utilized to reduce tension and to bring positive changes in the disturbed consciousness of the individual. Indian psychology has developed out of religion. It defines the basic goal of life as the ultimate realization of the divinity of man. Indian religion, philosophy and psychology are interconnected. Indian ideas on psychotherapy and mental health are based upon thousands of years of cultural traditions, experiences and experiments. Indian way of life is not a negation of sensual experience; rather it is an integration of sensual and spiritual attainments. Some people believe that Indian psychology aims at suppressing, twisting and turning all natural human tendencies, emotions, feelings and activities to reach an other worldly status of liberation. This is a contradiction of facts. In fact, Indian thinkers never rejected satisfaction of natural impulses including that of sex but only subordinated it to higher laws of Dharma. Various passions, feelings and emotions are not wrong in themselves, only they have to be carefully controlled and given a higher and higher direction, until they attain the very highest condition of excellence.

This twentieth century of ours is called the era of anxiety and depression. With the advancement of science, man has conquered the Nature and has attained all the materialistic pleasures of life, many physical diseases have been controlled, life span has been increased, infantile mortality rate has been decreased, new horizons have been opened. But, on the other hand, frustrations, tensions, unhappiness, social and personal disorders leading to mental disorders, are increasing day by day. There is a world-wide concern regarding the search for a life style which is more satisfying, more harmonious, more healthy and more integrating. The West is now looking to the East, more so to Indian way of life, to get a life style based upon values, beliefs and practices of Indian thinkers.

Since the Vedic times, Indian thinkers have been busy in finding out techniques of controlling the mind, integrating personality, adjusting with the environment- social and physical, and attaining self knowledge, self realization and self—autonomy. The Atharva Veda describes the human personality on physical side as having three components or gunas; Vata, Pitta and Shleshma or Kaph. The treatment means the restoration of the equilibrium.

Ancient Indian psychology had developed a theory which pinpointed the causes of mental disorders and offered as many as 16 major techniques for curing mental diseases. In Upanishads, we find psycho- logical investigation through self analysis and introspection. Yogins who adapted these practices developed highly sophisticated ways and means of attaining mental control and mental autonomy in Raja Yoga, Hath Yoga, Mantra Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Juana Yoga, Karma Yoga and Laya Yoga, etc. These led to the attainment of the real self. Thus self psychology developed since the time of Vedas. Mental health was attained through the balance of three gunas- the Sattva, the Rajas and the Tamas. Patanjali’s Yoga particularly recommended the cessation of Sanskaras of the Chitta to attain mental health. As Akhilanand (1952, p. 14) puts it: "The five Sanskaras are to be conquered by resolving them into their causal state." According to Hindu thinkers, as long as man accepts hedonism and pursues pleasure as the primary objective of life, frustrations and tensions are inevitable. The central secret is, therefore, to know that the various passions and feelings and emotions in the human life are not wrong in themselves, only they have to be carefully controlled and given a higher and higher direction, untill they attain the very highest condition of excellence.

Indian psychology has developed out of religion. It defines the basic goal of life as "the ultimate realization of the divinity of man, or the manifestation of divinity that is already in him."l5 (Akhilanand 1952, p. 12). It is believed that the attachment to objects of the senses disturbs the mind. The techniques of Yoga and meditation create feeling of detachment towards those objects and thus bring peace, calmness and overall feeling of the well being in the individuals. The path of Yoga is based on a sound psychological foundation.

The approach of Hindu psychology to mental health is both positive and negative. It propounds techniques to attain mental health as well as techniques to remove impediments to mental health. Thus the Hindu psychology developed techniques to remove anxiety, fear, conflict, depression, inferiority complex, aggression, social maladjustments and intoxication, etc. It suggests means to eliminate conflicts and tensions in marriage and in family. It suggests a positive cosmic philosophy of life. Indian psychology recommends religious beliefs and values, as against secular beliefs and values, as providing a solid basis for an integral personality free from all mental afflictions. The religious attitude creates harmony and adjustment with nature. It rules out all hatred, prejudice, violence and conflict in social relationships. As duties and sacrifices arc given more importance than rights and enjoyment, social relationships arc more integrated. It improves social cohesion, social unity and social harmonv. Change in attitude changes the entire interpretation and perception of social environment.

The objectives of mental health programme according to western thinkers are the treatment and removal of mental disorders, prevention of personality complications and safeguard of mental balance. According to Shaffer (1956) the science of mental health is concerned with those processes or methods which adjust the maladjusted individual. Arkoff (1968, p. 248) says, "In order to change adjustment, we may attempt to modify our physical or psychological nature or the nature of the environment in which we find ourselves. Approaches of the first kind may be called somatotherapy; the second kind psychotherapy and the third socio—therapy."16 Somatotherapy includes shock therapy and chemo- therapy, while psychotherapy includes catharsis, insight and learning. Group therapy, family therapy, psychodrama and play therapy are the types of socio-therapy. Neighbourhood, school, college, work environments and institutional environments require the means of enhancing mental health.

The present study is aimed at throwing light upon the long Established Indian concepts of mental health which are more beneficial in the development of integrated personality in contrast to the western longing for the material comforts as the ultimate end of human life. For this purpose a questionnaire has been developed on the basis of Hindu Values, beliefs and practices which measures the style of life of the individual on a continuum of Hindu/west—oriented style of life and on the other hand the mental health is measured with the help of a standardised fest of PGI Chandigarh, developed by Moudgil, Verma and Madam Pal. In this way the relationship between mental health and life style, based on Indian values, beliefs and practices will be established.

For comparative study, the two groups of persons are studied- one adhering to the Indian way of life and the other of WOGS (Western Oriented Gentlemen) living a modern style of life.

Back of the book

While several works are available on the application of Western techniques of Mental Health, this book is the first and the only work on Hindu Techniques of Mental Health. Starting with the definition of Mental Health in East and West the book deals with Hindu Beliefs, Varnashrama Dharma, Hindu Values, Purusharthas, Personality and Self, Yoga and Mental Control, Sanskaras and Hindu Techniques of Mental Health. It is the first work to empirically a and scientifically study the effectiveness of Hindu Techniques in the attainment of Mental Health through a life style close ended questionnaire given in the appendix of the book. Thus the book caters to the interest of both the layman and the specialist, the Psychologist and the psychiatrist.


Introduction 1 – 8
2 Concept of Mental Health9-27
The Western View Point 9
The Indian View Point 14
Comparison of Western and Indian Approaches 18
Transcendental Meditation 20
3. Review of Related Literature 28-37
The Vedas 28
The Brahmanas 29
The Upanishads 30
Dharma Shastras 31
Ramayana and Mahabharata 32
Bhagawad Gita 32
Yoga Vashishtha 33
Puranas 34
Six Philosophical Systems 34
Medieval Saints 35
Modern Social Reformers 36
Modern Indian Thinkers 36
4. Basic Beliefs of Hindus 38-52
Sanatan Dharma 38
Basic Beliefs of Hindus 40
5. Basic Values of Hindus 53-71
Universal Integral Principle 53
Self - Realization 58
Sachchidananda as Value Principle 59
Means to the Supreme Goal – Devotion, Dedication and Service 60
Tapas (Penance) 64
Dama (Self – Restraint) 65
Sraddha (Faith) 67
Dana (Generosity) 67
Abhaya (Fearlessness) 68
6. Varnashram System72-86
Significance of the Varna System 73
The Ashram System 76
7. The Purusharthas 87-104
Concept of Purusharthas 87
Dharma 88
Artha 95
Kama 97
Moksha or Liberation 99
8. Hindu Techniques of Mental Health105 - 124
Hindu Psychology and Mental Health 105
Techniques to Remove Impediments to Mental Health 108
Anxiety 108
Fear 110
Mental Conflict 111
Frustration 112
Inferiority Complex 113
Aggression 114
Drunkeuness 114
Techniques of Personality Integration 116
Elimination of Marital Discord 120
Mental Health and Religious Attitude 122
9. Samskaras and Mental Control125-139
Memory – A Revival of Samskaras126
How is the Samskara Formed 127
Cyclic Causation of Thought and Samskaras 127
Samyama over Samskaras 127
Virtuous and Vicious Samskaras 128
Past Samskaras Constitute Prarabdha 128
The Enslaving Chains of Samskaras 129
Thoughts and Desires Depend upon Samskaras 129
Elimination of Samskaras Leads to Liberation 130
How to Acquire Good Samskaras 131
How to Control the Mind 132
Manonasa 136
10.Yoga and Mental Health 140-160
Yoga of Patanjali 141
The Eight—fold Yoga 145
Meditation 151
Laya Yoga or Kundalini Yoga 152
Transcendental Meditation Programme (T.M.P.)153
Value of the Yoga Techniques 158
11. Personality and Self 161-192
Western Concept of Human Personality 161
Indian Concept of Personality166
Charvaka Theories of Personality 169
Idealistic Personality Theories 171
Approaches to Personality Theories 176
Personality Types 183
Integral Humanist Psychology 187
Comparison of the Western and Indian Concept 188
12. Methodology 193-197
The Problem 193
The Hypothesis 193
The Variables under Study 194
The Design of Study 194
Tools used in the Study 194
Sampling 196
Administration of the Scale 197
Collection of Data 197
13. Results and Discussion 198-214
No difference in Mental Health Scores 198
Relation between Mental Health and Values 202
Significant Difference in Beliefs 204
Difference between the Practices 206
Difference in Total Life System 209
Hindu Techniques as Effective Models 211
Life Styles of Low and High Mental Health Sub—groups 213
14.Conclusion 215-218
Summary of the Results 215
Conclusion 216
Delimitations of the Study 217
Suggestions for Further Research 217
Bibliography 219-223
Appendix 224-231
1. Graphs 1-7
2. Jeevan Shaili Adhyayana (Life Style Study) 224-230
3. P.G.I. Well Being Scale (Hindi Version)231
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