Sources of Vijayanagar History

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Item Code: IDK928
Author: S . Krishnaswami Aiyangar
Publisher: Aryan Books International
Edition: 2003
ISBN: 8173052573
Pages: 414
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 9.1” X 5.7”
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Book Description
From The Jacket
The history of the Vijayanagara empire was recovered considerably through the effort of R. Sewell in early nineteenth century. However, his work, A forgotten Empire was mainly based on Portuguese chronicle. Though an excellent work, it neglected the evidence available in various forms of literature. The subsequent works also failed to exploit the indigenous sources and hence were unable to fill up the many gaps which epigraphy had left in reconstructing the history of his glorious empire.

The present volume consists of extracts from hitherto untapped source – various Sanskrit and Telugu works bearing on the history of the Empire. A constructive study of these sources goes a long way in correcting the chronicles in many places and conveys information which would make a fuller history of the empire of Vijayanagara possible. Many of these are unpublished manuscripts, rare publications and works out-of-print. Each of the extract has been provided, with an English introduction which, though not a faithful translation, contains a summary of the historical facts.

Besides the obvious value of these extracts, they also throw considerable light on the possible of various subordinate families of this work, it is hoped, would show the Vijayanagara empire in a proper setting, in respect of its character and significance in the history of India.

The collection that follows is primarily the work of Mr. A. Rangaswami Sarasvati, B.A. University Research student, working under me. As he had done some work in this line before obtaining the University studentship, he was set to make a systematic collection of all passages in both Telugu and Sanskrit literature, bearing upon the history of the Empire of Vijayanagara. His collection was found to be of considerable value and the Syndicate of the University of Madras sanctioned publication, by the University of selected passages under my editorship. Of the historical value of reference in literature generally Sir George Grierson says in a latter to me: “I cordially agree with you in the importance you attach to casual references in non-historical Indian literature. These have too often been neglected by students, and they not uncommonly afford historical data which cannot be found elsewhere.” Several passages in the following collection offer very good illustration of this position. The extracts are taken from unpublished work the works laid under contribution have so far been but very imperfectly exploited for the purpose. The introduction will give an idea of the salient features of this collection. The work of the student deserves commendation.

The course of his work was much facilitated by the ready assistance that he always received from the Librarian and the staff of the Government Oriental Manuscript Library. In the present stage of manuscripts cataloguing in this part of the present stage of manuscripts cataloguing in this part of the country much has to be left for change. A few of the most important among the works laid under contribution in the following selection are found to be in the libraries but not catalogued. While, therefore, the collection presented here may, from our present knowledge of manuscripts, considered fairly exhaustive, it will not be surprising at all if many more come to light through the active work of the various search parties that are out at work from the Government Manuscript Library now. When practically the whole work was in type, the student lighted upon the work Sivatattvaratnakara from which three excerpts, throwing new light upon the later history of Vijayanagara, are made. If other works like this should be forthcoming, it need not cause any surprise at all.

In the work of selecting and editing, I had thought the willing assistance of the student himself which rendered the work much less onerous to me than it would otherwise have been. It only remains to acknowledge the assistance rendered in proof-reading by the other Research student of mine, Mr. R. Satyanatha, R.A. (Hons.), and the excellent work of the Government Press in putting the matter through the press. Those interested in historical research will surely feel grateful to the Madras University Syndicate for their enlightened policy in promoting the publication of this work, which, let me hope, is but the beginning of a long series to come.

A History of The Empire of Vijayanagar from Original Sources.
The history of the empire of Vijayanagar, which till recently was as good lost to us, was recovered through the efforts of Mr. R. Sewell, whose work in South Indian Archaeology and Epigraphy naturally gave him the qualifications to take up the work. He brought out his work’ A Forgotten Empire’ of Vijayanagar early in 1900 based upon his previous knowledge of the antiquities of the Madras Presidency, and of the information he derived from two Portuguese chronicles which were unearthed in the archives of Lisbon, and which he translated and appended to his work. Excellent as the work was for the time, and for the neglect of the evidence available in various forms in literature which go a in respect of that history. These source are collection together in the following pages and they will speak for themselves. A constructive study of these goes a long way in correcting the chronicles in many places, and conveys information which would make a fuller history of the Empire of Vijayanagar possible. It is these untapped sources only that are brought together in the following extracts from various works, Sanskrit and Telugu principally, which bear on the particular period. Many of these are taken from manuscript and published works now out of print. Some of the passages extracted are taken from works which may be available, but not in a form that would be useful to students not acquainted with Telugu. There is besides the advantage of these being brought together in a collection which otherwise it would be possible for one to get at only by voluminous reading. Each one of these extracts is provided with an English introduction which without pretending to be a literal translation of the passage, contains a faithful summary of the historical facts traceable in the extracts.

I. Kumara Kampana’s Conquests
It would be useful in this introduction to draw attention to those salient features of the history of Vijayanagar which these extracts either bring to light for the first time or clear up from the mist that surrounded them in various ways. None of these throws any light upon the actual circumstances under which the empire was founded. But the first problem that suggested itself to the reader of the history Vijayanagar, as we had hitherto known it, what exactly was the political condition of the south, and how the southern state were gathered together under Vijayanagar. The extracts from the work ‘Kamparayacharitam’ or ‘Madhura Vijayam’ (since published in Trivandrum), by Gangadevi, wife of Kampana, throws the much needed light upon this dark spot. Various other works confirm what this single poem has to say regarding this matter. Of these latter, mention must be made of the Telugu Jaimini Bharatam, the Sanskrit works Saluva-abhyudayam and Rama-abhydayam and the Acharya Soktimuktavali. All these join in saying that Kumara Kampana, son of Bukka Raya, one of the five brothers who founded Vijayanagar, proceeded from his viceregal headquarters at Mulbagal into the Tondamandalam country, them under the rule of a dynasty of Sambuva Rayans who sprang into importance in the dismembered Chola Empire. In this good work he was assisted by the Brahman general Gopana, and Saluva Mangu, the ancestor of the usurper Saluva Narasimha, the most distinguished of a body of distinguished generals. These together swept the country clear of the Mussalman garrison throughout the localities, killed the Muhammandan governor at Madura, and restored the temple of Srirangam, to its former condition by repairing the damages that it had suffered in the series of Muhammadan raids that took place for well-night half a century. The idol of Ranganatha which has a long journey to various location for safety was ultimately restored to its own home.


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Book Categories
1.Kamparayacharitram of Ganga Devi23
2.jaimini Bharatam of Pinavirabhadra29
3.Saluvabhyudayam of Rajanatha Dindima30
4.Ramabhyudayam of Saluva Narasimha32
5.Prapannamrtam of Anantarya34
6.Acharyasuktimuktavali of Kesavacharya40
7.Annals of Hande Anantapuram45
8.Madhaviya Dhatuvritti by Sayanacharya46
9.Veda Bhashya by Sayanacharya48
10.Udaharanamala of Bhoganatha48
11.Devyaparadhastotra of Vidyaranya50
12.Tarkabhasha by Chennubhatta51
13.Tatparya Dipika by Madhavacharya51
14.Nanartha Ratnamala by Irugapa Dandanatha52
15.Narayanivilasam by Virupaksha53
16.Prayogaratnamala by Chaundapacharya53
17.Kridabhiramam of Vinukonda Vallabharaya55
18.Haravillasam of Srinatha57
19.Mahanataka Subhanidhi by Immadi Deva Raya 60
20.Chatu verses about Srinatha’s visit to Vijayanagar60
21.Commentary on the Kavyalankara Sutra of Vamana62
22.Taladipika of Saluva Gopa Tippa63
23.Vikramarka Charitramu of Jakkana63
24.Seshadharmamulu of Saranamantri 65
26.Srisailam plates of Virupaksha 67
27.Prapannamrtam of Anantachrya71
28.Ramarajiyamu of Venkayya79
29.Ramabhyudaya of Saluva Narasimha83
30.Colophon of Ramabhyudaya by Dindima85
31.Jaimini Bharatamu of Pinavirabhadra85
32.Varahapuranam by Mallayya and Singayya87
33.Saluvabhyudayam by Dindima90
34.Ramarajiyamu, Araviti Bukka and his children102
35.Parjatapaharanamu by Nandi Timmana106
36.Achyutarayabhyudayam by Rajanatha108
37.Amuktamalyada by Krishna Deva Raya109
39.Krishna Raya Vijayam by Kumara Dhurjati129
40.Amuktamalyada by Krishna Deva Raya132
41.Parijatapaharanamu by Nandi TImmayya138
42.Jambavatikalyanam by Krishna Deva Raya142
43.Agastya’s Bharata Champuvyakhya by Saluva Timma143
44.Tukka Panchakam143
45.Prabodha Chandrodaya Vyakhya by Nadindla Gopa144
46.Rajasekharacharitram by Madayagari Mallana146
47.Krishnarjunasamvadam of Nandila Gopa149
48.Mahimnastavavyakhya by Desayamatya151
49.Peddana’s chatu verses on Krishna Deva Raya152
51.Tamil Navalar Charital155
52.Lilavati of Vallabhacharya156
53.Achyutarayabhyudayam of Rajanatha Dindima158
54.Varadambika Parinayam by Tirumalamba170
55.Bhagavata Campu of Rajanatha176
56.Annals of Hande Anantapuram178
57.Ramarajiyamu, Aliya Rama and his children181
58.Svaramelakalanidhi by Ramayamatya Todaramalla190
59.Sivatattvaratnakara by Keladi Nasavabhupala194
60.Prapannamrtam by Anantachrya202
61.Balabhagavatam of Konerunatha Kavi204
62.Yadavabhyudaya Vyakhya by Appaya Dikshita209
63.Paramayogi Vilasam by Timmaraju211
64.Srutiranjani by Tirumala Raya212
65.Ramarajiyamu, Tirumala Raya and his sons213
66.Vasuchritramu by Ramarajabhushana216
67.Chatuverse about Tirumala Raya221
68.Ramarajiyamu, Venkatadri and his sons222
69.Narasabhupaliyamu by Bhattu Murti224
70.Jambavati Kalyanam by Ekamranatha227
71.Satyaparinayam by Ekamranatha229
72.Laksmivilasam by Rayasam Venkatapati230
73.Annals of Hande Anantapuram231
74.Ahobalam Inscription of Sriranga Raya233
75.Yayaticharitram by Ponnilanti Telaganarya236
76.Tapatisamvaranam by Addanki Gangadhara 238
77.Aminabad Inscription of Amin Mulk239
78.Charuchandrodayam of Chennamaraju241
79.Ramarajiyamu, Venkatapati Raya 243
80.Chandrabhanu Charitram by Tarigoppula Mallana247
81.Sidhout Inscription of mala Ananta248
82.Verses about Venkatapati Raya, Chinna Bomma Nayaka and Appaya Dikshita250
83.Prapannamrtam by Anantarya 251
84.Raghavendravijaya by Narayana252
85.Raghunathabhyudayam of Vijayaraghava Nayaka254
86.Raghunathabhyudayam of Vijayaraghava Nayaka: War with Jagga Raya259
87.Raghunathabhyudayam of Vijayaraghava Nayaka: The Place at Tanjore264
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93.Bahulasvacharitram by Damarla Vengalabhupala304
94.Chatu verse about Jagga Raya and Yachma Nayaka308
95.Ushaparinayam by Damarla Ankabhupala308
96.Chikkadevaraya Vamsaval Sringa Raya III309
97.Ramarajiyamu, Peddavenkata, Chinna Venkata and his sons310
98.Tanjavuri Andhra Rajulacharitra319
99.Sivatattvaratnakara by Keladi Basavabhupala 337
100.Sivatattvaratnakara, Venkatappa Nayaka and his successors344