Table of ContentIntroductionDance as the Ancient Mind Viewed ItDance in Shaivite PerceptionVaishnava MythsJain and Buddhist LinesDance in Prehistoric DaysIndian Traditional Dance Forms
Table of Content
Dance as the Ancient Mind Viewed It
Dance in Shaivite Perception
Jain and Buddhist Lines
Dance in Prehistoric Days
Indian Traditional Dance Forms
A wind pierced across the twigs of a banyan tree leaving its leaves in rhythm. A sparrow skipped from its one babe to the other with its feathers fluttering in blissfulness. A lily unfolded its petals gently and slowly and grace and beauty were born. The woods surged and a chorus burst. The mountain peak melted and the rivulet - twisting, curving and echoing distant horizons, danced down onto the earth. And, the moon mounted the zenith and a translucent mass of silver - bright and soothing, poured covering the entire creation from the hilltop to the vale, meadows, fields, lakes, ponds, rivers and everything. The overwhelmed man witnessed the moment and his feet moved - forward and backward, right and left and in circles, and, in them revealed rhythm, grace and beauty, and unveiled the mystery of existence for his mortal frame had dissolved and conscience had merged into the cosmic conscience. He was now the being beyond him, and in him the cosmos sought to reveal itself. This divine magnification of an act of body - the body melting into the act and in the act the cosmic conscience transpiring, was the ever first dance on the earth.
In Indian tradition dance was thus a divine dimension of the man's act. Unlike other arts, the dance was an unearthly thing - something born in the mortal frame but possessed of divine bearing. The dancer, in the process of dance, sublimated his own self - body, soul and all faculties, as did a \'tantrika\', and united with the supreme Self - ultimate goal of both - dance and \'tantra\'. It was a position different from other arts. The dancer, himself being the instrument, medium and diction of dance, was more intimate with his theme than was a painter, sculptor or architect who employed extraneous means and himself only partially. Besides, dance was a thing beyond the form in which it revealed, as also beyond what it revealed. It revealed anger, destruction, or a violent mind, but it was neither. It revealed love, love\'s longing, or infatuation, but it was not dragged away by them. The anatomy of the dancer wherein dance manifested was not the anatomy of dance. The dance did not inseparably merge into its medium, as did mediums and themes in other arts. The dance was more or less an abstract vision - a form which was as much formless, an appearance, as much a \'non-appearance\', something of a spiritual experience which a materially manifesting vision inspired.
The ancient Indian mind hence had unique reverence for dance - so much that it conceived its gods as dancers discovering in dance the accomplishment of their assigned functions, ranging from creation to annihilation, and the divine grace - an essential attribute of gods. Such reverence for dance - for its unearthly divine fervor, mysticism, stoical bearing, aesthetics, and strength to influence and inspire, was not seen in art, culture and religious thought of other early civilizations. Whatever the perspective it was conceived with, the art of the early Egypt sculpted a figure as static and formal - a mummy-type accurate anatomy minus blood in veins. The sculptures of the Egyptian prince Rehotep and his wife Nefert, in Egyptian Museum, Cairo, hardly reveal a feeling of intimacy.
Greek sculptures of the corresponding era revealed a lot of physicality and dramatic gestures but the sensuous modeling, which in Indian art a dance-mode inspired, was completely missing. Roman sculptures were endowed with some degree of emotionality and sensuousness, but their flat and graphically rendered gestures and body-curves revealed theatrical prosaicness, not dance-like plasticity and modeling. Even the Greco-Roman phase of Indian art - Gandhara art and art of Kushanas in particular, lacked in sensuous modeling which dance infused into the art of other Indian schools.
The Shaivite tradition perceives the origin of dance in Shiva. In the beginning were roaring horizons, tempestuous winds, turbulent oceans, rocking mountains and moving earths. But, then emerged Shiva - the proto cosmic being, with his little drum. He played on it and danced and in the beats of his drum and moves of his feet re-cast unruly skies and violent waters, and all their cries and commotion.
The unruly sounds were set to syllabic discipline, and cosmic disorder, to ordered movement. In the process were evolved rhythm, melody and word - the steps still held in great reverence by all forms of Indian classical dances. The tradition hence acclaims Shiva as both, the first exponent of dance and the first linguist.
The Shaivite cult abounds in numerous myths of Shiva and his consort Devi performing dance in their various manifestations. Unlike Vishnu, Shiva is seen almost as a regular dancer performing for accomplishing an objective as also for pure aesthetic delight of his consort and devotees. The tradition hence reveres him as both, \'Adi-nratya-guru\' - the first teacher of dance, and Natesh or Nataraja - the king of dance.
In him revealed both faces of dance - \'lasya\' and \'tandava\', of which all subsequent dance forms were offshoots. \'Lasya\', the dance of aesthetic delight revealed beauty, grace, love and all tender aspects of existence. \'Lasya\' is the mode that defined many of Shiva\'s iconographic forms - Kalyana-Sundara, Vrashavahana, Yogeshvara, Katyavalambita, Sukhasanamurti, Vyakhyanamurti, Chinamudra, Anugrahamurti, and Chandrashekhara.
\'Tandava\' - or \'anandatandava\', was the dance of absolute bliss, as after the Great Age ended and dissolution became imperative, the Great Shiva, Who alone remained to effect the \'re-birth\' of life, danced in absolute bliss over the head of dissolution. In visual arts dissolution is represented as Apasmarapurusha, the demon of darkness, which prevailed after dissolution.
Sound, which vibrated the space - the first of the five elements that announced creation, fire, the symbol of final conflagration as also of the re-birth of energy - main source of life, and gestures of re-assurance, fearlessness, release and liberation accompanied \'anandatandava\' as its organs. It was in \'anandatandava\' that the fivefold activity - creating, maintaining, veiling, unveiling, and destroying, and the six celestial \'bhavas\': \'shrishti\' - creation; \'sanhara\' - dissolution; \'vidya\' - knowledge; \'avidya\' - ignorance; \'gati\' - motion; and \'agati\' - inertness, revealed. \'Anandatandava\', thus, encompassed entire cosmos and its phenomenal existence. Shiva resorted to a dance similar to \'anandatandava\' when destroying Tripura - three cities of demons, elephant demon Gaya, demon Andhaka and when accomplishing Trailokyavijaya - victory of three worlds.
Devi, Shiva\'s variously named consort, is alluded to have performed dance in her manifestations as Kali - Mahakali or Shamshana-Kali, and Bhairavi. Devi had many other forms, each representing a particular \'bhava\'. So did ten Mahavidyas and \'Saptamatrikas\'. Each of such forms was modeled using the dance-mode in which its characteristic \'bhava\' transpired. Thus, in modeling Devi\'s other forms, too, a similar dance-iconography was used.
Vishnu or his incarnations resorted to dance only on a few occasions, but despite, he is revered as the \'Adi-nratya-guru\' along with Shiva and Kali. Vishnu resorted to dance once in his incarnation as Vamana, when in mere two strides he spanned three worlds and won for himself Trivikrama - conqueror of three worlds, or Vishnukrant epithet. As the tradition goes, the mighty demon-chief Mahabali, the grandson of the legendary Prahlad, after ousting gods from Indraloka, was performing \'Vishvajit yajna\' for conquering rest of the three worlds.
On a petition from gods Vishnu incarnated as Vamana - a dwarf Brahmin, reached where Mahabali was performing \'yajna\' and prayed to him for giving him a piece of land measuring just three strides. \'How much a dwarf could cover in three strides?\' thought Mahabali and granted the prayer. But, then Vamana expanded his form, raised his left leg and in two strides spanned all three worlds pushing with the third Mahabali to the nether world.
Vishnu as Krishna danced once to subdue venomous serpent chief Kaliya and many times for delighting \'gopis\' - Radha in particular.
Vishnu as also his incarnation Lord Rama or even Parashurama, and his consort Lakshmi or Rama\'s consort Sita, were conceived with a monarchical frame to which dance was alien except for a divine objective. It was the same with Vaishnavite Indra, king of gods. Indra, too, did not resort to dance, though unlike Vishnu, he had at \'Indrasabha\' - his court, numerous dancing nymphs - Urvashi, Menaka being better known. Besides dancing, these nymphs were used for seducing opponents. The legend of Menaka seducing sage Vishvamitra and corrupting his fifty thousand years long penance is well known.
7" Buddhist Goddess Green Tara Statue in Brass | Handmade | Made in India
Though dance was an aspect of worship with devotees and attendants represented as dancing - both in the self-denying Jainism and the middle-path-pursuing Buddhism, dance was not allowed to infuse into the iconography of either the Buddha or the Jain \'Tirthankaras\'. In contrast to \'Tirthankara\' images, Buddha\'s were conceived with \'lavanya\' - aesthetic beauty coupled with a celestial \'bhava\', but beyond \'lavanya\', they revealed nothing of dance. Subsequently evolved in these religious orders subordinate deity forms, some of which were conceived as resorting to dance and others, with a form in which revealed a dance-mode, manifestations of Jain deities Saraswati and Amba, and of Buddhist Tara and Samhara - the Bhairavi-type goddess of annihilation, being the main. By now, dance was the core of the entire body of divine art, portrayal of celestial \'bhava\', spiritualism, \'lavanya\', elegance, and grace being in main focus. Now the spirit of dance permeated, besides various Jain and Buddhist deities - Lokeshvara and other Bodhisattvas in particular, also the figures of Maya and Trishala, the mothers of Buddha and Mahavira.
In India, rock-shelter drawings reveal the earliest examples of dance. Figure E-19 at the Bhim-Betka rock-shelters, drawing of \'urddhakeshin\' Shiva at Nawda Todo, forms of monkeys at Gupteshvara and a number of human figures at Pahadgarh, Tikla and Abachand present evidence of dance being in prevalence those days.
Indian Mythology Through Classical Dance
Dance is a vibrant and integral part of the Indian cultural. It embodies the spirit of India, telling stories, expressing emotions, and connecting people to their rich heritage. Whether you are a dancer, enthusiast, or someone interested in the cultural diversity of India, exploring these dance forms is a journey worth embarking upon.
Bharatanatyam: Originating in Tamil Nadu, Bharatanatyam is known for its precise footwork and intricate hand gestures. It often portrays mythological stories and is characterized by its graceful movements.
Kathak: Originating from North India, Kathak is a storytelling dance form. It combines elements of rhythm, grace, and expressive facial expressions, making it a vibrant and dynamic art.
Kathakali: From Kerala, Kathakali is renowned for its elaborate costumes and makeup. It focuses on dramatizing epic tales from Indian mythology through exaggerated facial expressions and powerful body movements.
Odissi: From Odisha, Odissi is characterized by fluid movements and sculpturesque poses. It often celebrates the divine and is deeply connected to temple rituals.
Kuchipudi: Emerging from Andhra Pradesh, Kuchipudi is a blend of storytelling and intricate footwork. It features both solo and group performances, often centered around mythological themes.
In ancient times, Indian dance was not simply physical exercise; it had something of spiritual journey, of contact with the Divine, of imitation of life in its manifestation. Indian dance is an integral feature of its culture and reaches back to the early cave paintings, evolving into detailed dance forms over the course of time.
This article delves into the topic of how important dance is in India’s traditional culture, specifically among followers of Shaivism. The civilizations of the past have concentrated mainly on static forms, while dance in India has been playing the role of connecting the earthly to the divine. The deity Shiva, representing the dual qualities of ‘lasya’ and ‘tandava,’ remains significant in modern-day diverse dance forms. This article also plays with the thought that dance had other roles to play, such as divine intervention or for the delight of Gods. Dance formed a significant component of religious and cultural expression at all times, no matter the context.
The transformation of dance in India provided a vivid illustration of the interplay between different religious schools, as well as the incorporation of dance into religious images. For example, dancing became a part of their worship in Jainism and Buddhism, where there are images depicting devotees and their maidens dancing. The result was an increasingly dance-oriented representation of deities and spiritual subjects. Through the ages, the Indian people have expressed their vital cultural heritage with great passion in their dancing; from the ancient rock-shelter drawings to today’s bright classic dances, Indian dance is a vital part of India’s cultural tapestry. It is a repository of stories, feelings, and linkages to the past. Whether through the graceful movements of Bharatanatyam or the dramatic storytelling of Kathakali, Indian dance transcends boundaries and stands as a testament to the enduring power of artistic expression.
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