Has the universe a beginning? Was it created? Who, then, is its creator? Or alternately, is the universe uncreated? Is it beginning less and endless, with of course, continual changes? Synthesizing the cumulative knowledge of science, philosophy, and religion: Eastern and Western, including Vedic / Vedantic metaphysics, Professor Panda’s Cyclic Universe looks afresh at these mind boggling question-which , ever since the dawn of human civilization, have evaded a convincing answer.
In coming to grips with the issues around the evolution of the universe: the grand cosmos, the author examines not only the whole range of creation theories: both religious and philosophical, but also the Big Bang, its rival theories and modified versions, together with all the recent advances in anthropology, astrophysics, cosmology, Darwinism’s, molecular, biology genetics, embryology, morphogenesis, neurobiology, and even computer science, concluding showing that the universe has been created, it has creator , and the presently expanding universe will contract by a reverse process to be finally dissolved in the power of Brahman, Professor Panda’s insightful analyses corroborate the Vedantic worldview of the cyclic phenomenon of the origin, sustenance and dissolution of the universe.
Offering an original, well-integrated thesis on the baffling cosmic evolution, the book is bound to fascinate scholars and discerning readers alike.
Nrusingh charan Panda is the 1929-born ‘scientist emeritus’- having retired from the Orissa University of Agriculture and technology Bhubaneswar, as professor and dean of the Veterinary Faculty. Notwithstanding his specialization in Nutritional Biochemistry-with M.Sc. and Ph.D degrees of the University of Missouri, columbio, USA, Dr. Panda is essentially a versatile personality, combining in him the endowments of scientist, a Sanskritist, a philosopher, a psychologist and a litterateur. And his achievements have been recognized, at different times, with a number of prestigious awards / honours, like the Membership of america’s Gamma sigma Delta Society, Orissa’s Gamma Sigma Delta Society, Orissa’s Sahitya Academy awars and Sarala Award.
Internationally reputed for his scientific interpretations of Vedic literature, professor Panda has also authored a number of widely acclaimed books like maya in Physics. The vibrating Universe, and Mind and Supermind (2 Vols) His is truly the integral, synthetic , holistic approach.
From the Early period of humankind till today, a puzzle has been persistently unsolved. Has the universe a beginning? Has it been created by a Creator? Or, alternatively, is the universe uncreated, Is it beginning less and endless, with, of course, continual changes?
All materialists, both ancient and modern, hold the view that the universe is eternal, with an infinite past and an infinite future. They dismiss the idea of Creator god. Agnosticism like that of Buddhism rejects the Idea of the creation of the universe. Even if somebody is not a materialist and is spiritual, he denies creation if he adhereses to atheism. Jainism belongs to this category. On the other hand, the ancient Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle believed in god; but their god is coeternal with the universe, without being a Creator. The yoga philosophy of India does recognize a god, but this god is special Purusa among infinite number of purusas ( sentient beings or spirits), both eastern and western adhering to realism and pluralism, bold the view that the universe is uncreated and eternal.
Some religions like Christianity declare that god has created the universe which traverses an infinite linear path after being created. Thus , their universe has a beginning but has an eternal future.
Science has maintained a position of atheism, or to better say, agnosticism. Until about the middle of the twentieth century, the notion of an eternal universe, uncreated without a beginning and without an end, was prevalent science. Some scientific theories and observations, made during the period between 1915 and 1950 however, laid foundation of new concept that the universe had a beginning in time, and, as fact, time and space also had a beginning. Thus, was born the Big Bang concept. In 1948 and afterwards, the Big Bang concept was counteracted by the teady-state theorists. But this steady-state theory was almost rejected in 1964 when Arno allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson confirmed the Big Bang by actually observing the 3.5k cosmic microwave background radiation the relic of the Big Bang explosion. Now it is an almost accepted fact that the universe began some 15 to 18 billion years ago.
Was the universe created? Has universe a Creator? Where from did the cosmic Egg appear? Who made it? For most scientists, these questions are not valid.
In the 1970s and afterwards, a number of scientists have been trying to evade or counteract the creation of the Cosmic Egg by any creator. Advocates of the chaos theory try to prove the appearance of the universe and its subsequent. Evolution through the mechanism of chaos Mathematical models have been frame to establish a self-created and models have been framed to establish a self-created and self-regulated universe. New theories have been generated in favour of vacuum fluctuation and inflationary scenario. The main ingredients in these theories are the vacuum (near nothing) origin of the universe and its chance creation.
The friedmannian models of the universe have three possibilities. The universe is expanding and will expand for ever, finally to thin out to a condition of almost nothing. Secondly, the recently expanding universe will expand for ever, but at a rate not as rapid as in the first model. In the third model, the matter density of the universe is enough to halt its expansion on a future date. Then the universe will start contracting. The rate of contraction will be accelerated, and finally the universe will squeeze itself to nothing.
Speculation has been made on the concept of an oscillating or pulsating universe. The cosmic egg exploded and subsequently a universe evolved in the phase of expansion. A Big Crunch will follow the Big Bang in the phase of contraction. When the universe finally comes to a point-like state in the Big Crunch, some miracle (not yet understood) would happen to reverse the phase, and, as a result, the point-universe would bounce back. Again, a of contraction. These phases would alternate and these cosmic processes would continue ad infinitum. The universe would recycle in an eternal future.
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