Reinterpreting lndology and Indian History : Institutions, Intentions and Sources is a new attempt at understanding some newer aspects of lndology, which could not be covered earlier, and reinterpreting some older issues and themes. Iridology is an unfinished and an ever-growing chapter of world history. So much happened in this. field and such Indo-European cross-cultural exchanges took place alongside battles, trade and commerce, colonialism and empire formations over the last two thousand five hundred years that this is just not possible for one or a few historians to cover each and every aspect or what all transpired. Hence, fresh lights are sought to have been thrown on some unexplored them. and field related to Iridology and some themes reinterpreted in the light of new sources and researches. Ho, the readers find this volume of interest and use.
Dr. Radha Madhav Bharadwaj is an Associate Professor of History, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, India since 2006. Has over 29 years of teaching at the undergraduate and post Graduate levels in the University of Delhi. He has one book titled Vratas and Utsavas in North and Central India (Literary and Epigraphic Sources: c.A.D. 400-1200) and 25 published articles in national and international journals and books. Presented papers and delivered lecture at various universities in India and foreign countries like Toronto, Canada; UNHI, Bali, Indonesia; Mahidol University, Thailand; Universite Ouest Nanterre La Defense, Paris, France. Member, Asiatic Society, Kolkata and Societe Asiatique, Paris, France and also member, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Delhi, India.
Dr. Bruno Restif is an Associate Professor in History at the University of Reims, France since 2006. In 2015, he co-edited a book on the Cardinal of Lorraine, Archbishop of Reims and a leading figure of the Council of Trent. He has presented papers in various countries and published many papers in International journals. His research Interests focus on the representation of the body in prayer and in religious rites and the history of the churches.
Dr. Yuthika Mishra is an Associate Professor in History, Vivekanand College, University of Delhi. She specializes in Gender history and has read papers in various foreign Universities like Greece (Athens) and China. Her forthcoming book- SHE from the Atlantic Publishers, Delhi is going to be a new addition on gender studies. She is an Executive member of All India Womens' Conference, New Delhi.
I feel happy and satisfied to handover this edited volume on Indology into the hands of the scholars of Indology. Indology is an unfinished as well as an ever-growing chapter of world history and new facts and interpretations continue to add to the existing corpus of materials on the subject. This volume is mostly the product of the labours of the scholars who read papers at the two international conferences-The Asiatick Society, Indology and Indologists During the Late 18. and 19'h Centuries' and "Some Aspects of Religion and Sea-Route Trade During cA.D.-1500-1800" that the history department of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, India, organized in February and August 2014. These valuable papers could not be edited and sent to the press and were weighing heavily on me since then. It all began with teaching my students about the historiography of early Indian history during modem times and the role of the Orientologists/Indologists. My students proposed to hold a small seminar or workshop on the subject as they got interested in the personalities of some India-loving and knowledge-seeking Orientologists, like Sir Jones, Wilkins, Colebrooke and Prinsep. Another interesting paper that I taught was the Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe (1500-1800) which heavily talked of Renaissance humanism, discovery of new trade routes to Asia, Africa and the Americas, the coming of the Europeans, Sea trade, Christianity, the Churches and the Gothic and Baroque arts, the European and Asian family and marriage systems and the like. Thus the two international conferences which converged on many such topics and which still are being taught in Indian Universities and find many avid readers the world over.
At this juncture, I would like to thank some of the contributors like Pierre-Sylvain Filliozat, Radhavallabh Tripathi, Namita Singh, Shakti Multherjee Sushmita Basu Majumdar, Sayan tani Pal, Vasundhara Filliont and Umashankar Pandey, who accepted my request to write on topics suggested by me as I thought that their papers will add something new to the existing knowledge on such topics. I also extend my gratitude to Padmabhushan and Member of Parliament Prof. Mrinal Miri, then chairman of ICPR (MHRD, Govt. of India) who gave us a generous grant-in-aid of Rs. five lass and ICHR (Govt. of India) which gave us a grant of Rs.1.5 lacs for the first International Conference in February and our Principal Dr.S..Garg who willingly sanctioned more than Rs. Fifty thousand for the second International conference in August 2014. I also thank my university Professors and colleagues who stood by me during all these conferences and read papers and chaired sessions-Nayanjot Lahiri, Prof. R.C. Thakran, Prof. Amar Farooqui, Prof. B.P.Sahu, Prof. Kesavan Veluthat, Prof. H.S. Prasad, Dr. Shonaleeka Kaul, Dr. V.KJain, Prof. Pranabanad Jash of the Department of Ancient Indian History and Archeology, Prof. S.K Path of Viswabharati University of Satiniketan, West Bengal, and others. I also thank Sri Lanka's Asiatic Society president Dr. Susantha Goonatilake and late Prof. Manabendu Banerjee, Gene. Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Kolkata, for attending and reading papers and our ex-vice chancellor Prof. Dinesh Singh, Prof. Thakran, Prof. Jean-Pierre Mahe, president de la Societe Asiatique, Paris, France, Dr. Alison Ohta, director, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Shri S.G.ICale, president and Dr. Meena Vaishampayana, vice president, of the Asiatic Society of Mumbai, Prof. Vincent Eil.chinger of the Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Prof. Saverio Marchignoli of the Dip.di Storia Culture Civilta-University di Bologna, Prof. Mubarak Ali from Pakistan and my friend Dr. Bogdan Diaconescu, ex faculty at the University of Lousanne, Switzerland, for either attending in person or sending their representatives and sending their kind messages for the success of the conference. They also sent words to bring these papers to light. Dr. Bruno Restif, of the University of Reims, Dr. Manonmani Restif-Filliozat, Curator of Government Archives, Reims, France, and Professor Radhika Seshan, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, also deserve our sincere thanks for accepting our invitation to come and read their scholarly papers at our second International Conference on 7. august 2014 and also consistently inspiring and encouraging me to publish these contributions. My College and University colleagues who helped in numerous ways in the organization of the conference and constantly pressurizing me for publishing the papers also deserve thanks and praise are Dr. Kulvinder Singh, Dr. Manoj Saxena, Dr.Yuthilta Mishra, Dr. Anand Sanena, Dr. Poonam Kasturi, Dr. Gopika Bhandan, Dr. Nisha Rana, Dr. Monika Bansal and Dr.Rana Purushottam Kumar Singh of Nava Nalanda Mahavihar, Nalanda, Bihar and my student Kaustubh Gourh.
Indology is an unfinished as well as an ever-growing chapter of world history. So much happened in this field and such Indo-European cross-cultural exchanges took place alongside battles, trade and commerce, colonialism and empire formations over the last two thousand five hundred years that this is just not possible for one or a few historians to cover each and every aspect or what all transpired. The travelogues, ethno-geographic, epigraphic and numismatic records, translation and publication of the manuscripts on religion, literature, art, science commerce, medicine, music and ethics of India, official chronicles of the European traders, their letters, factory records, the diaries of the European and Indian employees at their colonial factories and the body of knowledge they produced, constitute the discipline of lndology and, to me, much of it still remains to be covered and made known to the world of academics. Hence, to present a critique or two about the nature, role and impact of Orientology/Indology will be risky and will at best be only partially true. The idea of `Total History' put forward by the propounders and followers of the Annales school also exhorts me to see the subject of Indology in its totality and must try to see the journey of the production of Indological materials right from India's interaction with the Iranians and Greeks (Yavanas-Yonas - Ionians), the Chinese, the Arabs, the Tibetans and the Europeans.
The journey of Indology passed through broadly three discernible stages-@ 5.-4. BCE to S. Century CE (ii) 5. century CE to mid-fifteenth century CE and (iii) later 15. to mid-20. century CE. Through all these phases the nature and role of Indology continued to be shaped and reshaped according to changing circumstances and the needs of the rulers and the values of the individual contributors in this Jnana-Yajna (Ritual of intellectual offerings). The painstaking researches of the last 225 years, along with accidental discoveries, have brought before us the fact that India made its first debut on the stage of world history with Alexander's invasion and conquest of the north-western part of India during the 4th century BCE. The ideas of world conquest, personal glory, the acquisition of wealth and a sense of curiosity led him to conquer and establish his empire here which led to the first direct interaction with the Greeks and the Hellenistic elements of South-eastern Europe. They remained here and ruled the north-western parts of India till the early decades of the first century CE. A steady exchange of ideas, commercial goods and pleasantries existed between them and the Indians and which continued, in more forms than one, even after their decline. These linkages helped establish the trade relations with the Roman empire and Rome where Indian luxury goods like silk, sandalwood, spices, cotton fabrics and others continued to be sold till the mid- and century CE. After Alexander's death, the relationship between Greco-Bactrian and Ind. Greek kings was based on mutual and respectful exchange of goods, ideas and marital accord of which we have numerous literary and archeological references.
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