Sindu-Saraswati Art of stone, copper and miniature figurings. The The most beautiful of all the figurines found at Mohenjodaro are two small figurines in of a dancing girl in bronze. The other rare bronze figurines are buffalos from Mohenjodaro and Bull from Kalibangan. This and other figurines of men, women animals, birds and toys were solid cast in bronze by the lost wax or cire Perdue method. There is a finely crafted small buffalo and model of a cart with wheels. There are also bronze mirrors, hairpins and pots and pans. The other huge bronze images of late mature Sindu-Saraswati period (2000-1900 B.C.) are one chariot and three animals from Daimabad. The famous stone bust of a bearded man, clad in embroiderd shawl with trefoil motif now in the National Museum, Karachi, resembles the images of a priest. Similar type of a headless seated stone priest and Mongooses recently reported from Dholavira. Male torso and a dancer made of Jasper stone from Harappa and Male steatite head from Mohenjodaro now on display in National Museum, New Delhi, are other unique examples of stone art. There will be Eight section in Volume I. It covers stone,Bronze, Faience, Steatite 7 Shell figurines. The first section will be on Sindhu-Saraswti civilization. Second Section will be New Excavations, Saraswati Civillization & Rigvedic Chronology. Till today we have excavated 217 Sindhu-Saraswati and its associated sites in north west part of south Asia. Third section will have catalogue data of stone sculptures. Fourth section will be datails description on copper and bronze figurine. Fifth section will be on Sindhu-Saraswati Faience figurines. Six section will cover on Miniature Steatite and Paste etc. Figurines. The Seventsh section will be on Other Material.
Dr. D.P. Sharma is an Archaeologist Museologit and Art Historian. He did his M.A. in ancient Indian History Culture & Archaocology form Allahabad University and D.phil research on Art and Architecture of Lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab Region from University of Allahbad and Varansi regions.During 1983-84 he was awarded commonwealth scholarship and he qualified M.A. Arcaeology from the Institute of Arhaeology University of London. He did excavation at Sussex (U.K.) and Pincenvent (France) under Dr. Mark Newcomer and Prof. Gourhan. During 2003-04 He did excavation at Sterkfontein cave in South Africa, under R.J clark, Where 3.3 M. old Australopitecus skelton was discovered. Since 1985-2005 he had been working as head of Harappan and prehistoric collection of National Museum, New Delhi. In 2005 become Associate Professor & H.O.D. Museology in National Museum Institute (Deemed University) Dr. Sharma has published 220 Papers and 53 Books in which few new are given below: Panorama of Harappan Civiliation, Early Harappan and Indus Sarasvati Civilization, Prehistoric Art and Archaeology Vol. I, Gupta Classical Art, Mauryan Art, Romance in Mathura Kusana Art, Harrapan Minor Art & Crafts, Harappan Jewellery, Harappan Terracotta, Harappan Seals, Harappan Potteries, Garunda in Asian Art, Harappan Architecture, Copper Hoard Weapons of South Asia, Museology for Beginner, Fundamentals of Museology, Region and socials System of Harappan, Antiquity Laws and Museum- Administration, O.C.P. & Copper Hoard (ed), Harappan Script on its way to Decipherment, Harappan Science & Metal Technology, Archeology of Lower Doab, Vol. I & II, Lost Saraswati Civillization, Bharat Ka Puratattva ( Hindi) Allahabad Through the Ages (ed.) and Roots of South Asian Art. I was working As Director in Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum of Banaras Hindu University,at present he is visiting Professor Archaelogy in amity University Noida & various other Institutions . At present I am Senior Academic Fellow of I.C.H.R. New Delhi.
During the third millennium B.C. (Circa 2700-2000 B.C.) a highly developed civilization known as Sindhu-Saraswti Civillization, existed along the rivers Indus and lost Saraswati and Western Uttar Pradesh, all located in north-western part of South Asia. The area covered 2.5 million-sq. km by the Makran coast situated on the border of Iran and Pakistan, to Alamgirpur and Hulas, Mandi and Shamlinagar, Singauli, Nahcauli and Topal (near greater Noida) all on the Hindon river in western Uttar Pradesh, and Shurtaghai (Afganistan) in the north to Daimabad in western Maharashtra. Late Sindhu-Saraswati sites inDelhi are Bhorgarh, Mandauli, Dhansa and Karkari-Nahar. The Early Sindhu-Saraswati first made their settlement around circa 4500 B.C. in Baluchistan and Bhirrana. Later on they shifted and developed themselves further and became Mature Sindhu-Saraswati Ciilization. On the basis of calibrated radiocarbon dates the ages for the Mature Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization ranges to circa 2700-2000 B.C. The linear measuring scale has been found at Lothal, Kalibangan, Mohenjodaro and Allahdino all Mature Sindhu-Saraswati sites. The flat-bottomed boats were used for transport in rivers and lakes. Sindhu-Saraswati Vivilization ended due to Massive flooding, climatic changes and increase of aridity, tectonic movements and decline of trade with West Asia.
The earlier publications on Sindhu-Saraswati civilization by present author like Sindhu-Saraswati seals, Sealing and copper tablet, Panorama of Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization, Sindhu-Saraswati script on the way of decipherment. Bharat aur Sindhu Sabhyta, Sindhu-Saraswati terracotta Art, Early Sindhu-Saraswati and Indus civilization, Sindhu-Saraswati potteries, Sindhu-Saraswati script, Sindhu-Saraswati Science & Technology is already in the hands of the readers. The four other books of author Sindhu-Saraswati Jewellery, Mature sindhu-Saraswati, Late Sindhu-Saraswati Urban Planning and settlements of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization are in the press. Till today author has written 25 books on different aspect of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization. The present Research Project Sindhu-Saraswati Art will be in Four volumes I will covers stones, Bronze miniature figurines, volume II will be on Terracotta Art, Volume III will be on seals, Sealings & Copper tablets. The Volume IV will cover Jewellery. This project will be cover of Sindhu-Saraswati Art & Crafts mostly in India and Pakistan and this will be complete documentation of Art of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization.
The Volume I will be on Sindhu-Saraswati Art of stone, copper and miniature figurings. The most beautiful of all the figurines found at Mohenjodaro are two small figurines in of a dncing girl in bronze. The other rare bronze figurings ae buffalos from Mohenjdaro and Bull from Kalibangan. This and other figurines of men, women animals, birds and toys were solid cast in bronze by the lost wax or cire perdue method. There is a finely crafted small buffalo and model of a cart with wheels. There are also bronze mirrors, hairpins and pots and pans. The other huge bronze images of late mature Sindhu-Saraswatiperiod (2000-1900 B.C.) are one chariot and three animals from Daimabad.
The famous stone bust of a bearded man. Clad in embroidered shaw I with trefoil motif now in the National Museum, Karachi, resembles the image of a priest. Similar type of a headless seated stone priest and Mongooses recently reported from Dholavira. Male torso and a dancer made of Jasper stone from Harappa and Male steatite head from Mohenjodaro now on display in National museum, New Delhi, are other unique example of stone art. There will be Eight section in Volume I. It covers stone, Bronze Faience, Steatite & Shell figurines. The first section will be on Sindhu-Saraswati civilization. Second Section will be New Excavations, Saraswati Ciilization & Rigvedic Chronology. Till today we have excavated 217 Sindhu-Saraswati and its associated sites in north west part of south Asia. Third section will have catalogue data of stone sculptures. Fourth section will be details description on copper and bronze figurines. Fifth section will be on Sindhu-Saraswati Faience figurines. Six section will cover on Miniature Steatite and Paste etc. Figurines. The Seventh section will be on Shell and Other Material.
The Volume II of this research project will be on Sindhu-Saraswati Terracotta Art. “The terracotta art includes human (male and female), animal and bird figures. This art is not always the handiwork of potters. The contribution of both, common man and the artist is alos quite evident. According to a third century Buddhist text Mahavastu, cited by R.N. Mishra the modelers in clay and other materials were known as Pustakarakas andwere named as Kumhbhakaras. Observation of A. Poster (1988) terracotta artist and potters are same is not correct”.
The formative stage (8000-3600 B.C.) the terracotta art begins in North West South Asia at Mehrgarh and Bhirrana during the early Neolithic period 8000-3500 B.C. Crude baked clay terracotta figurines datable between 5000 to 3500 B.C. were reported from Sherikhan Tarakai, Bhirrana and Mehgarh. These terracotta human fingurines from Sherikhan Tarakai of early Sindhu-Saraswati and late Neolithic stage are stylized without shoulders, stem like body, pinched nose, applique bare round breast, bottle like torso yoni shaped and reduced arms. “These figurines have fine rendering of hairstyle. One notices hermaphroditic representation of female organs (yoni) vastly exaggerated, accompanied by stump of male organs, flanked by small appliqué pellets, testicles (spurns) and exaggerated female organs (yoni). These figurines show similarities with the figurines of Periano Gundai, and other early Sindhu-Saraswati site in Pakistan also from west Asia”. (Sharma 2012)
The second stage the village chalcolithic cultures of north-west south-Asia datable to c. 3500-2700 B.C. are known as Early Sindhu-Saraswati village cultures. Most important sites yielding terracotta of Early Sindhu-Saraswati period are Mehrgarh, Sherikhan-Tarakao, Kulli-Mehl, Zhob, Mundigak, Harappa, (Ravi)Bhirrana, Baror, Nausharo and Rehman Dheri. The art and style of the Early Sindhu-Saraswati terracotta art is primitive and these are hand made. Their facial contour is absent and bare breasts are mostly round in shape. The bottle-shaped terracotta mother goddess figurines having bird like face and joint legs show Iranian influence in this region. These were made by pressing down the clay and using pinching and appliqué techniques. The ornaments were depicted by strips or pellets. Most of the figurines are flat and made by pinching method. The entire faces of the figurines were made by a single pinch. The round breasts, etc., were modeled by fixing pellets.”The Mehrgarh terracottas are generally tubular with pinched nose, joint legs with tapering end, pendulous breast circular eyes etc. The Kulli female figurines show certain distinguishing features with the eyes, hair and breasts are indicated by appliqué pellets of clay. The Zhob female figurines with smooth forehead circular eyes, grinsplit mouth etc. mark further development”. (C. Jerriage 2002).
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