Development of Hindustani Classical Music (19th and 20th Centuries)

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Item Code: NAC862
Author: Dr. Rama Saraf
Publisher: Vidyanidhi Prakashan, Delhi
Edition: 2011
ISBN: 9789380651200
Pages: 511
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 9.0 Inch X 5.7 Inch
Weight 720 gm
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Book Description
From the Jacket

Music is one of the greatest attainments of the human being on this earth. Music not only provides people pleasure, perfect happiness and bliss but it blesses with ecstasy that leads to one’s spiritual upliftment. Classical music has found more favour with the Indians particularly with the Hindus who recognize it a divine art to have communism with the Supreme Soul. Music in India associated with the holy Vedas particularly with the Samveda, enjoys great esteem. Even today, it entertains and equips the man with high yogic powers.

In this study, an endeavour has seen made to prove into and analyze the cause responsible for the development of music during 19th and 20th centuries. These two centuries were not at all favourable for the development of fine arts and music as they were chequered with political upheavals. The fall of the Mughal empire, the domination of the British, the liquidation of the big ruling states and emergence of small princely states all had their repercussion on music.

The book is divided into eight chapters covering all the developments that took place during theses two centuries making the book highly useful for the students of music.

About the Author

1. She passed her M.A. securing first position from University of Delhi and was awarded with gold medal. She completed her Ph.D. In 1991 from University of Delhi.

2. With expertise in classical music, she was also well-trained in performing of music. She had also performed successfully in various Hindustani Musical Concerts. Her performances are being broadcasted on both radio as well as television.

3. In November 2002, her album of devotional songs titled ‘Mir Magan Bhai’ was released under the banner of T-series.

4. She was reader in the department of music in Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi.

5. She died on August 6, 2007. CD titled ‘He Ram’ of the songs that were sung by her was released thereafter.


Dr. Rama Saraf was in the process of updating the manuscript of this book, entitled Development of Hindustani Classical Music when she in rather indifferent health came to me for the ‘Foreword’. As I had undergone major eye-surgery, I asked her to give me some time. She left with a word to call on me again. Alas, that was not to be; her ailment took a turn for the worst and instead I had to go to her to bid the final farewell! However, with the effort of her husband, Shri Sunil Saraf, this work is being published.

Rama was one of my favourite students. With her gift of voice, she had acquired a certain proficiency in Hindustani classical vocal music. A dedicated scholar, she was always pecking titbits of knowledge. The present work is a garner of those titbits.

It is, no doubt difficult to cover two centuries (19th and 20th) of our music in a single volume. It goes to the credit of Dr. Rama Saraf that she has done just that quite facilely. I hope this work will serve as a useful reference book for research scholars and students alike.


My humble genuflection to God, the Almighty, by Whose grace I could bring this onerous task to a satisfactory close. I find myself short of words to express my indebtedness to honourable Professor Dr. Viney Kumar Agrawala (Head & Dean of the Faculty of Music & Fine Arts, University of Delhi) for his benignity in according approval to the topic of this study and the encouragement that I have been receiving from him.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Mrs. Sumati Mutatkar for the mast valued information that I got from her.

To my Guru Pt. L.K. Panditji, I am no less grateful for his blessings that count much in life.

I most earnestly acknowledge that it has been the most able and affectionate guidance of my Supervisor Dr. Ajit Singh Paintal that furnished me with the most needed light to pass through the dark labyrinth of this work. My thankfulness for him knows no bounds.


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Foreword iii
Acknowledgements v
1. Historical Background and the Present State of our Music in Brief 1
2. Music at the beginning of the 19th Century and Advancement Made on it 13
3. Role Played by Princes of Indian States and Connoisseurs of Music in the Preservation of Music during 19th and 20th Centuries 63
4. Brief Account of the Various Gharanas that Existed during 19th and 20th Centuries 127
5. Some Important Treatises on Music Written in these Centuries168
6. Musical Instruments that came into Vogue or Achieved Popularity during 19th and 20th Centuries 292
7. The Post-Independence Era and the Melioration of Music 336
8. Brief Life-Sketches of All-Time Great Maestros of Music and Contributions made by them to the Cause of Advancement of Music 359
Conclusion 493
Bibliography 496