Raktadhatu is next only to rasadhatu in the order of dhatuparinama., The disease raktapitta is closely related to raktadhatu which is responsible for the most important function of the body; i.e. jeevanakarma.
Raktapitta is a serious disease to be handled with extra-care and caution. This text gives the necessary information regarding the causes, diagnosis and management of this deadly disease.
Arya Vaidya Sala started conducting annual ayurvedic seminars in connection with the Founder’s Day C Celebrations in 1964 and All India Essay Competition in 1965. The proceedings of seminars and the prize winning essays are published regularly. They cover a wide range of topics and have become a veritable source of reference for students and researchers in the field of ayurveda.
The topic for essay competition for 2002 was Raktapitta and its Treatment. The essay adjudged the best is published now.
Raktapitta is a serious disease affecting the raktadhatu, meant for an important function in the body, namely jeevanakarma.
The most important clinical manifestation of this disease is blood oozing through the natural orifices, and even through hair follicles.
Here the author gives a detailed description of the cause, clinical signs and symptoms of the disease and treatment based on ayurvedic principles. In addition, he deals with various bleeding disorders described in modern medicine.
Raktapitta is a disease characterized by raktadushti and pittakopa. It deserves primary attention due to the fact that it is something concerned with the dhatu meant for jeevanakarma. Its seriousness is increased when we consider the functions of blood in a modern perspective. Generally speaking, raktapitta is a life-threatening problem in all respects. Hence the cases of raktapitta are to be handled with extra care and treated with extreme caution.
To understand raktapitta, it is of primary importance to go detail into the physiological and pathological functions of raktadhatu and pittadosha. Both these are concerned with the metabolism that takes place in an individual. Hence a detailed study of the characteristics of rakta and pitta is required. This study will be more beneficial if we compare it with the basic functions of the blood and the haemostatic mechanism.
Raktadhatu is the second dhatu to be formed in dhatuparinama. Such a dhatuparinama is very much in control of pitradosha, which is the inherent dosha of rakta. Hence it is a cyclic mechanism by which this dosha-dooshya relation is maintained. Any factor from inside or outside of the body that disrupts this cyclic rhythm causes a disease. When the concerned factor is one, which provokes both rakta and pitta, raktapitta is developed. So as in the case of haemostatic mechanism, when an inherited or acquired error in the mechanism occurs, any of the bleeding disorder is manifested. This error may occur either to the platelets, or to the coagulation factors or to any of the factor that is concerned with the haemostatic mechanism.
For the clinical evaluation of the disease, raktapitta; the nidanapanchakas are very much important. The nidana, samprapti, pragroopa, roopa and upasaya all are important in some way or another in the rogapareeksha of raktapitta. According to these five factors, a clear prognosis can be made as to whether the disease is easily curable, moderately curable or incurable. The treatment of raktapitta again depends upon the nidanapanchakas and the prognosis.
Chikitsa is more dependent upon the type of raktapitta as indicated by the route of raktapravrtti. This is also an indication of the status of dosha as in addition to the inherent pittadosha; the particular stanikadosha may also be involved in the disease process. Sodhana or samanachikitsa should be done according to the type of raktapitta and also strength of the patient. The delayed treatment or wrong treatment may leads to severe complications as the precious dhatu is getting depleted.
According to the modem medicine, the various bleeding disorders come under any of the congenital or acquired group. In both of these, the underlying pathology is an error in the haemostatic mechanism. Apart from this, bleeding may occur due to systemic and local causes. This bleeding may be through any of the natural orifices or through the hair follicles. When such a bleeding is studied in detail using the tools of our ancient acharyas viz., pratyaksha, anumana and aptopadesa; one can ascertain whether it is due to raktapitta or not and hence formulate the management.
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