Panini His Place in Sanskrit Literature

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Item Code: NAD700
Publisher: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office
Author: Prof Surendra Nath Shastri
Language: English
Edition: 2005
ISBN: 8170801702
Pages: 325
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 9.0 inch X 6.0 inch
Weight 480 gm
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Book Description


Since the acquaintance of the Western scholars with the ancient Indian literature in the earlier of the eighteenth century of the Christain era there has been a constant progress of the India studies in the Western world. During the nineteenth century, the West has produced many historical and critical treatises on various subjects of study comprising Sanskrit literature; and their lays have not only been very fruitful but very valuable as well, in reconstructing the unbroken tradition of the great Indian heritage. The interest of the Western mind centred round mainly the Vaidika lore, especially the Rg-veda, the oldest literary com- position possessed by the human race. With a view to attaining an appreciable mastery over the great treasure of knowledge stored in the ancient Indian literature, the Western scholars took due care to extend the field of their activity to the study of the Vedangas, the six ancillaries which unfold the mysteries of the ancient mind, to the study of the various systems of Indian Philosophy, and of the classical Sanskrit literature. In process of time their efforts developed Indology as a distinct department of study under humanities, and the result has been an all round probe from the Western point of view into the Sanskrit lore, and many a mind and diligent hand worked upon the vast field of Sanskrit literature. Most of these scholars, actuated with a prepossession of their superiority over others, endeavoured to interpret the sacred idiom of the ancient Hindus in their own way and took pride in differing partially or wholly from the traditions of the race which produced such an immensely valuable literature in the hoary past. W hile others who took a dispassionate view made an earnest endeavour to reveal to the modern scholarship the actual and the real sense of the ancient works, and did not hesitate to place, in the proper perspective, the intrinsic worth of the system of thought under their survey, and to appreciate the values of the contribution made by the anceint seers to the progress of humanity at large with no limitations of any clime or age. Among the scholars of the' latter trend of mind who ardently advanced the course of studies in Sanskrit language and literature in the nineteenth century through their literary productions of abiding interest, THEODOR GOLDSTUCKER is a great name.

His Life: Theodor Gold tucker was born of Jewish parents on the 18th of January, 1821 at Konigsberg in Prussia. After matriculating at the age of fifteen he attended lectures of Lobeck on classical philology, of Schubert on history, and of Rosenkranz on Philosophy. He studied elementary Sanskrit under P. von Bohlen. Later on, he proceeded to Bonn in 1838 and studied Arabic under Freytag and Indian literature under A. W. von Schlegel. He took an advance course of studies in Sanskrit under Professor Lassen and took his degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1840 at a tender age of nineteen. In 1842 he went to Paris, and in course of his stay of three years there, he came in close contact with E. Burnouf, In 1845 he went back home and settled in Konigsberg where he could not stay for long. Two years after he moved to Berlin, but even there he was not destined to stay longer. In 1850, he accepted an invitation from H. H. Wilson to prepare a new edition of his Sanskrit Dictionary and went to England, where he was appointed as an honorary Professor at the University College, London in 1852. This assignment he held upto the end of his life. He breathed his last on the 6th of March, 1872.

His Works: As a result of his studies ill Sanskrit literature his first work has been the translation of the well-known philosophical drama, the Prabodha Candrodaya of Krsh1JO Misra published in 1842 from Konigsberg. He prepared a new edition of the MahlibhlirC{ta, a specimen of his critical ability. His most outstanding work was the preparation of a critical Sanskrit- English dictionary, the first and the only fasciculus of which was published from London during the long period of nine years, 1856-1864. This work in its preparation assumed such a voluminous magnitude that the task had to be given up even before the completion of the first letter of the Sanskrit Alphabet. Nevertheless, the work in its initial pages has given hundreds of valuable monographs which will ever remain a constant companion to scholars in the study of the subject under treatment. Then in 1865 Goldstucker brought out the first fasciculus of his valuable compendium of the Mimansa philosophy, viz. the Jaiminiya-miila-vistara of Mlidlzavacharya. The later fasciculi of this work were published posthumously in the name of Goldstucker by Professor Cowell. 111 the meanwhile he took himself to "the study of the Kalpa-sutras and brought out a critical edition of the Mtmava- Kol pa-sutra from London in the year, 1861. For a considerably long period he was devoted to the studies of Panini and his system of Sanskrit grammar. No other Sanskrit scholar in the West was so very thoroughly acquainted with the most difficult works on Sanskrit grammar as was Gold tucker, and he was, day to day, adding his collections on grammatical works. He had ill his mind to bring out a comprehensive work on Sanskrit grammar, and as a result of his patient research and hard work, he worked out a voluminous edition in six volumes of Patahjali's Mahlibhashya with Kaiyyatds 'Bhnshya and Bhattofidtkshita's Tika on the latter. The last two hundred pages of this magnum opus were published by the Government of India in 1874. Gold stacker contributed several articles on Indian Philosophy and Mythology which were collected and published after his death as his Literary Remains in 1879. His last work was "On the deficiencies in the Present Administration of Hindu Law".

His Scholarship: Goldstucker enjoyed a very high reputation for his versatile scholarship. He was deemed a great authority on Sanskrit philology and general literature, Pnninian Grammar and Hindu law. Alexander von Humboldt eulogised him in most flattering terms. even Burnoff consulted him often on technical points, Max Muller spoke of him as the greatest Sanskritists of his age. As the highest European authority on the Hindu law, he was often consulted by the Government of India on knotty points of inheritance.

His works evince not only a rare scholarship but the greatest accuracy and remarkable completeness. His thoroughness and an appreciation of the correct view-point with the requisite boldness to present logically his contemporary opinion on a subject under his survey are the outstanding merits of his sound know- ledge and solid scholarship. His outspoken criticism of scholars who hazarded their conclusions on their meager understanding of the subject in their hand, made him at times a target of unscholarly bitterness, the very usual apology for the failures of fumbling scholars. He had often to cross swords with those who occupied the Professorial chairs like Weber. Roth, Bohtlingk, Kuhn; and at places he had to differ even from Max Muller. But the arguments advanced by Gold tucker could hard ly be rebutted, and there have been occasions when his adversaries had to revise their opinion and recognise his merit. His critical work. "Pli1.lini: his place in Sanskrit literature" is an out- standing contribution by Goldstucker, who very correctly assessed the worth of Pnntni and vindicated his position in right earnest. In course of this attempt the author had to differ/from Weber radically and also to question the methods of Roth and Bohtlingk, the joint editors of St. Petersburg Sanskrit Dictionary. On the view-point regarding acquaintance of the ancient Hindus with the art of writing, Gold tucker had to examine threadbare the opinion of Max Muller recorded in his "Ancient Sanskrit literature", which is his distinct contribution to the assessment of ancient Hindu culture and civilisation,

In the present work Goldstucker has first of all examined the significations of the terms like stura, kanda. pattra, patata, varna , karana, akshara, upadesa, urdhva, mantra, chhandas and has taken a critical notice of the views of Weber in particular. Then he has taken up the problem of the dates of Kntynyana and Pnnin! and assessed the views of Bbhtlingk on the chronology of the ancient Hindu writers. Then, while treating the grammatical literature of Ptmini, he has taken due account of Kairikais, Paribhashns, Vantikns and Ishtis, From a closer study of Panini's work Goldstucker has deduced his own conclusions regarding Pnmni's acquaintance with the Sanhitas of the Vedas, the Upanishads and the six systems of Hindu philosophy. Then he has proceeded to the treatment of the chronological survey in relation to Pli1.lini and the Unnadi-sutras,Panini and the Dhatauplltha, Pa1;lini and the Pratisakhyas, Piinini and the Phit-sutras, Ptmini and Ynska, and Panini and Gautama Buddha. Towards the end of the present treatise, the author has discussed the date and early history of Patahjali's Mahobhashya and emphasised over the importance of the Hindu commentaries and the traditional element available in them. He closes his dissertation with a note on the present position of Sanskrit Philology and vindicates his position against his adversaries. Thus the present work of Gold tucker sheds a flood of light on several problems connected with the celebrated work of Panini and presents a solution to some of the important chronological problems. It is, no doubt, a very valuable work and is indispensable for students of Sanskrit grammar who desire to be acquainted with the position of Panini in the Sanskrit literature.

This dissertation, in fact, forms a portion of his Preface to his edition of the Manava-kalpa-sutras; but, later on, the admirers of Gold tucker pressed him to publish this fragment as an independent monograph for the benefit of the students of Panini, and he conceded to this request. It was published as such, in 1860 from London, more or less, in the form of an extract from his Introduction to the fac-similie of the Manava-kalpa-sutras published by him. Even this edition of the present work has been long since out of print and stock, and for several decades past, it has been beyond the reach of the present-day scholars. With a view to making this valuable work once again available to the ardent students of Panini it is being published for the first time in India. While preparing this Indian edition, some of the portions which did not bear upon the treatment of the subject in hand, have been omitted in order to enable the reader to have a grasp over the subject without diversion. In the present edition, the diacritical marks have been revised thoroughly, and a uniform system as prevalent today has been adopted. The author has quite often cited extracts originally written in the German language and has almost invariably given its English translation as well. All the same, at a few places he has not done the English rendering, and of such passages, the English version is appended in this edition at the end of the book. Then, three indices showing the works and authors under reference, and quotations alphabetically arranged are hereto appended in order to facilitate reference.

The present editor hopes that this edition would serve the cause of the studies in Sanskrit, and is thankful to the Proprietors of the Chowkhamba Sanskrit Studies who have very enthusiastically undertaken to bring out this Indian edition and earned the gratitude of the students of Panini who have been, for a long time past, bereft of the company of an erudite scholar of the eminence of Theodor Gold stucker.




Preface I
Dedication XI
Author's Note XII
Notice By the Author XV
Table of Contents XVII
Errata XXX
The Original Manuscript of the Fac-Simle 3
The Fac-Simile traced by Miss Amelia Rattenbury 5
Contents of the Manuscript 7
Contents of another Manuscript of the Manava-Kalpa-Sutra 9
The Commentary of Kumarila 10
Connection between the Kalpa-Sutras of the Taittiriya Samhita and the Mimansa 11
Author of the Manava-Kalpa-Sutra 13
Date of this Work 14
Literary and Chronological Questions Concerning Every work of the Vaidika Literature and Therefore Bearing on the Present Work 15
Refutation of This View 16-73
Refutation of His Views and of His Distribution of The Ancient Literature 75
On The Chronological Relation Between Panini and Katyayana , The Author of The Varttikas 97-153
Chronalogical Relation Between Panini and The Unnadi-Sutras 172-185
Chronological Relation Between Panini and The Unnadi List 187-200
Chronological relation Between Panini and The Pratisakhyas 201-232
Chronological Relation Between Panini and The Phit-Sutras 232-239
Chronological Relation Between Panini and Yaska 23-245
Chronological Relation Between Panini and Buddha 245-247
Date and Early History of The Mahabhashya 247-258
Index of Quotations 292
Index of Works 296
Index of Authors 300


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