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Item Code: IHK079
Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Author: Gayatri Devi
Edition: 2015
ISBN: 8170842231
Pages: 243
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 8.4 inch X 5.2 inch
Weight 260 gm
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Book Description


I would like to share with you my feelings that led me to write this book on Padartha Vijnana.

I joined BAMS in 1977. All the subjects in the first years of the course were totally new to me and also to all my classmates. We all studied subjects like Botany and Zoology from our high school level. As we went higher and higher in our education we learnt more and more of those subjects in detail. As there was foundation from school level we didn’t feel uncomfortable with those subjects.

But none of the Ayurvedic subjects were taught in any of the schools or junior colleges. (For many of you, even the Sanskrit language may be totally new). Naturally, I could not easily learn the new subjects with full of new terminology. In addition, we hardly had any simple and interesting textbook. I had a very difficult time and even thought of leaving the course and do some other graduation. (Today, ofcourse, I am very proud of being an Ayurvedic physician and whatever I am today, it is because of graduation in Ayurveda). At that time I had decided that I should take up teaching line in Ayurveda and generate interest in the subject to the students.

Surprisingly I got a chance to teach Padartha Vijnana (subject that made me feel miserable in my first year of BAMS) for the first years in Ayurvedic College in Chennai. I could successfully fulfill my dream of creating interest in my students in this (considered to be) fairly dry subject. None of my students were either afraid of the subjects or of the final exams in the subject. Every years I taught the subject I could produce 98% success in the subject.

My students were forced to follow only may notes for the subject, as there were no textbooks on Padartha Vijnana in English covering the syllabus suitable for students. They started asking me to write a book on Padartha Vijnana. This book is the result of such continuous suggestions.

All the topics covered in this subject, Padrtha Vijnana help you through out your degree course, in learning Ayurvedic anatomy, physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment etc. So develop interest in the subject and learn thoroughly. This subject is the gateway of Ayurveda.

This book is written keeping in view of your syllabus. Although this book is good enough for your exams, I advise you to read the original texts, wherever there are references to get the complete feel of the subject. I hope all of you will find this book useful in understanding the subject and getting through the examination successfully.




First Paper
Chapter 1
Classification of Darshanas 3
Darsana sankhya (enumeration) 4
Astika Darshanas  
Nyaya Darshana 5
Vaisheshika Darshana 6
Sankhya Darshana 6
Yoga Darshana 7
Mimamsa Darshana 8
Vedanta Darshana 9
Nastika darshanas  
Jaina Darshana 10
Boudha Darshana 10
Charvaka Darshana 11
Raseshwara Darshana 12
Importance of Darshanas in Ayurveda 12
Independent interpretations of Ayurveda 13
Importance of Padartha-vijnana in Ayurveda 13
Padartha 14
Padartha lakshanas (characteristics) 15
Classification of Padarthas 16
Sadharmya-Vaidharmyas of Padarthas 16
Padarthas in Ayurveda (According to Charaka) 17
Padarthas in Ayurveda (According to Charaka) 17
Questions 18
Chapter 2  
DRAVYA (Substance)  
Dravya lakshanas (qualities) 19
Dravya sankhya (enumeration) 19
Dravya bhedas (classification) 20
Karya Dravyas  
Chetana dravyas 20
Achetan dravyas 21
Karana dravyas  
Prithivi 22
Qualities of prithivi 22
Prithivi bhedas (classification) 23
Jala 23
Qualities of jala 24
Jala bhedas 24
Tejas 25
Agni lakshanas (qualities) 25
Agni bhedas (classification) 26
Vayu 26
Vayu lakshanas (qualities) 27
Vayu bhedas (classification) 27
Akasha 28
Gunas or qualities of akasha 28
Pancha Mahabhuta Nirupana  
Bhuta 29
Mahabhuta 29
Panchamahabhuta utpatti and paraspara anupravesha 30
Attributes or gunas of mahabhutas 31
Vishesha gunas 31
Bhoutika gunas 31
Mahabhutas and Sattvadi gunas 32
Mahabhutas and Tridoshas 33
Relationship between Panchamahabhutas and the organs in a body 33
Pancha-panchikarana 34
Importance of Panchamahabhutas in Ayurveda 35
Atma (Soul)  
Paramatma-Jivatma 35
Differences between Jivatma and Paramatma 36
Purusha 37
Synonyms of purusha 37
Purusha lakshanas 37
Samyoga purusha 38
Dwidhatuja purusha 38
Tridhatuja purusha 38
Shad dhatuja purusha 39
Chaturvimsati (24) tattvatmaka purusha 39
Panchavimsati (25) tattvatmaka purusha 40
Karma purusha 40
Cikitsya purusha 40
Sukshma purusha 40
Ativahika purusha 41
Manas (mind)  
Location of Manas 42
Lakshanas of Manas 42
Gunas or qualities of Manas 43
Vishayas (objects) and karmas (functions) of manas 44
Kala (time)  
Kala shabda nirukthi (derivation of the word kala) 44
Description of Kala 45
Classification of Kala 46
Importance of Kala in Ayurveda 47
Disha (direction)  
Samanya gunas (general qualities) 49
Differences between Akasha and Disha 50
Differences between Disha and Kala 50
Importance of Disha in Ayurveda 50
Tamas dravyatva khandanam 51
Questions 53
Chapter 3  
Lakshanas of gunas 54
Classification of gunas 54
Vaishehika gunas 55
Paradi samanya gunas 57
Atmagunas 59
Gurvadi gunas 62
Sadharmya-vaidharmyas of gunas (similarities and differences) 68
Importance of gunas 70
Corelation between the 24 gunas mentioned by Nyaya, Vaiseshika philosophies and 41 gunas mentioned by Charaka 71
Questions 73
Chapter 4  
Lakshanas of karma 75
Karma bhedas (classification) 76
Bhoutika or laukika karmas 76
Karma bhedas as per Nyaya Darshana 77
Karma as per Ayurveda 78
Questions 79
Chapter 5  
SAMANYA (Generality)  
Lakshanas of Samanya 80
Samanya bhedas 81
Practical application of samanya in Ayurveda 81
Questions 82
Chapter 6  
Lakshanas of vishesha 84
Differences between samanya and vishesha 84
Vishesha as per Ayurveda 84
Pravrittirubhayas tu 85
Questions 85
Chapter 7  
SAMAVAYA (Inherence)  
Samavaya lakshanas 87
Samavaya as per Ayurveda 87
Questions 88
Chapter 8  
Abhava (Negation)  
1. Pragabhava (antecedent negation) 89
2. Pradhvamsabhava (destruction) 89
3. Atyantabhava (absolute negation) 89
4. Anyonyabhava (reciprocal negation) 90
Samayikyabhava 90
Samsargabhava 90
Second Paper
Chapter 1  
Prama 93
Karana 94
Aprama 95
1. Samshaya 95
2. Bhranthi or Viparyaya (erroneous knowledge) 97
3. Tarka 97
Importance of pramanas 97
Number of pramanas (pramana sankhya) 98
Pramana is ‘pariksha’ in Ayurveda 100
Questions 100
Chapter 2  
Definition 101
Apta lakshanas 101
Importance of aptopadesha in Ayurveda 102
Agama pramana 102
Nighantu pramana 103
Aitihya pramana 103
Shabda pramana 103
Shabda lakshanas and bhedas 104
Shabdartha bodhaka vritti 105
Vakya-vishleshana 106
Shabda and shabda utpatti (generation of sound) 107
Shakti (signifying power) 109
Shakti graha 109
Shakti grahaka 109
Questions 110
Chapter 3  
Indriya (organ) 111
Artha (object) 111
Sannikarsha (contact) 111
Pratyaksha lakshanas (characteristics) 112
Jnanotpatti (perception of knowledge) 113
Jnanotpatti prakara 113
Indriya swarupa and lakshanas 115
Jnanendriyas 116
Karmendriyas 116
Ubhayendriya 116
Indriya vishayas 116
Indriya bhautikatwa 117
Pancha panchaka 118
Indriya vritti (functions of the organs) 120
Trayodasha karanas 120
Functions and Importance of antahkarana 121
Antahkarana chatushtaya 122
Pratyaksha bhedas (classification of pratyaksha pramana) 122
Savikalpa pratyaksha 123
Nirvikalpa pratyaksha 123
Laukika and alaukika pratyaksha 124
Sannikarsha swarupa (operative relation) and bhedas 124
Importance of indriyartha-sannikarsha in Ayurveda 126
Laukika pratyaksha 126
Alaukika pratyaksha 126
-Samanya-lakshana pratyaksha 127
-Jnana-lakshana pratyaksha 127
-Yogaja pratyaksha 128
Pratyasatti yojana 128
Vedana - adhishthana, hetu and vedananasha hetu 129
Indriya prapyakarita 130
Pratyaksha: Modern aids 130
Necessity of other pramanas 130
Factors restricting the pratyaksha pramana 131
Application of pratyaksha pramana in Ayurveda 133
Questions 134
Chapter 4  
Paramarsha 135
Anumana lakshanas according to Charaka 136
Classification of anumana in general 136
1. Swartha anumana 136
2. Parartha anumana 136
Classification of anumana (Charaka) 137
Anumana pramana according to Nyaya Darshana 137
Comparision between the anumanas proposed by Charaka and Nyaya Darshana 139
Panch avayavas (five syllogisms) 139
Linga (mark) paramarsha 140
1. Kevalanvayi 140
2. Kevala vyatireki 141
3. Anvaya vyatireki 141
Hetu 142
Hetwabhasa (defective reason) 143
Hetwabhasa bhedas 143
Saddhetu 145
Vyapti bhedas 146
Drishtanta 147
Tarka (false assumption) 147
Application of anumana in Ayurveda 149
Questions 150
Chapter 5  
YUKTI (Reasoning)  
Yukti-lakshanas (characteristics) 151
Questions 152
Chapter 6  
UPAMANA (Analogy)  
Nirukti 153
Upamana is an independent pramana, 154
Upamana lakshanas (characteristics) 154
Upamana bhedas 155
Application of upamana in Ayurveda 156
Questions 156
Chapter 7  
ARTHAPATTI (implied meaning)  
Anupalabdhi or Abhava pramana (non-apprehension) 158
Sambhava pramana (inclusion) 158
Cheshta pramana (gesture and posture) 158
Parishesha pramana (elimination) 159
Questions 159
Chapter 8  
KARYA-KARANA BHAVAS (Cause & Effect Theory)  
Karana lakshanas (characteristics) 160
1. Purva bhava (antecedance) 160
2. Nityatva (invariability) 161
3. Ananyathasiddhi (unconditionality) 161
Karana bhedas (classification) 162
1. Samavayi karana (inherent cause) 162
2. Asamavayi karana (non-inherent cause) 162
3. Nimitta karana 163
Relation between the karana and the karya 163
Satkaryavada 164
Parinamavada 166
Vivartavada 166
Asatkaryavada 167
Paramanuvada 168
Kshanabhangura vada 169
Pakaja gunas 169
Pilupaka vada (baking of atoms) 170
Anekantavada 171
Karya-karana sambandha in Ayurveda 172
Questions 173
Chapter 9  
Shrishti-uptatti (creation of the Universe) 174
Prakriti 176
Prakriti lakshanas (characteristics) 176
Mahattatva 177
Ahamkara 177
Indriyas 177
Pancha tanmatras 178
Pancha mahabhutas 178
Tattva-vargikarana (classification) 178
Shrishti-krama accepted by Ayurveda 178
Kshetra-kshetrajna 181
Vyakta-avyakta 182
Pralaya (destruction) 183
Sadharmya-vaidharmyas between prakriti and purusha 183
Prakriti-purusha samyoga karana 184
Trigunas 186
Punarjanma 186
Pramanas proving the ‘punarjanma’ or ‘rebirth’ 187
Apunarbhava 188
Moksha according to Charaka 188
Questions 189
Chapter 10  
TANTRAYUKTI VIJNANA (Techniques of Exposition)  
Usefulness of tantrayuktis 191
Necessity of tantrayuktis 191
Three aspects of tantrayuktis 192
Tantra gunas 192
Tantra doshas 193
Tantrayuktis 196
Vyakhyana 205
Kalpana 208
Ashrayas 209
Tachchhilyas 213
Questions 216
Multiple Choice Questions  
(For PG Entrance and Public Service Commission Tests) 217
Answers to MCQs 227
Bibliography 228


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