Our large scale excavations of the DK Area were begun on December 22nd,
1927; and throughout that season until March 9th, I. had the valuable assistance
of Mr. N. G. Majumdar, Assistant Superintendent of Archeology for Exploration, and of Mr. H. L. Srivastava, who was then a Scholar in the Department.
In the following season, operations were resumed on October 24th, 1928, and
. terminated on March 26th, 1929... Again for .a short time I had' the aid of
Mr. Majumdar, who eventually was deputed to work at Jhukar, some 16 miles
from Mohenjo-Daro, leaving Mr.' Srivastava with me and also Mr. C. R. Roy,
an anthropologist from Calcutta University, who remained throughout the
season. Mr. Srivastava again assisted me during the seasons 1929-30 and
1930-31. I have to thank these gentlemen cordially for the great help that they
afforded me;' their duties were many and onerous. Thanks are also due to
Mr. K: N. Puri, Excavation Assistant, and Mr. Devi Dayal Mathur for their
share in the work j" for the many line drawings in this book I am indebted to
the former. Mr. S. Mukerji, Mr. Nawab-ud-Din and Mr. Muhi-ud-Din are
responsible for, the plans, which they so ably prepared under many difficulties.
Mr. A. S. Hemmy, who comprehensively dealt with the weights in the
preceding book on this site, in the present book reviews the more recently found
weights from material supplied to him by me. I have again to thank Khan
Bahadur Muhammad Sana Ullah, Archaeological Chemist in India, for analyses
and much help and advice in the determination of materials, and also Dr. M. A.
Hamid for the careful cleaning and repair of the copper and other objects, for
ascertaining numerous weights, and for the chemical examination of many
Dr. L. Fermor, Director of the Geological Survey of India, has afforded me
great assistance in the identification of various rocks and minerals, and Lieut. Col. R. S. Sewell and Dr. B. Prashad of the Zoological Survey of India have
rendered invaluable help in the identification of zoological remains and shells.
Dr. B. S. Guha of the same department has again dealt with the skeletal material
in a chapter in this book.
I have especially to thank Professor C. H. Desch, F.R.S., and Dr. E. S. Carey
for the analyses of the copper and bronze and other metals appended to
the chapter on Silver, Copper, Bronze and Lead Utensils and Other Objects.
To Mr. Amarnath Gulati of the Cotton Technological Laboratory, Bombay
was entrusted the task of examining the textiles, and despite many difficulties
owing to the minute quantity and extreme fragility or the material that was
sent to him he has been able to identify most of the specimens. I cordially thank
the Director General of Archeology in India for his efforts in seeing this book
through the press. To my wife I am indebted for valuable help that she has
given me in reading through my manuscript and. correcting the proofs.
Labour.-The number of workers employed was at times as many as 600,
the majority of them inhabitants of the villages around, who returned home
at night or else made themselves booths of tamarisk and grass in the vicinity
of the excavations A number of Brahuis were also employed, who came from as
far off as Kalat. in Baluchistan. We found them to be exceptionally good workers
. and of stronger physique than the Sindhis. A -sprinkling of Baluchis proved
to be intermediate between the Sindhis and Brahuis in their powers of work.
System of Leveling.-In order that our deep digging might be satisfactorily
carried out, an extensive system of leveling was necessary... The levels. of every
building and of every well were therefore taken, especial attention being paid
to door-sills and pavements as being for purposes of stratification the most
important parts of a building... In addition, both' the locus and level of every
object found, whether it was regarded at the time as important or not, were noted
in order not only to correlate each object with the building in which it was found,
but also to facilitate the study of the development of art and technique. As
some thousands of objects were unearthed in the sections that we excavated,
it may be thought that this procedure was unnecessarily laborious. This, how-
ever, was not the case. The leveling instruments were set up early in the morning and remained in position all day; and it was quite a simple matter to take
the level of each object directly it appeared.
There are, however, limitations to the deductions to- be drawn from the
levels at which objects are found. For instance, if a jar or a Real lies either below
or at some distance above a pavement or door-sill, it is difficult to decide to what
period it belongs. We, therefore, adopted the rule that all objects found in or
near the foundations of a building be assigned to the period of that building
rather than to the previous phase, unless they actually rested on the remains of
a pavement of earlier date; for it is more than probable that they were dropped
or left behind when the foundations were being made. This rule proved to be
generally applicable, especially in the case of the better preserved houses, but
exceptions occurred, as I shall point out below.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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