Gangesa's Theory of Indeterminate Perception Nirvikalpakavada (Set of 2 Volumes)
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Gangesa's Theory of Indeterminate Perception Nirvikalpakavada (Set of 2 Volumes)

Item Code: IDH167
Author: Sibajiban Bhattacharyya
Publisher: Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)
Language: Sanskrit Text with English Translation
Edition: 1996
ISBN: Vol.I8185636222
Pages: 254
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 8.5" X 5.5"
Weight 570 gm

Part I


In this Part One of Gangesa's Theory of Indeterminate Perception, Nirvikalpakavada, I have tried to analyse and explain the concepts used in Gangesa's text, translated in Part Two. I have also explained some basic concepts of Navya-Nyaya, but I have not attempted to give a comprehensive account of Navya-Nyaya concepts and techniques. In philosophically discussing the Navya-Nyaya theories, I have often included Western theories; but in some special cases, where I am not aware of Western positions, I have explained rival Indian theories. In these chapters, this book presupposes some acquintance with Indian philosophical theories.

In this work I have incorporated with minor modifications papers already published. In Chapter one, I have included portions of my paper, 'Some features of the technical language of Navya-Nyaya' published in Philosophy East & West (April, 1990), and of 'Some principles and concepts of Navya-Nyaya logic and ontology' from my book, Doubt Belief and Knowledge (Chapter 16), (Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi 1987). In Chapter Three of this book, I have incorporated portions of Chapters 17 and 18, of that book. In chapter four, I have incorporated portions of my paper in Philosophy East & West. Even though discussions of some of topics are in the context of Indian theories, I have, this book will be useful for general readers of philosophy.

I thank the Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi, for full financial support for preparation of the manuscript.



  Preface viii
Introduction   ix-x
Chapter One:    
  The Navya-Nyaya theory of cognition 15707
1 Introduction 42461
2 Nature of cognition 42494
3 Duration of cognitive mental states 41760
4 Classification of cognitions 14-15
5 Some ontological remarks 15-18
  A. Collective and abstract terms 15-17
  B. Adjectives 15-18
6 The Navya-Nyaya theory of the self 18-23
7 The Navya-Nyaya concept of the individual 24-25
8 Kinds of perception 25-33
9 Purva-Mimamsa theory of cognition 34-35
10 Analysis of recognition 35-36
11 Navya-Nyaya theory of true cognition 36-39
12 Different forms of determinate cognition 39-43
Chapter Two:    
  Some basic concepts of Navya-Nyaya 44-56
1 Relation 44-45
2 The concept of cause 45-47
3 Theory of causation in Navya-Nyaya 48-50
4 Singular and general causation 50-54
5 Technique of expressing generality 54-56
Chapter Three:    
  Navya-Nyaya theory of inference 57-90
1 Some features of the Navya-Nyaya theory of inference 57-60
2 Navya-Nyaya inference for one's sake 60-63
3 Structure of inference 63-65
4 Navya-Nyaya and Western theories of inference 65-66
5 Expressing Navya-Nyaya inference in English 65-90
  A. Some general observation 65-81
  B. Pervasion 81-83
  (a) Pervasion and generalization 81-83
  (b) Possibility of the psychological process of generalization 83-85
  (i) The Purva-Mimamsa theory 83-83
  (ii) The N-N theory 83-85
  (c) The N-N theory of tarka 85-90
  (d) The Carvaka theory 88-90
Chapter Four:    
  Some term of he technical language of Navya-Nyaya 91-93
1 Introduction 91-93
2 The Navya-Nyaya theory 93-94
3 The Navya-Nyaya technique 94-95
  (i) Abstraction 94-95
  (ii) Determiner-determined 95-95
4 The Concept of limitor 95-108
  (i) Ontological Reasons 100-102
  (ii) Epistemological Reasons 102-104
  (iii) Meaning of 'all' 105-108
  (iv) Meaning of 'one' 108-108
5 Use of limitors in the Navya-Nyaya theory of pervasion 10-114
Chapter Five:    
  Some aspects of the Navya-Nyaya theory of language 115-152
1 Concept of language 115-117
2 Navya-Nyaya theory of language 117-118
3 Sanskrit as the object language 118-121
4 Divine origin of language 121-123
5 Theories of language learning and theories of meaning 123-123
6 Language as a means of communication 123-124
7 Ontology of spoken language 124-126
8 An ontological problem concerning meaning 127-130
9 The Navya-Nyaya theory of meaning 130-131
10 The Navya-Nyaya theory of word-meaning 131-135
11 The import of sentences 135-136
12 cognition of sentence-meaning 136-140
13 Jagadisa's theory of word occurring in a sentence 140
14 Gadadhara's theory of word-meaning 141-144
15 Gadadhara's theory of anaphora 144-152
  Bibliography 152-154

Part II

ISBN :8185636028

About the Book

In this Part Two the text of Nirvikalpakavada section of Gangesa’s Tattvacintamani has been translated and explained with the help of two commentaries, Aloka of Jayadeva Misra and Prakasa of Rucidatta Misra.

About the Author

Sibajiban Bhattacharyya taught philosophy for forty five years in different Universities and Institutes in India and abroad. He has published several books, edited Journals and books in philosophy, and has published innumerable articles, discussion notes, reviews in different Journals, Anthologies, Encyclopaedias, Indian and foreign. Professor Bhattacharyya is now a National Fellow of the Indian Council of Philsophical Research, New Delhi.


In this Part Two, the text of Nirvikalpakavada is reproduced from Gangesa’s Tattvacintamani (TCM) (Part I) edited by Dr. N.S. Ramanuja Tatacharya. I have excluded Gangesa’s Visesanopalaksanavada section from this book as it forms a separate chapter in Tatacharya’s edition. I have explained Gangesa’s text with the help of two commentaries, Jayadeva Misra’s Aloka published in TCM, edited by Kamakhyanatha Tarkavagisa, and Rucidatta’s Prakasa published in Dr. Tatacharya’s edition. I have given the relevant portions of the texts of the commentaries in an appendix (Notes and References) at the end of the book.

I have found a special difficulty in translating and explaining Gangesa’s text. There are passages where Gangesa is obviously stating the opponent’s position; but there are also passages where it is not clear whether he is stating his own opponent’s position or his own. Moreover, in replies to objections, it is not always clear whether Gangesa is stating his own position, or the position of someone else supporting the Nyaya theory. In such ambiguous passages, I have tried to follow the clarifications given in the commentaries; but it may be that I am mistaken in my reading of the case. I leave it to experts to judge on this point.

There are also many passages in Gangesa’s text which were unclear to me. I must thank Dr. N.S. Ramanuja Tatacharya, who in spite of his heavy schedule of work as Vice-Chancellor of Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, was kind enough to remove my doubts with his characteristic clarity and depth of understanding of Navya-Nyaya texts. I only hope that I have presented his views correctly from memory. Without his help the book would have been worse than it is.

I thank Professor Stephen Phillips of the University of Texas at Austin for correcting typographical errors and grammatical mistakes, and for suggesting various improvements.

I also thank Professor K.T. Pandurangi and Dr. D. Prahladachar of Bangalore University for explaining to me some passages of Prakarana-pancika which I have included here.



  Part Two : Nirvikalpakavadah TEXT, TANSLATION AND EXPLANATION  
1 Gangesa’s theory of two kinds of perception, indeterminate and determinate 1
1 Gangesa’s explication of indeterminate perception 4
1.1 Criticism : No need to postulate indeterminate perception 6
2.1 Gangesa’s argument for qualificative cognition being caused by cognition of a qualifier and its criticism 9
2.1 Gangesa’s reply 16
3.1 Another objection and a proposed reply 21
3.1 Gangesa’s position 25
4.0 An objection to Gangesa’s position 33
5.0 An argument for indeterminate perception and a reply by Mimamsakas in support of Nyaya 35
6.0 Another argument for indeterminate perception and its criticism 39
7.0 Difficulty of defining qualificative cognition 45
7.2 Other definnitions of qualificative cognition examined 48
8.0 Gangesa’s solution 53
8.1 Another objection to infinite regress and Gangesa’s reply 58
8.3 Another objection to indeterminate perception and Gangesa’s refutation 63
8.4 Another objection to Gangesa’s reply 64
8.5 A further objection and its reply 65
8.5 Further explanation of significance of qualifiers 67
9 Concept of qualified object explained 69
9.1 Objection to Gangesa’s theory and reply 70
10 Cognition of negation explained 72
10.1 Objection to Gangesa’s theory and his reply 77
10.1 Further explanation 79
  Notes and References 83
  Bibliography 93

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