The gesture (or mudra) of namaste is a simple act made by bringing together both palms of the hands before the heart, and lightly bowing the head. In the simplest of terms it is accepted as a humble greeting straight from the heart and reciprocated
Namaste is a composite of
the two Sanskrit words, nama, and te. Te means you, and nama has the following
• To bend
• To bow
• To incline
All these point to a sense of submitting oneself to another, with complete humility. Also important to note here is that the root 'nama' is a neuter one, the significance of which will be elaborated upon later.
The word nama is split into two, na and ma. Na
signifies negation and ma represents mine. The meaning would then be 'not mine'.
Indeed there is nothing that the ‘I’ can claim as its own. Namaste
is thus the necessary rejection of 'I' and the associated phenomena of egotism.
It is said that 'ma' in nama means death (spiritual), and when this is negated
(na-ma), it signifies immortality.
The whole action of namaste unfolds itself at three levels: mental, physical, and verbal
It starts with a mental submission. This is parallel to the devotion one expresses before a chosen deity, also known as bhakti. The devotee who thus venerates with complete self-surrender is believed to partake the merits or qualities of the person or deity before whom he performs this submission.
There is a prescription in the ancient texts known as Agamas that the worshipper of a deity must first become divine himself, for otherwise worship as a transaction would become invalid. A transaction can only be between equals, between individuals who share some details in common. Hence by performing namaste before an individual we recognize the divine spark in him. Further by facilitating our partaking of these divine qualities, namaste makes us aware of these very characteristics residing within our own selves. Simply put, namaste intimates the following:
In other words, it recognizes the equality of all, and pays honor to the sacredness of all.
Translated into a bodily act, namaste is deeply rich in symbolism. Firstly the proper performance of namaste requires that we blend the five fingers of the left hand exactly with the fingers of the right hand. The significance behind this simple act in fact governs the entire gamut of our active life. The five fingers of the left hand represent the five senses of karma (karmendriyas), and those of the right hand the five organs of knowledge (jnanendriyas). Hence it signifies that our karma or action must be in harmony, and governed by rightful knowledge, prompting us to think and act correctly.
Namaste is a binding symbolic ritual. The reconciliation, interaction and union of opposites is amply reflected in this spiritual gesture. By physically bringing together the two hands, namaste is metaphorically reconciling the duality inherent in nature and of which the marriage of two humans is an earthly manifestation, a harmonious resolution of conflicting tensions. Thus namaste, which symbolizes the secret of this unity, holds the key to maintaining the equilibrium of life and entering the area where health, harmony, peace and happiness are available in plenty.
In this light, Durga Puja is a
celebration of the quintessential victory of devotion over arrogance, of divine
love over worldly ego, of dharm over adharm. Purushottam Rama was the first
to invoke the Katyayani-roopa of Devi Durga for His endeavour to slay Lankesh
Ravana. The latter being the shishya (student) of none other than Lord Brahma,
Rama would never have been able to destroy him and rescue His wife Seeta from
his demonic clutches without calling upon Her. This is considered an untimely
invocation because Durga Puja was originally observed in the spring navaratri.
Called Basanti Puja (in Sanskrit 'basanta' means 'spring'), it is celebrated
to this day on a similar scale but in limited pockets of the delta. The more
iconic festival of the fall, when Bhagavan Rama is said to have evoked her upon
Tretayuga, is called 'akaal bodhon', which literally means 'an untimely invocation'.
In this context, namaste is equated with the image of Ardhanarishvara, the form symbolizing the marriage of Shiva and Parvati, or the coming together of the parents of the universe, for the purpose of creation.
In this form Shiva has his beloved
spouse engrafted in his body. By commingling in his physical frame, Parvati
has obtained an ideal, archetypal union with her husband. Indeed which couple
could be more devoted than the one which finds completion only by merging into
each other? By merging her creative aspect with him, Parvati balances Shiva's
Similarly when Ardhanarishvara dances, the dance step is itself believed to be a combination of two principal and opposite styles of dance.
'Tandava', the fierce, violent dance, fired by an explosive, sweeping energy, is an outburst, precipitating pralaya (dissolution of the world).
On the other hand is 'lasya', the gentle, lyrical dance, full of sweetness, and representing the emotions of tenderness and love. It is in the lasya of the goddess that death is annihilated and turned into transformation and rejuvenation, rebirth and creation.
The image of Ardhanarishvara is thus the perfect master of the two contrary elements in the manifested universe. Such an ideal, perfect marriage is the message of namaste. Thus is 'nama', the root of namaste, of neuter gender, just like Ardhanarishvara is.
Namaste recognizes the duality that has ever existed in this world and suggests an effort on our part to bring these two forces together, ultimately leading to a higher unity and non-dual state of Oneness. Some of these dual elements which the gesture of namaste marries together and unifies as one are:
• God and Goddess
• Man and Woman
• Heaven and Earth
• Sun and Moon
• Solar bull and Lunar cow
• Theory and Practice
• Wisdom and Method
• Pleasure and Pain Creation and Destruction
• Mind and body
• Objectivity and Subjectivity
• Intellect and Instinct
• Reason and Emotion
• Thought and Feeling
• Inference and Intuition
• Argument and Experience
• Word and Meaning
• Katabolism (breaking up) and Anabolism (building up)
• Right side of body (warm) and Left side (cool)
• Front side of body (positive) and Rear side of body (negative)
• Brain and Heart
• Sahasara Chakra and Kundalini
• Pingala (yellow solar channel in body) and Ida (white lunar channel)
• Hot breath and Cold breath (Yoga)
• Exhalation and Inhalation (Yoga)
There is indeed no sphere of our existence untouched by the symbolic significance of namaste.
Finally, the gesture of namaste is unique also in the sense that its physical performance is accompanied by a verbal utterance of the word "namaste." This practice is equivalent to the chanting of a mantra. The sonority of the sacred sound 'namaste' is believed to have a quasi-magical value, corresponding to a creative energy change. This transformation is that of aligning oneself in harmony with the vibration of the other.
At its most general namaste is a social transaction. It is usual for individuals to greet when they meet each other. It is not only a sign of recognition but also an expression of happiness at each other's sight. This initial conviviality sets the positive tone for the further development of a harmonious relationship. Namaste as a greeting thus is a mosaic of movements and words constituting an intimation of affirmative thoughts and sentiments. In human society it is an approach mechanism, brimming with social, emotional and spiritual significance. In fact it is said that in namaste the hands are put together like a knife so that people may cut through all differences that may exist, and immediately get to the shared ground that is common to all peoples of all cultures.
Comparison with Handshake:
In the current context, a comparison with the widely prevalent 'handshake' is inevitable. Though shaking hands is an extremely intimate gesture, namaste scores over it in some ways. Primarily is the one that namaste is a great equalizer. You do namaste with God (and not shake hands!). A king or president cannot shake hands with the large multitude they are addressing. But namaste serves the purpose. It is the same gesture one would have exchanged with a king when with him alone. So no incongruity arises. In the absence of namaste, those facing a large audience will have to make do with a wave of the hands, a much less congenial greeting, and indeed which does not state the essential equality of all people, but highlights the difference even more. But on a parallel level it has been conjectured that both the namaste and the handshake developed out of a desire on the part of both the parties to show themselves to be unarmed and devoid of malicious intention. The outstretched hand or the palms joined together, both establish the proponents as disarmed and show that they come in peace.
As much as yoga is an exercise to bring all levels of our existence, including the physical and intellectual, in complete harmony with the rhythms of nature, the gesture of namaste is a yoga in itself. Thus it is not surprising that any yogic activity begins with the performance of this deeply spiritual gesture.
In fact, it is given the status of a mudra, that is, a gesture displayed by deities, where it was known as the Anjali mudra. The word Anjali itself is derived from the root Anj, meaning "to adorn, honor, celebrate or anoint."
The most important thing to remember while analyzing Namaste is that the gesture we make for greeting humans is the same that we make before God.
References and Further Reading:
• Cooper, J.C. An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols: London, 1999.
• Nambiar, A.K. Krishna. Namaste; It's Philosophy and Significance in Indian Culture: New Delhi, 1979.
• Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami. Krishna The Supreme Personality of Godhead: Mumbai, 1996.
• Rao, S.K. Ramachandra. Bharatiya Pranama Paddhati (Respectful Salutations in India): Bangalore, 1997.
• Sivaramamurti, C.Nataraja in Art, Thought and Literature: New Delhi, 1994.
• Sudhi, Padma. Symbols of Art, Religion and Philosophy: New Delhi, 1988.
• Tresidder, Jack. The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols: Oxford, 1997.
• Walker, Benjamin. Encyclopedia of Esoteric Man: London, 1977
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