The English text book Roga Vijnana and Vikriti Vijnana is a pioneering attempt to narrate intricacies of the knowledge of diseases and to cognize those from an Ayurvedic point of view. The first volume covers the fundamental aspects of Ayurveda concepts of pathology and clinical diagnosis. The efforts are made to collect information from available Sanskrit text and their commentaries, which arranged appropriately. The C.C.I.M. syllabus has been covered under two heads: Ayurveda and Modern. All the interpreations and acadmic revelations are purely based on views of treatise makers and their commentaries like Ayurveda deepika, Nyaachandrika, Bhanumati, Sarvanga-sundara, Ayurvedarasayana, Jalpkalpataru, Narasimhabhshya, Pathya, Hrdayabodhika, Vakyapradipika, Madhukosa, Sasilekha, Ratnaprabha so as to serve the needs of graduates and post graduate students. An execlusive compilation of explanation (Paribhasas) to technical terms from various commentaries is also appended. The subject proper genuinely deals on the concepts of Ayurveda without merely restricting to the limits of examination. The explanation to concepts are derived mainly form Padmasri Dr. . Rajagopalan. the sections from modern sciences have been dealt in a separate so as to avoid overriding of thoughts among the students. The second volume wiil also include the model question papers and objective questions.
"The need of the hour is to reorient our approach in the learning process of Ayurveda by intensifying the interconnectedness fo theory and practice. The approach should be rooted on our traditional thinking based on the concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas. This need is emphasized by WHO in its General guidelines for Research in Traditional Medicine 2000, "Some of the objectives specific to the assessment of traditional medicine through clinical are to: evaluate traditional medicine in its own theoretical framework"....... 'Holism is a key element of all systems of traditional medicine. Therefore when reviewing the lirerature on traditional medicine (both herbal and traditional procedure based therapies), the theories and concepts of the individual practice of traditional medicine, as well as the cultural beckground of those involved, must be taken into account'." But this is not easy job to discren the fundamental principles like learning other skills for they are not mere skills like other empirical narrations. Fully conscious of this fact it has been tried in the present book to exhibit the theoretical propositions and their pragmatic utility with vigour and high promise".
This statement by Dr. Amartya Sen is the inspiration for giving more emphasis to the Ayurvedic notions regarding the health and ill health. The Rogavijnana and Vikriti vijnana is an attempt to unravel the intricacies of the knowledge of diseases and to cognise those from an Ayurvedic point of view. The efforts are made to collect information from available Sanskrit texts and their commentaries, which re arranged appropriately. The C.C.I.M. syllabus has been covered under two heads Ayurveda and Modern. Special efforts are made to clarify the fundamental principles with the help of commentaries like Narasimha bhashya, Pathya, Hridaya bodhika, Vakya pradipika, Madhukosa, Ayurveda dipika, Sasilekha, so as to serve the needs of graduates and post graduate students. An exclusive compilation of explanation (paribhashas) to technical terms from various commentaries is appended to the first chapter. The subject proper genuinely deals on the concepts of Ayurveda without merely restricting to the limits of examination. The explanations to concepts are derived mainly from Padmasri Dr. K. Rajagopalan. The English translation of Madhukosa by Dr G.J. Meulenbeld is really a brain tonic for all who study Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana and author had tried to emulate his renderings.
The Idea to write a book on Roga vijnana and Vikritivijnana was originally conceived by Dr. Indulal. U and me. The paucity of time did not allow Dr. Indulal. U to continue with this project. I worked on the solid platform laid down by him, and without his direction and the vast compilations; the next would not have got the present shape. Despite my constant pleading, he declined to accept the authorship of the work. It is a real bliss for people like me to come across such pious personalities. I will always be thankful to him of this guidance and blessing for the successful completion of this work. I express my deep gratitude to my grandfather and the first initiator to this great science, late Vaidya vachaspati. P. Mahadeva lyer, Vaidya Kalanidhi, Netrarogavisharad. I take this opportunity to offer my pranams to Dr. A. Raghu, Assistant advisor, Ayush, Govt of India, who taught me Madhukosa tika and Hridaya bodhika, Dr. Jerome. V. Kurian, who introduced me to Indu tika and Narasimha bhasya, Dr. C.P. Ravindran Nair of Sri Dhanwantari math, Dr. G. Syamakrishnan and Dr. Prince Alex for guiding me in learning the clinical methods. I thank Dr. P. Sankaran Nair, Rtd. Principal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, for providing me copies of Pathya and Padarthachandrika commentaries. It was a privilege to learn the basics of Rogavijnana and Vikriti vijnana under Dr. K. Sankaran, Director, Ayurveda Medical Education, Dr. M.R. Vasudevan Nampoothiri, Principal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram; Dr. R. Sreekumar, Head of the Department, Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana, Govt. Ayurveda College Thiruvananthapuram; Dr. John. K. George, Head of the Department, Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana, Govt. Ayurveda College, Kannur and I am also indebted to my teachers. I have no words to express my gratitude to Vaidyabhooshanam K. Raghavan Thirumulpad for inspiring me to under take this endeavour. I thank Dr. K. Chidambharam of Sri Sarada Ayurveda Hospital Nagercoil, Prof. G. Asokan, Dr. M.V. Anil kumar, Dr. S.D. Sreejan, Dr. P.P. Jiggesh, Dr. M. Prasad, Dr. Krishnakumar, Dr. Deepa .B. Nair and Dr. P. Rammanohar, Director, AVATAR, Coimbatore for encouragment to carry out this work. The guidance and motherly affection showered on me during my study by my guide Prof. Dr. A. Jameela Beevi, Head of the Department, Siddantha and Samhita. Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, helped me lot in the execution of this work. Sri Arimanoor Paramewaran, an unparalleled scholar in Ayurveda helped me in clarifying various concepts in nidana. This book would have not been completed without the cooperation and guidance of Prof. S. Sasikumaran Unnithan. In this context I gracefully acknowledge my indebtedness to him. Above all it is the constant enthusiasm and cooperation showed by Sri. Sachin Gupta, Sri. Kaushik Gupta and Sri. R. Ratnakara Misra of Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office resulted in the completion of this work. I wholeheartedly thank them for their cooperation and I, with full sincerity, acknowledge their patience for bearing the inordinate delay from my side in preparing the manuscript of the text. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Anithajacob Director Indian Systems of Medicine, Kerala and Dr. P. Skandaswami Pillai, District Medical Officer, Alappuzha and my colleagues for encouraging me to take up this challenge.
I would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Pavana.J, Dr. Raji.R, Dr. Anija.S and Dr. Vishnu Prasanth for assisting me in writing this book. I express my sincere gratitude to Sri. Srikumar. S, just designs Sharjah, U.A.E. for designing the cover pate of the book. I am also thankful to Sri. Harikumar Agasthyacode, for preparing the photographs of Dr. K. Rajagopalan and Dr. G.J. Meulenbeld. The typesetting in Sanskrit is done by Sri. Radhakrishnan, Top Printers, Thiruvananthapuram. The total layout with typesetting in English is done by Smt. Sindhu Venkatesan of Mano Graphics, Thiruvananthapuram, and I thank her for neat and prompt creation of this book.
The domain of Ayurveda is blessed by the pioneering works of Dr. K. Rajagopalan and Dr. Gerrt Jan Meulenbeld and as mark of respect this humble effort is dedicated at the feet of the great Ayurveda scholar of our time.
The science of medicine has many facets and compartments, which are interconnected into a complex. Allopathic medicine is at the verge of confession that it is inadequate and distortive to deal with concocted contaminants and serious diseases heretofore unheard of. This fallacy is due to the mere adherence to reductionistic paradigm by the modern medicine. This situation has given a fresh lease of life to all streams of traditional healing arts across the globe. The current situation has accelerated the dissemination of Ayurveda at national and international levels. The world hopes that Ayurveda can open up stirring possibilities to the looming challenges in the maintenance of positive health and care. This hope rests on the fact that empirical methods of Ayurveda are rooted in metaphysical and epistemological concepts of darsanas. The ill fate of Ayurveda is that our customary way of doing things is to concentrate on practice sans fundamental theories. The majority of physicians due to sociopolitical and historical reasons moved away from the basic concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas after the medieval era. Though the present scenario in the Ayurvedic fraternity is different from this, there is still some continuation of this medieval mindset.
The need of the hour is to reorient our approach in the learning process of Ayurveda by intensifying the interconnection of theory and practice. The approach should be rooted on our traditional thinking based on the concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas. This need is emphasised by WHO in its General guidelines for Research in Traditional Medicine 2000, "Some of the objectives specific to the assessment of traditional medicine through clinical are to: evaluate traditional medicine in its own theoretical framework".... 'Holism is a key element of all systems of traditional medicine. Therefore, when reviewing the literature on traditional medicine (both herbal and traditional procedure based therapies), the theories and concepts of te individual practice of traditional medicine, as well as the cultural background of those involved, must be taken into account'," But this is not an easy job to discern the fundamental principles like learning other skills for they are not mere skills like other empirical narrations. Fully conscious of this fact, it has been tried in the present book to exhibit the theoretical propositions and their pragmatic utility with vigour and high promise. Even though many works on Rogavijnana are these in Hindi and other regional languages (like the one pioneered by Vaidya Ranjithray Desaiji,) the work by Dr. Manoj Sankaranarayana stands out as a pioneering work in English with its extensive compilation of the related subject matter from Brhattrayi and its commentaries, especially from those rare southern Sanskrit commentaries on Astangahridaya. The special emphasis given to Madhukoshatika is also noteworthy. The current presentation of Roga vijnana and Vikriti vijnana based on C.C.I.M. syllabus will be definitely useful for graduate students, postgraduate students, researchers and also serve a handbook of basic concepts of nidana for general clinicians. I congratulate M/s Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi, to bring out such a nice work. I pray to Lord Dhanvanthari to bestow all virtues in life to Dr. Manoj Sankaranarayana.
The book Roga Vijnana and Vikrti Vijnana by Manoj and Pavana should be a welcome addition to the list of textbooks recommended for study by student of Ayurveda.
The Roga Vijnana and Vikrti Vijnana provide a narrative account of the description of diseases in the classical texts of Ayurveda. One can find a very careful and meticulous compilation of reference from a wide range of classical Ayurvedic texts. Extensive reference to the commentaries also makes this book a very valuable handbook for physicians. In fact, the book is a ready reckoner for the busy physician as well as it provides information that is otherwise scattered easily accessible in one place.
The narration in English with extensive reference to the texts provide as footnotes enable the reader to easily cross cheek the interpretations with the original sources. The translations in sample language render information from multiple sources into a coherent whole.
For students, this book becomes a blessing by providing the Sanskrit verses with the English translation which is interpretative and correlative. The subject is presented in a manner that is clinically relevant. The disease is defined first followed by a detailed account of the etiology and classification of subtypes. The summary of the samprapti in the form of a flow chart is also very helpful to grasp the key events in the pathogenesis at one glance.
The Sanskrit words in the English narration are written in roman transliteration with diacritical marks. In one way, this enables better reading of the English text as the Devanagari script interspersed with English would make the reading a bit difficult. However, for those who would like to read the original Sanskrit, the original verses are available in the footnote.
The samprapti or pathogenesis of all diseases has been summarized in the appendix, which is again a handy reference for the physicians as well as students
The author have an impressive acquaintance with a wide range of original textual sources and it is this exhaustive compilation and their interpretation showing the interconnectedness that is the highlight of this book.
It is interesting to find that in areas of difficult interpretation, the authors chip in the opinions of experts in the field with acknowledgement of source in the footnotes. An example is the reference to the views of Dr. K. Rajagopalan in the context of paksaghata.
In keeping with the requirements of the syllabus recommended by the central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), modern accounts of the diseases are also provided. However, this can be a very tricky exercise as it is not easy to arrive at exact correlations of disease entities described in Ayurveda with the modern nomenclature of diseases.
With all these desirable features, one really wishes that an extensive index of keywords is also provided at the end of the book for quicker access to the information. A glossary providing standard definitions of the technical terms would also be helpful. These could be considered in a future edition. In a future edition, the narrative account of a particular disease could also be placed in the historical context by showing the evolution of ideas across texts at critical chronological and geographical landmarks in the growth and development of Ayurveda.
The book is certainly a needy and handy tool for the student and physician.
Our accidental meeting of Shri.Ratneshwar Mishraji in 2005 and it was through him we got in touch with Shri.Sachin Guptaji, M/s Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi; who offered us the chance to work on a book on Roga Vijnana and Vikrti Vijnana. At the very outset we wish to express our sincere gratitude for both Mishraji and Sachinji for providing us this great opportunity to reinvent the basis of our great sastra.
The observation about the first volume of “Roga vijnana and vikriti vijnana” by Dr. Jan Meulenbeld, is indeed a blessing and motivation for taking up textual and clinical studies oriented around our sastras. This word of guruji Dr. Jan Meulenbeld, about our book is the greatest honour bestowed to us in our life.
During our studies blessings and guidance from our guru Dr. K. Rajagopalan is greatest support especially during those testing times of our life.
We avoided a direct correlation of any of Ayurvedic clinical conditions with of modern biomedicine even though information based on biomedicine is provided in each chapter. This is a part of our conscious policy that every book should play as guide and no attempt shall be made to bypass the importance of teacher and clinical experience. Any correlation that the level of text book can set in prejudice in the minds of students and that may corrupt his/her free thinkingis avoided.
The chapters in the book are placed in such a way that student can apply the relationship between the concepts and its interplay in Ayurvedic understanding of disease concepts and its need in clinical practice.
Our conversations with Dr. Thomas Philip, Dr. Manoj N, Dr. Rajesh. R, Dr. Harikumar. B, Dr. P. Sankaran Nair, Dr. J. Srinivasamurthy, Dr. P. P. Jiggesh, Dr. G. Syamakrishnan, Dr. M. Prasad, Dr. S. N. Suresh, Dr. Ramamanohar. P, Dr. Jeorom. V. Kurian, Dr. U. Indulal, Dr. V. C. Deep, Dr. P. M. Madhu, Dr. G. Syamakrishnan, Dr. M. P. Seshnag, Dr. P. S. Syamprasad, Dr. R. J. Sharma, Dr. Ragita Syamaprasad, Dr. Pradeepraj, Dr. M. P. Praveen, Dr. Vishnu Prasanth Bhat, Dr. Mahesh. P. S, Dr. K. Murali, Dr. Ramankutty Warrier, Dr. P. K. V. Anand, all our students and colleagues shaped this book.
Shri. Marcis Gasuns, has indeed expressed his willingness to go through the manuscript and do editing of the text but for want of time we are not in position to submit this for his scholarly editorial scrutiny. We feel ourselves less fortunate to miss this golden opportunity to better our work. We are short of words to express our love and gratitude towards Shri. Marcis Gasuns.
We are indebted to Rajiv Gandhi Ayurveda Medical College Mahe and PNNM Ayurveda Medical College, Cheruthuruthy; for providing all facilities to undertake this task of completing this book.
Our special thanks to Shri. E. Valsaraj, Hon. Minister for Home & Health & Family welfare Puducherry, Shri. M. Muralidharan, Smt. M. Sandhya, Dr. R. Krishnakumar, Dr. T. Saketram, Dr. Manohar Saheb Gundeti, Dr. Venkateshvaralu, Dr. P. Unnikrishan, Dr. V. K. Thampan, Dr. K. Santhoshkumar, Dr. K. N. Bimal, Dr. V. Vineesh, Dr. Rajeev Kumar. R, Dr. Sethu Raj. K. S, Dr. John. K. George, Dr. R. Sreekumar, Dr. Nirupama, Dr. Srilakshmi, for taking out their time for helping in the completion of this work. Our special thanks to all students of the batch 2005 of Sri Kalabhairaveshwara ayurveda college, Bangalore, specially to Dr. Anjanakumari Raina, Dr. Nirja Jani, Dr. Prateek Gadhiya, Dr. Sheik Raja, Dr. Fourkisan L Swear, Dr. Vikram Balu, Dr. Vinayak Solethi for their editorial assistance. Our deep thanks to all students of the batch 2007 and 2008, of PNNM Ayurveda college, Cheruthuruthy, especially to Shruthy Muralidharan, Soumya P, Swetha K. S, Keerthi Sudheer, Sujitha G. G, Rohini G Varrier, Mahima K M, Rechana V P, Sindhu, Chaitanya C, Anila Nair, Sudhina M B, Divya K P, Sunitha K M and Soumya G, for their editorial assistance. We are thankful to Smt Meenu, and office & library staff of PNNM Ayurveda college for all the support extended during the work.
We do not have any tall claims about the current book, the only message to student community is that without the proper scrutiny of classical Ayurveda treatises the proper understanding of Ayurveda is impossible; if some one by reading this text finds interested towards reading; understanding; and discovering Ayurvedic concepts about nidana and cikitsa, we feels that our mission is successful.
Our greatest gratitude to our parents Shri. N. Jayaram, Smt. Shanta, Sri. V. SankaranarayanaIyer, Smt. B. Nagamoni for their blessing and support during the processing of this book. Our thanks to our brothers Shri. Narasimhaprasad, Shri. Vinay Prabhakar and little sister Kumari Svetha Aradhya for supporting us.
The current work may have many shortcomings in its rendering; compilations; and translations readers are welcome to correct us in areas of unforced errors.
Our special gratitude to Shri. Ratnakriti Sharmaji of Shreyasi graphics Varanasi and Shri. Riju Hariji of R. K. Graphics Thiruvananthapuram through them only our work assumed the present book form.
Dr. P. Ramanohar, Director and CSO, AVP Research Foundation, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, affectionate mentor of ours took time to read the entire manuscript and blessed us with a scholarly forward. We express our sincere gratitude to him and will implement all his recommendation in the future editions.
Dr. S. R. Chandra and Dr. C. D. Sahadevan, embodiment of knowledge and love towards all in this Kaliyuga, as a mark of respect for both we dedicated this book to the lotus feel of our gurus.
Part I - Ayurveda
Acupuncture & Acupressure (200)
Gem Therapy (22)
Original Texts (231)
Therapy & Treatment (144)
Tibetan Healing (131)
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