Studies in Philosophy (Vols. I and II Bound in One)

Studies in Philosophy (Vols. I and II Bound in One)

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Item Code: NAC699
Author: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Edition: 2008
ISBN: 9788120829725
Pages: 772
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 8.8 Inch X 5.8 Inch
Weight 850 gm
From the Jacket

These Studies in Phi1osoplr represents all the published and only a few unpublished writings of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. These published writings date back 1908, but his characteristic philosophical position assumes definite shape in the writings during the years 1928-36. The publications of the period outnumber and far our weigh those that fall during the previous twenty years Of the twenty- one tracts published first in two separate Volumes, which in this edition appear as bound together in one, fourteen belong to this period, the others covering the previous years.

Prof Bhattacharyya had a deep study of an dent Indian philosophy, particularly of Advaita Vedanta, Sankhya, Yoga and Jam Philosophies. Vol 1, contains Prof. Bhattacharyya’s constructive interpretation of these systems. He was also well-versed in classical German Philosophy, particularly that of Kant. Hi vast and deep study provided the intellectual background in the light of which his profoundly original mind could go on with the work of construction. He constructed a new system of his own which however is not easy to comprehend. VOL II contains all the basic writings in which Prof. Bhattacharyya’s philosophy has been formulated. In the Introduction to this Volume the Editor has usefully analysed the Author’s philosophical position in some detail.

Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya was born on 12th May, 1875. He graduated with triple Honours in 1896 and was awarded the P.R.S. of the Calcutta University in 1901. His academic record during the School and College periods was uniformly excellent.

Bhattacharyya joined the Education Department of Government of Bengal as a lecturer in Philosophy in 1898 and after serving with great distinction as a teacher of Philosophy in about all the Government Colleges of Bengal, he retired in 1930. He joined the Indian Institute of Philosophy at Amalner as its Director and remained there from 1933 to 1935. He was the George V Professor of Mental & Moral Philosophy at the Calcutta University from 1935 to 1937. He died on 11th December, 1940.

Prof. Bhattacharyya possessed a profoundly original mind and an acute analytical intellect. He will always be held in high esteem by the successive generations of thinkers for his significant contribution to Philosophy.

Editor’s Preface to Vol. I

These ‘Studies in Philosophy’ represent all the published and only a few of the unpublished philosophical writings of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. There remains over an immense mass of manuscripts which will, perhaps, remain unpublished for all time to come.

The present volumes comprise the following tracts: -

Vol. I

1. Studies in Vedantism (Published in 1907)
2. 2. Sankara’s doctrine of Maya ( ,, 1925)
3. The Advaita and its spiritual significance ( ,, 1936)
4. Studies in Samkhya Philosophy (Unpublished)
5. Studies in Yoga Philosophy ( ,, )
6. The Jaina theory of Anekanta (Published in 1925)
7. The Concept of Rasa (Unpublished)

Vol. II

1. The Subject as Freedom (Published in 1930)
2. The Concept of Philosophy ( ,, 1936)
3. The Concept of the Absolute and its alternative forms ( ,, 1934)
4. Studies in Kant (Unpublished)
5. Some aspects of negation (Published in 1914)
6. The place of the indefinite in Logic ( ,, 1916)
7. Definition of ‘Relation’ as a category of existence (Unpublished)
8. Fact and thought of fact (Published in 1931)
9. Knowledge and Truth ( ,, 1928)
10. Correction of error as a logical process ( ,, 1931)
11. The false and the subjective ( ,, 1932)
12. The objective interpretation of percept and image ( ,, 1936)
13. The Concept of Value ( ,, 1934)
14. The reality of the future (Unpublished)

Each of the above tracts is preceded by an Analysis. The first one was made by the author himself and the others have been done by the editor. Of the foot notes those marked in numerals are by the editor.

In presenting these studies the editor is happy to offer his most grateful thanks to the enterprising publisher. Sree Sushil Kumar Basu, the proprietor of Messrs. Progressive Publishers. It was he who very generously volunteered to undertake the publication of the book and see it through the press.

My warm thanks are also due to Professor G. R. Malkani. the Director of the Indian Institute of Philosophy, Amalner (Bombay) for his ready permission to reprint ‘The Subject as Freedom’ which was originally published by the Institute; to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan and Messrs. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. for their kind permission to reprint from their- ‘Contemporary Indian Philosophy’ the essay ‘‘[he Concept of Philosophy’; and to the R. K. Mission for their permission to reprint ‘The Advaita and its spiritual significance’ which first appeared in their ‘Cultural Heritage of India’. The editor is also obliged to a pupil of his and to his daughter for their assistance in preparing the copy for the press.

It is very much regretted that a number of typographical errors have crept in spite of earnest endeavours to avoid them. In the ‘Errata’ at the end of the volume, only the major errors have been listed and corrected.

Editor’s Preface to Vol. II

The second volume of Studies in Philosophy is now presented after about twenty months since the issue of the first volume. For this inordinate delay the Editor alone is responsible. The Publisher tried his level best to expedite the publication, but owing to a number of circumstances which were beyond the control of the Editor, it was not found possible to bring it out at an earlier date.

This volume contains the fourteen tracts mentioned in the Preface to Vol. I, but in a slightly varied order. As in the case of the other volume, the order is not a chronological one.

In (I) The Subject as Freedom, the author works out his conception of Spiritual Psychology and the theory of the subject as freedom, and attempts to trace out the progressive stages of cognitional freedom. In (2) The Concept of Philosophy we have an analysis of the nature of philosophy and the conception of Philosophy as symbolic thinking not amounting to knowledge. (3) The Concept of the A absolute and its Alternative Forms elaborates the doctrine of the trinal absolute. (4) In Knowledge and Truth, we have an analysis of the distinctive level of consciousness occupied by theory of knowledge and of the theory of the mutual implication of knowledge and truth. (5) Fact and Thought of Fact attempts to give a definition of fact without assuming any fact and seeks to establish the position that fact does not admit of an impersonal definition. (6) In Correction of Error as a Logical Process, the author develops the Advaita theory of illusion and emphasises that correction is an epistemic function without any unitary logical content and that falsity has no reference to the time- position of cognition. In (7) The False and the Subjective, the author elaborates the thesis that the false and the subjective imply one another. In (8) Some Aspects of Negation, the author presents a nonsubjectivistic interpretation of the position that ‘truth is manifold’ and tries to establish that there are radically different types of logic based on incommensurable views of negation. (9) Place of the bide finite in Logic lays down the thesis that the indefinite is not merely a subjective entity and that logic should find a place for the absolute indefinite.

(10) In Definition of Relation as a Category of Existence, an attempt has been made to formulate a definition of ‘relation’ in purely objective terms as against the subjectivistic interpretation of Green and others. In (II) Objective Interpretation of the Percept and Image, an attempt has been made to translate the subjective terms ‘perceived’ and ‘un-perceived’ into objective terms. (12) In Reality of the Future the author develops the thesis that the reality of the future expected on a known ground cannot be said to be an object of knowledge and that the future is real only to will and to faith. (13) The Concept of Value gives an analysis of the concept of value in its different forms, and establishes the position that value is absolute and that speak ability of value as information is a necessary illusion. (l4) The Studies in Kant gives us a speculative interpretation of a number of Kantian themes. As with the other constructive interpretations contained in Vol. I, we have here also quite a large number of improvisations.

In the Introduction to this volume, the Editor has made an attempt to analyse the major philosophical doctrines of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. The analysis has been done, as far as possible, in the author’s own words. This is for two reasons: first, the Editor was not sure that he had got at the exact logic of Krishnachandra’s writings in a large number of places; secondly, and this is to some extent connected with the first, he felt that his own language was far less effective and elegant than that of the author, even when the latter’s manner of presentation was quite thoroughly severe.

The Editor regrets that he has not been able to capture the inspiration or the insight that saturates almost all the writings of his father. It is because of this that he has all along felt that it was presumptuousness on his part to have undertaken this editorial work.

The Editor feels that he would be failing in gratitude if he did not emphasis that all the credit for this publication belongs to his friend, Sri Sushil Kumar Basu of Progressive Publishers. The under- taking would never have been completed but for his unfailing generosity, constant encouragement and spirit of dedication.


Volume I
Preface to the Second Edition v
Abbreviations xvi
Editor’s Introduction to vols. I & II xvii
1. Studies in Vedantism
Introduction 1
Analysis 7
Text: Ch. I. An Approach Through Psychology 11
Ch. II. Vedantic Metaphysics 31
Ch. III. Vedantic Logic 69
2. Sankara’s Doctrine of Maya
Analysis 93
Text 95
3. The Advaita and Its Spiritual Significance
Analysis 109
Text 113
4. Studies in Sankhya Philosophy
Preface 127
Analysis 129
Text: Ch. I. Pain as Evil 135
Ch. II. Reflection as a Spiritual Function 143
Ch. III. The Body of the Self 151
Ch. IV. Causal and Non-Causal Manifestation 158
Ch. V. Time, Space and Causality 165
Ch. VI. The Objective Tattvas 173
Ch. VII. The Objective Tattvas (Contd.) 181
Ch. VIII. The Self or Purusa 190
Ch. IX. Prakrti 198
Ch. X. Relation of the Gunas 207
5. Studies in Yoga Philosophy
Analysis 215
Text: Ch. I. Sankhya and Yoga 221
Ch. II. ,, ,, (Contd.) 231
Ch. III. ,, ,, (Contd.) 240
Ch. IV. Buddhi-Vrtti 251
Ch. V. ,, ,, (Contd.) 262
Ch. VI. Five Levels of Buddhi 273
Ch. VII. The Nature of Yoga 283
Ch. III. The Kinds of Yoga 293
Ch. IX. The Procedure of Yoga 305
Ch. X. The Notion of Isvara 317
6. The Jaina Theory of Anekanta
Analysis 329
Text 331
7. The Concept of Rasa
Analysis 347
Text 349
Vol. II
1. The Subject as Freedom
Analysis 367
Text: Ch. I. The Notion of Subjectivity 381
Ch. II. Psychic Fact 396
Ch. III. Bodily Subjectivity (The Body as Perceived and Felt) 412
Ch. IV. Bodily Subjectivity (Contd.) (Knowledge of Absence as a Present Fat) 417
Ch. V. Psychic Subjectivity (The Image) 424
Ch. VI. Psychic Subjectivity (Contd.) (Thought) 431
Ch. VII. Spiritual Subjectivity (Contd.) (Feeling) 435
Ch. VIII. Spiritual Subjectivity (Contd.) (Introspection)442
Ch. IX. Spiritual Subjectivity (Contd.) (Beyond Introspection)446
Ch. X. The Subject as Freedom 450
2. The Concept of Philosophy
Analysis 457
Text 462
3. The Concept of the Absolute and its alternative forms
Analysis 483
Text 447
4. Knowledge and Truth
Analysis 509
Text 513
5. Fact and Thought of Fact
Analysis 529
Text 531
6. Correction of Error as a logical process
Analysis 543
Text 545
7. The false and the subjective
Analysis 55
Text 557
8. Some Aspects of Negation
Analysis 567
Text 569
9. Place of the Indefinite in Logic
Analysis 583
Text 587
10. The Definition of relation as a category of existence
Analysis 605
Text 607
11. Objective Interpretation of Percept and Image
Analysis 623
Text 625
12. Reality of the Future
Analysis 633
Text 635
13. The Concept of Value
Analysis 643
Text 649
14. Studies in Kant
Text: Ch. I. Idea of Transcendental Philosophy 663
Ch. II. Mind as Phenomenon 669
Ch. III. Sense and Sensation 674
Ch. IV. Space, Time, and Causality 679
Ch. V. Causality 686
Ch. VI. Judgments of Fact, Value and Ought-to-be 694
Ch. VII. Freedom and Morality 702
Analysis 712
Appendix 721
A. Transcendental Method 721
B. On the Sensum 723
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