Sri pandurangacharya Srinivasacharya Waiker hails from Dharwar district of Karnataka and mostly educated at Bangalore. As a graduate of Science and Engineering, he served in the Quality Assurance Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, and rose to the rank of Director and retired later. The inquisitive question to our readers would be what this gentleman has got to do with the highly philosophical Sanskrit work like “Pramana Vachana Sangraha’.
Sri Waiker, a descendent of Sri Satyaparakrama Swamiji, a family in the line of Sanatana Dharma and noted for scholars, did not rest contents with the above academic alone. Soon after he settled in profession and life, he persued his studies with devotion and earnestness in the spiritual field. He did his pupilage (like the ancient Gurukula type) under an eminent scholar by name Sri Vasudevacharya yelameli who was a pet disciple of Sri Satya Dhyana Tirtha Swamiji. Sri Waiker received training in the schools Nyaya and Vedanta for a considerably long period and attained proper knowledge. Thus he is a blend of both science and philosophy. Person like him are fit to bridge the gap between the ancient and modern systems picking the best out of both.
Sri Waiker has contributed a number of articles and five book works both in Kannada and English. Of his works “Gayatri Vaibhava” in Kannada and “The Glories of Gayatri” in English have enjoyed wide circulation. He has participated in a number of Seminars and Sabhas. He is an enthusiastic member who is interested in disseminating “The Madhva Philosophy.
The Pancharatra school of Religion and Philosophy had a vast body of literature and provided the source material for the Bhagavata Religion which was videly practiced in India. Dvaita Vedanta tradion was the successor of Bhagavata tradition. Sri Madhvacharya has quoted extensively from Pancharatra in presenting his Dvaita Philosophy and Vaishnava Religion. The Pancharatra literature is unfortunately not available now. The Dvaita Vedanta Study and Research Foundation undertook the “PRAMANA VACHANA SAMGRAHA’ Project in 1990 and entrusted to Sri P.S. Waiker the responsibility of locating and collecting the pancharatra, Sruti, smriti and Purana sources referred to by Sri Madhvacharya.
Sri Waiker has complied quotations drawn from 380 Pancharatra and other sources referred to in 37 works of Sri Madhvacharya. The manuscripts of the quotations run up to 3500 pages. The material collected by Sri Waiker has been arranged under twelve topics (with several subtopics under each of them) and it is proposed to publish them under eight volumes.
The first volume-“BHAGAVAT SVARUPA NIRUPANAM’ deals with the Supreme God in all His aspects and gives a complete picture of this concept as developed in Dvaita Vedanta. The other doctrines will be dealt with in the remaining seven volumes.
The detailed plan of the project, the arrangement of the major topics and sub-topics under them, references to the source material and the corresponding works of Sri Madhvacharya and the details of the proposals to reconstruct some of the original texts are explained in the introduction.
The Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation is grateful to Sri P.S. Waiker for the work which he has undertaken and which has taken him about six years to complete and also for having edited the first volume. The foundation looks forward to his continued co-operation and assistance in future also.
Sri Ananda-Tirtha also known as Sri Madhvacharya, the Founder of the Dvaita school of Vedanta has composed thirty-seven works to present the Davaita Philosophy, in all its aspects. These are collectively known as SARVAMULA-GRANTHAS. These can be grouped as i) Prasthana-trayi-Bhashyas ii) Rig-Bhashya iii) Mahabharata and Bhagavata digests iv) Ten Prakarana works v) Stotra and Puja works. He has planned his works in such a way that the Veda, the Vedanta, the Itihasa Purana and the works for the practice of the religion are covered. Philosophy, Religion and culture go hand in hand in India.
Indian Philosophers are not mere academicians or mere academicians or mere debators of Metaphysics and logic. They are seers who provide a perspective and a programme for ennobling the life. The foundation of such a perspective is spread over the entire Veda, Itihasa, Purana, Smriti and Prasthanatrayi. Therefore the founder or the rejuvinater of Indian Philosophy and the religion has to scan this entire literature, cull out the teachings and present them with precision and clarity. This task is abundantly done by Sri Madhvacharya in his “Sarva-mula-granthas’.
In “Sarvamula-granthas’, Sri Madhvacharya follows a three tiered method to present the Vedanta Philosophy. He states the Doctrine, elucidates them by quoting source passages and the necessary reasoning, and he reviews the views of the other systems, particularly the Advaitha. This three tiered method is followed not only in respect of presenting the doctrines, but also in interpreting the Vedic and Upanishadic passages that enshrine these Doctrines.
First the import of the passage concerned is presented, it is elucidated by quoting passages from the other sources that support and fully bring out the import, and then he reviews the interpretations of other Bhashyakaras. Many a time a brief introductory remark or concluding remark is added. As a result of this methodology a large number of source passages are incorporated into the works of Si Madhvacharya.
All the Bhashyakaras do quote from Upanishads and Mahabharata. Sri Ramanuja quotes a few passages from Pancharatra sources. Sri Madhvacharya extensively quotes from Pancharatra Samhita and Purnas. Sir Madhva considers Pancharatra and Mahabharata on Par with Vedas as sources of philosophical thought. Therefore he extensively quotes from these two sources.
It is well known that during the three centuries preceeding sri Madhvacharya a good deal of manuscripts were destroyed by vandalism. Pancharatra literature, particularly suffered during this period. Itihasa Purana literature was also tampered with the interpolations and the deletions. However, a good portion of Pancharatra Samhita was orally preserved. Sri Madhvacharya incorporated this floating portion into his works so that it could be preserved for the posterity. He also prepared a critical text of Mahabharat coliecting the manuscripts from all parts of India and prepared a digest of it. He incorporated crucial verses from the other Puranas into his works. His intention to preserve all this orally handed over literary tradition is clear from the fact that he mentions the names of the works from which each quotation is drawn. Many of these works were completely lost. He quotes from as many as three hundred and eighty works. The philosophy, the theology and the ethics contained in these quotations is very rich. If these are compiled and classified, it will be an encyclopedia of the Bhagavata Religion and Philosophy. The quotations from some of the works are more than hundred. By compiling these quotations these works could be reconstructed.
Keeping all the above possibilities in mind a project viz., “PRAMANA VACHANA SAMGRAHA’ was formulated. This was planned in three stages.
1) Compilation of all the quotations spread over the thirty-seven works of Sri Madhvacharya.
2) Arranging them under twelve major topics and into many sub-topics.
3) Arranging them textwise leading to the re-construction of some of the texts that are now lost under the Title “LUPTA AGAMA SAMGRAHA’.
The first stage is completed and a manuscript of 3500 pages, containing all the quotations is ready. The second stage is planned to bring them in about eight volumes. Out of the twelve major topics four topics need a separate volume each, while the remaining major topics could be accommodated in four volumes. These major topics are further divided in to many sub-topics. The purpose of such a division is to clearly identify the import and the pupose of each quotation and the doctrine convayed or supported by it. These subtopics are arranged in the series or works of Sri madhvacharya so that one can easily check them by looking into the work concerned. It was considered as not feasible to give a reference of the context of each quotation. This would have resulted in adding our own remarks and would have got mixed up with the quotations. Majority of the quotations are self-sufficient to convey the point made. However, if the reader needs a check up, he can refer to the work itself whenever the quotation concerned occurs. It is for this reason that the sub-topics are arranged in the series of works of Sri Madhvacharya.
The first volume is designated as “Bhagavat Swarupa Nirupanam’. All the quotations that give a description of the Supreme God Vishnu are brought here. Among the thirty seven works of Sri Madhvacharya, ninteen woks contain quotations that could be clearly identified and separated from the texts. In the case of other works, particularly, the works that are in verses, the quotations are internit with the text with slight modification in their wordings to suit the material requirement of the text concerned. This is particularly the case in respect of “Brahma Sutra Anuvyakhyana” and “Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya’. Majority of these could be easily identified since the key words are the same. However, these do not verbatum agree with the passages as in the source works. Therefore these are not taken out for the present compilation. Attention will be drawn to them when these works are edited in the Sarva-Mula volumes.
The quotations that give the description of the Supreme God are compiled in this volume. These are arranged under various sub-topics. All these sub-topics are given in the respective places and also in the detailed table of the contents given in the beginning. Some of the sub-topics re-occure under each work of Sarva Mula. A cross reference to all these occurances is given in the relevant places. A list of the source work from which these quotations are drawn is also given. Thus one can observe requirement of research in this series of “PRAMANA VACHANA SAMGRAHA”. In this way all efforts are made to provide the research apperatus for the research scholars.
All the sub-topics could be broadly brought under areas:
i) Vishnu-Sarvottamatva is the theme of the entire sacred literature. All works convey Vishum by Parama Mukhya Vritti. Even the syllables, accents, unarticulated sounds convay Vishnu. The Vyahrti, Gayatri, Purusha-Sukta, Brihati Sahasra etc; especially convey Vishnu.
ii) Vishnu is Sarvaguna Paripurna, Svatantra, Sarvottama, Sristi-Sthityadi Sarvakarta, there is no distinction between His Mularupa and Avatara Rupas, His attributes and Himself, His Avayayva and Himself. He has no Prakrita body. He has Jnana Anandatmak body. He is not formless.
iii) All other deities are subordinate to Him. He regulats all. He is the abode of all. He creates all. Even the Nitya entities are given a functional birth. The very existence and the capacity to function in a certain way are provided by Him. He is only Svatantra and all others are paratantra i.e. Paramatma Tantra. Jeeva and Jada are distinct from Him. These are His Pratibimbas.
iv) He is absolutely free from the drawbacks. He is Nirdosha. Opposite attributes can be present in Him. He has Achintya Shakti. He cannot be understood completely since He is infinite. However, the devotees can comprehend Him to the best of one’s capacity. Approksa-Jnana, Bhakti are the means to obtain His grace. His grace is the final means to realize.
The above sailient features of the concept of the Supreme God are fully brought out in the quotations compiled here. The quotations dealing with other doctrines of Dvaita philosophy will be presented in the next volumes.
The work of this project was entrusted to Sri P.S. Waiker six years back. He worked hard and compiled all the quotations as a first step of the project. This took nearly four years Later he started classifying the collossal data. He arrived at twelve major topics. These major topics gave rise to numerous sub-topics. He futher assigned sub-titles to these quotations and prepared adetailed sub-title index which runs up to 800 pages. After this, he completed the first topic, which is the biggest, in two years, all working by himself including the entire computer work also.
The first topic Bhagavat Svarupa Nirupanam consists of many sub-topics, and quotations. In order to ensure correct and authentic presentation of this work he fianlised the titles of the major topics and sub-topics in consultation with the members of the academic committee of the foundation. He has taken utmost care to see that these major titles and sub-titles help the readers to comprehend the import of these quotations and the doctrins convayed by them.
I take this opportunity to profusely thank Sri P.S. Waiker for under-taking this precious work and for preparing this valuable volume with hard work and dedication. But for his keen interest and hard work this volume would not have come out in such a useful way. I am happy to record my unqualified appreciation. I hope that it will be possible for us to publish other volumes also with his full co-operation.
Praman Vachana Sangraha is a major project initiated by Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation. Under this project approximately 5000 Quotations are compiled, classified and arranged under twelve topics. It is planned to publish these in six volumes. The topic of the first volume is Bhagavatsvarupa Nirupanam. Not all the quotations under this topic could be accommodated in it. The same topic is therefore continued in the second volume. The plan and method followed in the first volume is followed here also. The quotations on this topic are arranged under four major heads and several sub-heads under each of the major head. The serial order is that of the works of Sri Madhvacharya in his Sarvamula. The reference to the occurance of these quotations in Sarvamula is given for each entry. The name of the work from which each quotation is drawn is also given. The names of source works as given by Sri Madhvacharya himself in Sarvamula have been mentioned by the Editor here. The present arrangement is subjectwise. The text wise arrangement and the reconstruction of the lost works is the second phase of this work. The objective of this work is twofold. 1) to provide a reference volume of the authorities quoted by Sri Madhvacharya from Pancharatra and other sources. 2) To reconstruct the lost works wherever the number of passages quoted is sufficient to provide the nucleous of the lost text. This is the second volume in the first phase of the project.
Sri P.S. Waiker has taken pains to compile, edit and arrange these quotations. We thanks him for his valuable work.
We thanks Parishree Printers for printing the book in time.
As it was found necessary to give an idea of the project of “PRAMANA VACHANA SANGRAHA” at the commencement of the volume, to enable the research scholar to realize the utility of the work and also to know the methodology of the work, the introduction of the first volume, is reproduced in the second volume also.
The first topic viz. BHAGAVATSVARUPA NIRUPANAM is continued in this volume. About 650 subtopics are covered here. The quotations compiled here are drawn from nineteen works. The names of the SARVAMULA works in which these quotations occur and the names of the works from which these quotations are drawn are given in the respective places. The headings of the subtopics are carefully chosen so as to give an idea of the central point made in the quotation concerned. As far as possible the wordings of these subtopics are drawn from the very quotations.
The quotations given under the title “Bhagavatswarupa Nirupanam” in the first and second volumes give a comprehensive picture of the nature, attributes and activities of the supreme God. His glory and supremacy are graphically presented. All the important philosophical and theological aspect concerning the supremacy of God are covered here. Both the theoretical aspects and practical aspects of philosophy and religion so far as the concept of God is concerned are covered here.
After giving all available quotations concerning “Bhagavatsvarupa” it was thought helpful to include the quotations covering Goddess LAKSMI also in this volume. This will particularly bring out their inter relation and joint role in bestowing grace on the devotees. The above observations are sufficient for the present. Four more volumes are yet to come and I reserve further observations to the respective volumes in future.
I must again record my appreciation for the painstaking effort of Sri P.S. Waiker for compiling, editing, preparing the indicies etc. the research apperatus for these volumes. This is a kind of fundamental research which will provide scope for further research in many directions. I thank him for editing these volumes for Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation and I hope to publish them with greater speed.
Pramana Vachana Sangraha is a project initiated by Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation to compile, classify and edit about 5000 citations from early works quoted by Sri Madhvacharya’s Sarvamula works. These are mostly drawn from Pancharatra Samhitas and other works. The original work from which Sri Madhvacharya has obtained the citations are not available. What in effect is being done under this Project amounts to a reconstruction of the lost works. These are arranged subject wise. Reference to the occurances of these citations in Sri Madhvacharya’s works and also the references of the works from which these are drawn are given in the relevant places. The latter are mentioned in Sri Madhvacharya”s works in a majority of cases.
In the first and second volumes citations dealing with Vishnusarvottamattva are compiled and classified. In this volume the citations dealing with other deities and Devta Taratamya are brought together. In arranging these citations the method followed in the previous two is followed under each topic detailed sub-headings are added to enable the reader to trace the relevant citation readily and grasp the point made clearly.
Sri P.S. Waiker has taken pains to compile, classify and arrange these citations methodically. We thank him for his valuable work. We thank Parishree Printers for printing the work in time.
Pramana vachana Sangraha is a project initiated by Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation to compile. Classify and edit about 5000 citations from about 380 earlier works quoted by Sri Madhvacharya in his 37 works. These are mostly drawn from Pacharatra Samhita and allied works. Many of these Samhitas are lost. An attempt is made here to reconsruct these lost text by bringing together the citations from them.
In the three volumes already published under this project the citations that describe the Supreme God Vishnu and other deities are compiled and classified. In this fourth volume the citations that describe the world and give information about the very source literature are compiled. The methodlogy and the details of the project are explained in the introduction.
Sri P.S. Waiker is in charge of this project. He has taken pains to compile and classify this vast collection of citations. He has also done D.T.P. typesetting to ensure the accuracy. We thank him for his co-operation.
In the detailed introduction to the first volume the plan and the purpose of the project of Pramana Vchana Sangraha are already explained. The topics discussed in the three earlier volumes are also discussed in the introductions to the respective volumes. In this fourth volume the citations that bring out the reality of the world and reject the concept of Mithyatva of the world are brought together. This is vital subject of Dvaita Vedanta. The citations that deal with Vishnu Sarvottamatva are given in a classified way in the first two volumes. In the third volume the status and the role of the other deities are described. Here, Jagatsatyatva and Pachabheda are highlighted.
The third volume was published in 1999 only. This volume should have been published in an year or two later. However, the publication programme of the Dvaita Foundation was overloaded with other large works like Rigbhashya and Tatparya-Chandrika. Hence, the publication of this volume was delayed. Now, we are happy to publish it.
I must once again thank Sri P.S. Waiker for his hard work. He has not only compiled and edited the citations scattered over 37 Sarvamula works but also he himself has ‘type set’ them. I admire his commitment to this valuable task.
Pramana Vachana Sangraha is a project initiated by the Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation. The work comprises of compilation, classification and edition of the citations from the 37 Sarvamoola works of Sri Anandatirtha. The citations are drawn from a vast cross-section of authoritative sources numbering almost 380and citations amounting 5000. The source texts quoted by Acharya are not available in any of the oriental libraries. Hence, the institution thought it fit to save at least those in the form of citations and reconstruct them topic-wise for the benefit of inquisitive persons.
Of the total six volumes of the Pramana Vachana Sangraha, so far we have been able to publish four volumes. The fourth was publish in the year 2003. The fifth volume is being published now. It comprises of special meanings of the words and phrases, called ‘Nirukta Ritya Padanam Artha-Vivaranam’. If we consider the total project work as the encyclopedia of Madhva’s citations, the fifth volume is like a special dictionary. The meanings, given here will not be normally found in general ‘ Shabda Kosha’. One will apprexciate that these are the exact and appropriate meanings which elucidate the real and hidden contents of the main texts. Even here we can see that the citations are drawn from vast sources which represent rare and rich vocabulary. The aims of the project, methodology and approach to the various problems have been explained in detail in the introductions of the earlier volumes.
Sri P.S. Waiker is the editor of this project. He has taken utmost interest and pains to collect, compile, collate and edit these large number of citations. He has also done the D.T.P. typesetting to ensure the quality of the work. We thank him for his co-operation.
Pramana Vchana Sangraha is a major project initiated by this Institution. It is a voluminous work covering all the Sarva-Mula-Granthas of Srimad Anandatirtha. These works invoked the inquisitiveness from the beginning not only of the scholars of the Dvaita school but also of the scholars of other schools of philosophy. In particular the amazing magnitude of authoritative citations quoted from the rare texts from the vast cross-section of Vedic literature was probably the attraction. Our Institution too was no exception to keenly observe this aspect. The citations quoted are the core part of the Sarvamoola and considered to be the literary treasure of Vedanta. Hence our Institution decided in 1990 to focus special attention on this aspect and formulated a project. The work involved was to collect the citations from all the works of Sarvamoola, study them thoroughly, classify, identify by suitable main titles and subtitles, compile in the form of texts and present them in the form of publications. The unique feature of this work is that this would serve as the source of research material for the scholars. We may also reckon this work as an Encyclopedia of Sri Madhva’s Quotations.
The responsibility of the project was entrusted to Sri P.S. Waiker in the month of Januar-1990. He selected the quotations numbering about 5000 (Which are explicit in nature) and recorded them in about 3500 pages of manuscript. This colossal data was classified in twelve main headings and several subheadings. Finally all the citations so collected were compiled in the form of texts. Sri Waiker handled the entire work by himself including the DTP, and made the complete document ready comprising six volumes, by April 2000.
The first volume of Pramana Vachana Sangraha was published in 1997. Vol-2 in 1999; in 1999, vol-4 in 2003; Vol-5 in 2005. We feel really proud to publish the present sixth and the final volume in the year 2007 and complete the project.
The Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation is grateful to Sri P.S. Waiker for accomplishing this great work. His total involvement in the task, sincerity of purpose, total dedication to work, untiring DTP work of 2200 pages of all the six volumes are praise- worthy. From the beginning to the end of this project (i.e. seventeen years) he co-operated with this institution willingly and enthusiastically. The Chairman and the Managing Committee of this Institution profusely appreciate the quality of his work and thank him for the valuable services rendered by him.
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