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Books > Philosophy > Philosophers > In Search of Reality (A layman's journey through Indian Philosophy)
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In Search of Reality (A layman's journey through Indian Philosophy)
In Search of Reality (A layman's journey through Indian Philosophy)
Description
From the Jacket:

In Search of Reality makes a comparative analysis of the philosophical systems of the Upanisads, Advaita Vedanta and various schools of Buddhism in a comprehensive manner. It expounds the philosophical stand points of various Buddhist school and Advaita Vedanta of Gaudapada and Sankara.

About The Author:

O. N. Krishnan, an engineer by profession, is an avid student of Indian philosophy and is involved in the comparative studies of the Upanisads, Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism.

CONTENTS

List of Figuresxii
Forewordxiii
Prefacexvii
Acknowledgmentsxx
Abbreviationsxxi
Introduction

1
PART I
VEDIC IDEAS
CHAPTERS7
1.Vedic Ideas7
1. Polytheism in the Vedas7
2. Vedic Scriptures8
3. Sacrificial Rituals10
4. Varna Theory11
5. Vedic Philosophy12
6. Ultimate Goal

16
PART II
UPANISADS
2.Basic Ideas21
1. Rta at the Command of the Imperishable23
2. Supremacy of Brahman-Parable in the Kena Upanisad23
3. Divine Powers in the Universe and Individual Self 24
4. Supremacy of Prana and Prana as Prajnatma24
5. The Five Vital Breaths28
6. The Dual Principles and the One Brahman30
7. Interdependency of Cosmic Universe and Individual Self 31
8. Progressive Definition of Brahman35
9. Theories of Self(Atman)

39
3.Theories on Origination of the Universe51
1. Creation from Non-Being (Asat)52
2. Creation by God55
3. Brahman-Parinamavada61
4. From Gunas Arise the Universe

67
4.Karma and Rebirth73
1. Evolution of the Ideas in the Upanisads 73
2. What Constitute the Transmigrating Self?78
3. Underlying Principle Turning the Universe

79
5.Theories on Brahman81
1. Five Sheaths of Brahman (Taittinya Upanisad)81
2. Seven Levels of Reality (Katha Upanisad83
3. The Three States of Consciousness 89
4. Brahman of Four Quarters (Mandukya Upanisad)95
5. The Four Selves of Brahman (Paingala Upanisad)103
6. Comparison of the Ideas in Mandukya and Paingala109
7. The two Brahmans 111
8. The Radiant Supreme 113
9. Summary

115
6.Liberation (Life Eternal)117
1. Ultimate Goal117
2. Liberation in Samkhya Philosophy 121
3. Liberation in the Upanisads 123
4. Identification with Reality

129
7.Moral Preparation for Spiritual Life131
1. The Three Principal Virtues (B. U.)131
2. Duties to be Performed (T. U.) 132
3. Final Teaching to the Departing Students (T. U.) 133
4. Oneness of Self - (Isa and Kaivalya)

134
8.Path to Liberation (Life Eternal)135
1. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad135
2. Chandogya Upanisad 135
3. Katha Upanisad 136
4. Mundaka Upanisad 141
5. Maitri Upanisad 142
6. Paingala Upanisad (Chapter III & IV)145
7. Subala Upanisads146
8. Doctrine of Divine Grace

147
PART III
BUDDHISM
9.Early Buddhism151
1. The Buddha151
2. Buddhist Scriptures 162
3. The Four Noble Truths165
4. Meditative Practices 195
5. Theory of Anatta (No-Self)206
6. Theory of Kamma211
7. Nibbana

230
10.Abhidhamma243
1. The Theravada Abhidhamma244
2. The Sarvastivada (Realist School)246
3. Sautrantika

255
11.Prajnaparamita257
1. Revival of Anatman Teaching257
2. Prajnaparamita Literatures258
3. Perfection of Wisdom (Prajna)259
4. Emptiness (Sunyata)259
5. Knowledge of the Five Skandhas in Perfect Wisdom 261
6. Form is Emptiness and Emptiness itself is Form263
7. Nirvana of No Fixed Adobe264
8. The Six Perfections (Paramitas)265
9. The Bodhisattva Ideal

270
12.Madhyamaka273
1. Madhyamaka Literature273
2. Emptiness of All Dharmas (Dharma-Nairatmya)273
3. Truly Empty Hence Unfathomable Existence275
4. Eight-fold Negation277
5. Dependent Origination is also the Middle-Path279
6. Dialectic of Nagarjuna281
7. Two Fold Truth283
8. Emptiness-Phychological Analysis286
9. Samsara and Nirvana are Identical

288
13.Yogacara289
1. Yogacara Literature290
2. Yogacara Classification of Dharmas291
3. Evolving of Consciousness (Vijnana-Pannama)293
4. Three-nature (Trisvabhava) Theory 295
5. Turning Around of the Basis (Asarya Paravrth)298
6. Three-Knowledges/Three-Truths299
7. Emptiness in Yogacara School301
8. Representation-Only (Vijnaptimatra)307
9. Suchness309
10. Cittamatra (Mind Only/Vijnanavada)

311
14.Selflessness of Buddhism Vs. Self of Upanisads313
1. Self Vs. Selflessness313
2. Isvara Vs. Dependent Origination

315
15.Parths and Stages of Bodhisattva319
1. Five Paths 319
2. Ten Stages (Bhumis) of Bodhisattva 320
3. Bodhisattva Model and Seven Purification in Hinayana326
4. How to Become a Buddha

328
PART IV
EARLY ADVAITA VEDANTA
16.Gaudapadiya-Karika335
1. Creation Theories Rejected336
2. Parinama Theories Refuted337
3. Mayamatra340
4. Analysis of Maya341
5. Proof of Unreality-Equality of Walking and Dream States344
6. No Objective Reference348
7. Duality is Vibration of Consciousness 349
8. Atman is Like Space351
9. Atman, The Non-Dual Self352
10. Ajativada (Doctrine of Non-Origination)355
11. Gk's Philosophy Compared with Buddhism357
12. Asparsa-Yoga367
13. Ultimate Goal

371
PART V
ADVAITA OF SANKARA
17.Advaita of Sankara375
1. Maya376
2. Ignorance and Transmigratory Existence378
3. Ignorance (Avidya) and Maya380
4. Maya and Sunyata381
5. Maya-Sakti (Isvara)386
6. Unreality of Transmigratory Existence389
7. Badha (Sublation)392
8. The Four States of Experience and the One Consciousness394
9. Atman (Brahman) - The Ultimate Reality396
10. Ethics

400
PART VI
ULTIMATE TRUTH
18.Ultimate Truth409
1. A Brief Review of the Philosophies409
2. Essencelessness / Emptiness414
3. PraxisThe Buddha417
4. Tathagatagarbha

419
Bibliography423
Index427

In Search of Reality (A layman's journey through Indian Philosophy)

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Edition:
2004
ISBN:
8120820126
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464
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From the Jacket:

In Search of Reality makes a comparative analysis of the philosophical systems of the Upanisads, Advaita Vedanta and various schools of Buddhism in a comprehensive manner. It expounds the philosophical stand points of various Buddhist school and Advaita Vedanta of Gaudapada and Sankara.

About The Author:

O. N. Krishnan, an engineer by profession, is an avid student of Indian philosophy and is involved in the comparative studies of the Upanisads, Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism.

CONTENTS

List of Figuresxii
Forewordxiii
Prefacexvii
Acknowledgmentsxx
Abbreviationsxxi
Introduction

1
PART I
VEDIC IDEAS
CHAPTERS7
1.Vedic Ideas7
1. Polytheism in the Vedas7
2. Vedic Scriptures8
3. Sacrificial Rituals10
4. Varna Theory11
5. Vedic Philosophy12
6. Ultimate Goal

16
PART II
UPANISADS
2.Basic Ideas21
1. Rta at the Command of the Imperishable23
2. Supremacy of Brahman-Parable in the Kena Upanisad23
3. Divine Powers in the Universe and Individual Self 24
4. Supremacy of Prana and Prana as Prajnatma24
5. The Five Vital Breaths28
6. The Dual Principles and the One Brahman30
7. Interdependency of Cosmic Universe and Individual Self 31
8. Progressive Definition of Brahman35
9. Theories of Self(Atman)

39
3.Theories on Origination of the Universe51
1. Creation from Non-Being (Asat)52
2. Creation by God55
3. Brahman-Parinamavada61
4. From Gunas Arise the Universe

67
4.Karma and Rebirth73
1. Evolution of the Ideas in the Upanisads 73
2. What Constitute the Transmigrating Self?78
3. Underlying Principle Turning the Universe

79
5.Theories on Brahman81
1. Five Sheaths of Brahman (Taittinya Upanisad)81
2. Seven Levels of Reality (Katha Upanisad83
3. The Three States of Consciousness 89
4. Brahman of Four Quarters (Mandukya Upanisad)95
5. The Four Selves of Brahman (Paingala Upanisad)103
6. Comparison of the Ideas in Mandukya and Paingala109
7. The two Brahmans 111
8. The Radiant Supreme 113
9. Summary

115
6.Liberation (Life Eternal)117
1. Ultimate Goal117
2. Liberation in Samkhya Philosophy 121
3. Liberation in the Upanisads 123
4. Identification with Reality

129
7.Moral Preparation for Spiritual Life131
1. The Three Principal Virtues (B. U.)131
2. Duties to be Performed (T. U.) 132
3. Final Teaching to the Departing Students (T. U.) 133
4. Oneness of Self - (Isa and Kaivalya)

134
8.Path to Liberation (Life Eternal)135
1. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad135
2. Chandogya Upanisad 135
3. Katha Upanisad 136
4. Mundaka Upanisad 141
5. Maitri Upanisad 142
6. Paingala Upanisad (Chapter III & IV)145
7. Subala Upanisads146
8. Doctrine of Divine Grace

147
PART III
BUDDHISM
9.Early Buddhism151
1. The Buddha151
2. Buddhist Scriptures 162
3. The Four Noble Truths165
4. Meditative Practices 195
5. Theory of Anatta (No-Self)206
6. Theory of Kamma211
7. Nibbana

230
10.Abhidhamma243
1. The Theravada Abhidhamma244
2. The Sarvastivada (Realist School)246
3. Sautrantika

255
11.Prajnaparamita257
1. Revival of Anatman Teaching257
2. Prajnaparamita Literatures258
3. Perfection of Wisdom (Prajna)259
4. Emptiness (Sunyata)259
5. Knowledge of the Five Skandhas in Perfect Wisdom 261
6. Form is Emptiness and Emptiness itself is Form263
7. Nirvana of No Fixed Adobe264
8. The Six Perfections (Paramitas)265
9. The Bodhisattva Ideal

270
12.Madhyamaka273
1. Madhyamaka Literature273
2. Emptiness of All Dharmas (Dharma-Nairatmya)273
3. Truly Empty Hence Unfathomable Existence275
4. Eight-fold Negation277
5. Dependent Origination is also the Middle-Path279
6. Dialectic of Nagarjuna281
7. Two Fold Truth283
8. Emptiness-Phychological Analysis286
9. Samsara and Nirvana are Identical

288
13.Yogacara289
1. Yogacara Literature290
2. Yogacara Classification of Dharmas291
3. Evolving of Consciousness (Vijnana-Pannama)293
4. Three-nature (Trisvabhava) Theory 295
5. Turning Around of the Basis (Asarya Paravrth)298
6. Three-Knowledges/Three-Truths299
7. Emptiness in Yogacara School301
8. Representation-Only (Vijnaptimatra)307
9. Suchness309
10. Cittamatra (Mind Only/Vijnanavada)

311
14.Selflessness of Buddhism Vs. Self of Upanisads313
1. Self Vs. Selflessness313
2. Isvara Vs. Dependent Origination

315
15.Parths and Stages of Bodhisattva319
1. Five Paths 319
2. Ten Stages (Bhumis) of Bodhisattva 320
3. Bodhisattva Model and Seven Purification in Hinayana326
4. How to Become a Buddha

328
PART IV
EARLY ADVAITA VEDANTA
16.Gaudapadiya-Karika335
1. Creation Theories Rejected336
2. Parinama Theories Refuted337
3. Mayamatra340
4. Analysis of Maya341
5. Proof of Unreality-Equality of Walking and Dream States344
6. No Objective Reference348
7. Duality is Vibration of Consciousness 349
8. Atman is Like Space351
9. Atman, The Non-Dual Self352
10. Ajativada (Doctrine of Non-Origination)355
11. Gk's Philosophy Compared with Buddhism357
12. Asparsa-Yoga367
13. Ultimate Goal

371
PART V
ADVAITA OF SANKARA
17.Advaita of Sankara375
1. Maya376
2. Ignorance and Transmigratory Existence378
3. Ignorance (Avidya) and Maya380
4. Maya and Sunyata381
5. Maya-Sakti (Isvara)386
6. Unreality of Transmigratory Existence389
7. Badha (Sublation)392
8. The Four States of Experience and the One Consciousness394
9. Atman (Brahman) - The Ultimate Reality396
10. Ethics

400
PART VI
ULTIMATE TRUTH
18.Ultimate Truth409
1. A Brief Review of the Philosophies409
2. Essencelessness / Emptiness414
3. PraxisThe Buddha417
4. Tathagatagarbha

419
Bibliography423
Index427

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