Camasa-s are soma-offering cups utilized by sacrificial priests. Pranitapranayanam camasamadbhi pariksalayati
tusnim kamsam mrnmayam ca Apa.
1-16-3 he washes the wooden goblet to be used for carrying forward of the
Pranita-water by means of water. If the goblet is made of wood, it should be
washed accompanied by mantras. If it is made of bronze or mud, it is washed
without the mantras. These options are based on the aspiration of the Sacrificer.
The kamsya should be used if one wishes the Brahmic-lustre: mud for one who
wishes fame: the godohana vessel if one wishes cattle. If devoid of any
specific wish, wood is suggested. It has a length of one pradesha, and width
and height of one four cubits (catur angula). Placing it near the Garhapatya
fire, it is filled less to the brim and placed to the northern side of the
Ahavaniya fire on the darbha grass along with water. This is technically known
as apampranayana. The waters in it are taken in the Sruva,
supported by the grass-brush, and having poured it into the fried flour, and
then pouring the hot-water in it (the flour) and having made it into a ball, the Purodasha is preapared. sruvena pranitabhya adaya vedenopayamya samapo
adbhiragamateti pistesvaniyadbhih 1-24-5.
At the conclusion of the Sacrifice, the water in it is poured in the antarvedi,
the altar and eyes are washed with it antarvedi pranita asadya vimuncati 3-13-5 having placed the Pranita water within the
altar, he unyokes (it).
The same water is called avabhrta in the Isti. This utensil is preserved
for the life of the Sacrificer. In the antyesti, it is placed in the middle
portion of the Sacrificer. Thus it is mentioned - madhye pranitapranayanam. It has the shape of a rectangle.
A. Vajina Camasa : In
the Caturmasya-Sacrifices, the remnants of Amiksha, known as vajina should be
offered in Sacrifice with the Camasa, called Vajina Camasa. vasatkrte camasena juhoti Apa. 8-3-8. Its shape and characteristics
are similar to the one described above.
B. Vratapradana Camasa : In the Somayaga,
it is used optionally, to hold milk etc. in the place of utensil by the
shape and characteristics are similar to the one described above.
C. Tanunaptra Camasa : In the Soma Sacrifice, the priests touch the ghee for the sake of ca- maraderie.
The Camasa in which it is placed is known as Tanunaptra Camasa. It is used
optionally for the Sruk. Sruci
camase va tanunaptram samavadyati Apa.ll-1-1.
Its shape and characteristics are
similar to the one described above.
How to care for Wood Statues?
Wood is extensively used in sculpting especially in countries like China, Germany, and Japan. One feature that makes the wood extremely suitable for making statues and sculptures is that it is light and can take very fine detail. It is easier for artists to work with wood than with other materials such as metal or stone. Both hardwoods, as well as softwood, are used for making sculptures. Wood is mainly used for indoor sculptures because it is not as durable as stone. Changes in weather cause wooden sculptures to split or be attacked by insects or fungus. The principal woods for making sculptures and statues are cedar, pine, walnut, oak, and mahogany. The most common technique that sculptors use to make sculptures out of wood is carving with a chisel and a mallet. Since wooden statues are prone to damage, fire, and rot, they require proper care and maintenance.
It is extremely important to preserve and protect wooden sculptures with proper care. A little carelessness and negligence can lead to their decay, resulting in losing all their beauty and strength. Therefore, a regular clean-up of the sculptures is a must to prolong their age and to maintain their shine and luster.
Wood has been a preferred material for sculptures and statues
since ancient times. It is easy to work with than most metals and
stones and therefore requires less effort to shape it into any
desired shape or form. The texture of the wood gives an element of
realism to the sculpture. The selection of an appropriate wood
type is necessary for carving. Woods that are too resinous or
coniferous are not considered good for carving as their fiber is
very soft and thus lacks strength. On the other hand, wood such as
Mahogany, Oakwood, Walnut wood, Weet cherry wood, etc., are
preferred by sculptors because their fiber is harder.
A wood sculptor uses various tools such as a pointed chisel in one
hand and a mallet in another to bring the wood to the desired
measurement and to make intricate details on it. A carving knife
is used to cut and smooth the wood. Other tools such as the gouge,
V-tool, and coping saw also serve as important tools in wood
carving. Although the wood carving technique is not as complex and
tough as stone carving or metal sculpting, nonetheless, a wood
carver requires a high level of skills and expertise to create a
The process of wood carving begins with selecting a chunk of wood
that is required according to the type and shape of the statue to
be created by the sculptor. Both hardwoods and softwoods are used
for making artistic pieces, however, hardwoods are preferred more
than softer woods because of their durability and longevity. But
if heavy detailing is to be done on the statue, wood with fine
grain would be needed as it would be difficult to work with
Once the wood type is selected, the wood carver begins the
general shaping process using gouges of various sizes. A gouge
is a tool having a curved cutting edge which is useful in
removing large unwanted portions of wood easily without
splitting the wood. The sculptor always carves the wood across
the grain of the wood and not against it.
When a refined shape of the statue is obtained, it is time for
making details on the statue using different tools. This is
achieved by using tools such as a veiner to make and a V-tool to
create decorative and sharp cuts.
Once finer details have been added, the sculptor is ready to
smoothen the surface and give it a perfect finish. Tools such as
rasps and rifflers are used to get a smooth surface. The finer
polishing is obtained by rubbing the surface with sandpaper. If
a textured surface is required, this step is skipped. Finally,
to protect the statue from excessive dirt accumulation, the
sculptor applies natural oils such as walnut or linseed oil all
over it. This also brings a natural sheen to the statue.
Wood statues are lighter in weight and less expensive than metal
or stone pieces. Because wood is prone to fast decay by fungus and
algae, statues made out of this material are not preferred to be
kept outside. The rich tradition of wood carving in countries such
as Africa, Egypt, India, and Nepal has been followed for many
centuries. Indian craftsmen are specialized in this classic art
and continue to exhibit their extraordinary artistic skills.
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