Because of the industrialization, modernization, globalization etc. this traditional knowledge
system and techniques are disappearing rapidly from the world. The present book is an
effort to record, conserve, preserve as well as to create awareness for this knowledge system
to rescue these vanishing traditional techniques.
Traditional Knowledge System and Technology in India foregrounds the eco- friendly
scientific developments of the people of India who lived and still is living a life of crises
in remote areas. This book contains 29 articles on different aspects of traditional knowledge
systems and technologies, practiced by the tribal and rural folk of different parts of the
India, covering the area of prehistoric, protohistoric, historic as well as the ethnographic
contexts. The important sub-areas covered by this book includes, traditional economic
activates, health care system, art and crafts, irrigation and water management systems,
communication, natural resource management etc.
This book will be useful for the anthropologists, archaeologists, industrialists,
scientists, environmentalists, ethno botanists, GOs, administrators, researchers and
The present volume contains 29 articles, covering the diverse aspects
of traditional knowledge system and technologies of different people, right
from the prehistoric time to contemporary societies, residing across the
country. The important sub-themes covered in this volume includes,
traditional agriculture, irrigation and water management system; traditional
art and crafts; traditional economy; traditional communication system;
traditional knowledge system of natural resources management; and the
traditional health care system.
In the first paper, Bhowmick has discussed about the prehistoric rock
art technique, which our palace ancestors had made on their rock shelters.
He has analyzed the different types of carving, engraving and painting
present in the rock shelters in different parts of the country.
In his paper, Mishra has tried to explore various skills of the chalcolithic
potters of Balathal, Rajasthan. Based on the ethno archaeological as well as
microscopic and macroscopic studies he suggested a separate phylogeny
for the ceramic of Ahar culture. He has discussed about the evolution of
ceramic industry in different phases as well as the ceramic technology of
the modern potters of the region.
Rajesh Kumar and Anuradha' have empirically examined the
traditional agriculture and irrigation technology of the Harappa’s. Based
on the available archaeological evidences they have tried to discuss the
method of cultivation, pattern of cropping, use of chemical fertilizers, soil,
tools and implements used for this cultivation, irrigation system etc.
Introduction of iron brings a drastic change in human life and culture.
Earlier, it was believed that the iron smelting technology of India was
diffused from abroad but the recent discoveries and available dates able to
prove its indigenous evolution. In his article 'Pre-Industrial Iron Smelting
Technique in Eastern India: With Special Reference to Odisha' Mohanta
has tried to discuss about the presence of such type of indigenous
preindustrial iron smelting techniques practiced by the denizens of eastern
India in general and Odisha in particular. Here, a discussion is made on the
distribution of such kind of iron smelting localities, essential metallurgical
components like, ore, iron smelting furnace, slag, tuyere, ingot, charcoal
making furnace and technique of iron smelting based on the ethnographic
Chattopadhyay and Lahiri deal with the metal craft technology of
Assam. They have tried to analyze metallurgical component of different
utensils and other products and their manufacturing techniques.
Singh and Basa attempted to uncover a unique Salt Making technique
practiced by the Meiteis of Manipur. Their paper is an outcome of the field
investigation conducted at Ningel village in the Thou bal district of Manipur,
where traditional method of salt making is still in practice. This work not
only have stressed upon the traditional knowledge system of the community
but an attempt has also been made to explore some of the intangible aspects
and their relevance to the socio-economic and religious sphere of both the
hills men and plainsmen in Manipur. The religious beliefs and practices,
concerning with the use of salt among them are also tried to incorporate in
this paper to know the importance of these practices in maintaining strong
and peaceful social relations. The paper also examines the parameters of
those problems faced out of change of context, when these traditional salt
makers were displaced from their own working environment to a new
environment for making salt.
Basu has explained the traditional technique of honey collection
practiced by the Mauleys of Sundarban, West Bengal. Her paper emphasizes
on the different socio-cultural aspects of the life of the Mauleys, the art of
honey collection and their struggle for existence in the adverse environment
of Sundarban. The author has also discussed the role of forest department,
religious practitioners, female members, folklore and taboo associated to the activity.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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