Indian Medicine

Indian Medicine

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Item Code: NAD733
Author: Julius Jolly&C.G.Kashikar
Publisher: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Edition: 2012
ISBN: 9788121502689
Pages: 221
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 10.0 inch X 6.5 inch
Weight 500 gm
About the Book

The present work aims at an orderly, and at the same time historical treatment of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is an English rendering of Julius Jolly's Medizin in German originally published in 190 I, and supplemented by the translator with bibliography and notes covering the literary activity in the field during the next fifty years. It deals with sources, Physicians and Therapy, Theoretical conceptions, Theory of Development and Gynaecology, Internal and External Diseases, Diseases of the Head, Nervous and Mental Diseases and Toxicology.

The book is a model of critical research condensed with the utmost brevity of words without omitting any important detail offact or text bearing on the history of Indian Medicine. A historical approach as has been made in writing this book is a dire necessity for Ayurvedic research work-both literary and practical. The history of Ayurveda indeed claims a better position in the general history of Medicine. The conceptions of the Physicians of ancient India have played a great role in the general culture of India and have entered in many Philosophical doctrines as the basic elements. The Indian Medicine has played in Asia the same role as the Greek Medicine in the West. It has spread in Indo-China, Indonesia, Tibet, Central Asia and Japan exactly as the Greek Medicine have done in Europe and the Arab countries. It was studied by the Greeks, the Arabs, the Portuguese and the Dutch, and in the nineteenth century it secured a place in the scientific literature of Europe. Thus the study of Indian Medicine has taken its place in the classical Science. Through the progress of historical studies it has become possibleto consider with greater precision the correspondence ofIndian Medicine with those of Greek, Iran, Islam and China. Pharmacological value of Ayurvedic drugs has also been fixed. On this background the study ofIndian Medicine presented in this book will be profitable for a deeper understanding of the history of Medicine in general and of Indian Medicine in particular.


About the Author

Dr Julius Jolly (Wurzberg)-the author of the original German book Medizin was one of the great German Orientalists who continued their literary research during the closing years of the nineteenth and the beginning years of the twentieth century’s. Besides the history of Indian Medicine, he had specialised in Kautilya's Arthasastra and Hindu Law and Custom.

Dr Chintamani Ganesh Kashikar did his DLitt in Sanskrit University of Poona. He was a Vedic scholar. As an author often books and over fifty research papers are to his credit.


Preface to the Second Edition

The first edition of Indian Medicine was published by me at Poona in 1951. It has been completely sold out and I am glad that a second edition is being published for the benefit of students of Ayurveda and the history of Indian Culture.

Since India became a free nation in 1947; the Science of Ayurveda received recognition all over India. Qualified Ayurvedic Physicians have been and are being registered as medical practitioners. Ayurvedic Colleges have been founded where theoretical and practical training is being imparted to students. A number of medical hospitals have been established where patients are being treated according to the Ayurvedic Science and practical lessons are being given to students. Ayurvedic manuscripts are being published, and books on Ayurvedic Subjects and Ayurvedic text- books have also been published in different languages. Research work in theory and practice of Ayurveda is being conducted to some extent. Thus Ayurvedic studies pave received a new impetus.

Attempts are, however, not restricted to mere revival of Ayurveda. Thought is being given in some quarters to evolve a national Medicine of India. If this dream of Indian Medical. Thinkers has to be realised in days to come, Ayurveda will have to play a prominent role in the efforts therefor. It may be necessary to apply a modern Scientific test to the theory and practice of Ayurveda. A study of Ayurveda in the historical perspective would have to be undertaken for that purpose. Books like the present one form an important source of developing the scientific outlook which would ultimately lead to that goal. The present position of Ayurvedic Science demands that the training to be imparted to students of Ayurveda be historically oriented as far as possible. The present book is expected to serve that purpose in its own way.

I thank Messrs Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., for having undertaken the publication of this second edition of the book.



The works on the general history of Medicine do not give sufficient space to the Indian medicine. The latter is, however, important under two heads: The conceptions of the physicians of ancient India, like those of the astronomers and specialists in different sciences, have played a great role in the general culture of India and have entered in many philosophical doctrines as the basic elements. The theory of the Pranas and the psycho-physiological ideas of the Ayurveda have spread everywhere; the conceptions of logic in the Caraka Samhita are among the most ancient of the Nyayadarsana. Besides, the Indian Medicine has played in Asia the same role as the Greek. Medicine in the west, for it has spread in Indo-China, Indonesia. Tibet. Central Asia and as far as Japan exactly as the Greek Medicine has done in Europe and the Arab countries. It is, therefore, one of the great domains of study for the history of thought in India as well as in the world. The importance of the Indian Medicine had already been realised by the Greeks of Alexander. Several of its texts have been translated into Arabic since the first cultural contacts of the Muslims with India. In the middle of the sixteenth century its most precious drugs have been studied by the Portuguese Garcia-da-orta. In the seventeenth century its interest had been recognised in Java by the Dutch Bontius. But it is chiefly at the end of the nineteenth century that it had been studied by H. H. Wilson from the Sanskrit documents and by Csoma-da-Koros from the Tibetan version of the large-sized treatise the Sanskrit text of which has unfortunately been lost. Now it is more than a century that the first translation of Susruta was published in Latin by Hessler. The knowledge of numerous authors and Ayurvedic works has been placed at- the disposal of the medical public in France by the numerous articles of Lietard in the encyclopedic Dictionary of Medical Sciences numbering a hundred volumes of the state of Medicine and its history, in the second half of the nineteenth century (1864-1889). Thus, the study of the Indian Medicine came out of the province of the specialists in order to take its place in the classical science which even though secured, ought to be still greater.

Two works which describe in great details the ideas contained in the principal Sanskrit treatises, chiefly thus that relate to the pathology and nomenclature of the diseases have been consecrated to it; they are:-(l) commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine by Th. A. Wise (Calcutta, 1845) and (2) Medicine (in German) by J. Jolly, in the Encyclopaedia of Indo-Aryan Research of Buhler and Kielhorn. The first has to its credit two editions (1860 and 1900). The second deserves to-day, at the fiftieth anniversary of its publication (1901), an English translation which would secure for it a greater utilisation.

Since that time some important and new sources in the Tibetan versions have been discovered and studied notably by P. Cordier. The Tamil sources, unjustly neglected for a very long time, have been utili sed by Dr. Paramananda Mariadasson. A portion of the Mongol version of the same Tibetan translation of a Sanskrit treatise which had been formerly used by Csoma has been published with a Russian translation by Pozdneev. The place of the doctrines of the Medical schools in Indian philosophy has been noted by Dr. S. N. Dasgupta. Thanks to the progress in historical studies, it is possible hereafter to consider with greater precision than heretofore, the problems of the correspondences of the Indian Medicine with those of Greece, Iran, Islam and China. Besides, the therapeutics has been studied and the pharmacological value of the old Ayurvedic drugs has been fixed. But it will be profitable to consider the results already obtained half a century ago when Jolly brought them together.


An Appreciation

We owe a great debt to the German Indologists for their incessant study of Indian literary and cultural history on strictly scientific lines for more than a century. In every branch of Indology we have to refer frequently to the solid work done by these great pioneers of Indological research. Among these pioneers the name of Dr. JolIy stands foremost in the field of the history of Indian Medicine on account of his monumental volume on "Medizin" in the Encyclopaedia of Indo-Aryan Research published fifty years ago. This volume is a model of critical research condensed with the utmost brevity of words without omitting any important detail of fact or text bearing on the history of Indian Medicine. It is a pity that such an important book, the study of which is so vital to the history of the Ayurveda, should remain without any translation in English or any modern Indian language in this Bharatavarsa-the home of the Ayurveda.

During the course of my study of the history and chronology of Indian medical literature and allied subjects like the history of Indian plants of medical and nutritive value, I have had occasion to consult Dr. JoIly's Medizin but was much handicapped in my efforts to study it closely in the absence of an English translation. I, therefore, received with alacrity the idea of preparing an English translation of Dr. Jolly's book entertained by my esteemed friend Shri C. G. Kashikar some years ago. It is highly creditable to Shri Kashikar that he should succeed in translating Dr. Jolly's book into English after years of labour in spite of his arduous work on the edition of the Rgveda and other Vedic texts, which have taken much of his time and energy. I feel confident that Shri Kashikar's English translation of Dr. Jolly's book prepared with scholarly care and zeal will be thank- fully received by all teachers and students of the Ayurveda not only in India but also in other countries where Indian literature and culture are studied with respect. The bibliographical Notes added to this translation prepared by Shri Kashikar enhance the value of the translation as they take note of all important books and articles on Indian Medicine published during the last fifty years. The reference value of the present translation with the appendices added by Shri Kashikar is very great not only to all lovers of the Ayurveda but to every research worker in the field of Indian Culture and Medicine. I congratulate Shri Kashik ar heartily upon the successful execution of a difficult task with the utmost regard for literary veracity and scholarly precision.




  Abbreviations IX
  System of Transliteration XIII
  Preface to the Second Edition XV
  Foreword by Dr. J. Filliozat XVII
  An Appreciation by Prof. P.K. Gode XIX
  Preface by the Translator XXI
  Chapter 1: Sources 1
1 Modern Works 1
2 16th to 18th Century 2
3 The Later Middle Age 4
4 Vatigasena and Cakradatta 6
5 Siddhayoga and Madhavanidana 8
6 Vagbhata 9
7 Atreya-Harlta 11
8 Susruta 11
9 Caraka 13
10 Origin of Ayurveda 15
11 Medical Glossaries 16
12 Veterinary Science 17
13 The Central-Asiatic MSS 18
14 Buddhistic Works 19
15 Vedic Medicine 19
16 External Relations 21
17 Bibliography 23
  Chapter 2: Physicians And Therapy 25
18 Training of Physicians 25
19 Position and Practice of Physicians 26
20 Diagnosis 27
21 Prognosis 28
22 Healing Substances 30
23 Properties of Medicines 31
24 Curing Methods 32
25 Form and Quantity of Medicine 35
26 Mercury and Opium 36
27 Surgical Operations 37
28 Surgical Instruments 39
29 Cauterisation and Branding 41
30 Blood-letting 42
31 Diet 44
32 Hygienic Directions 45
  Chapter 3: Theoretical Conceptions 49
33 The Tridosas 49
34 The Seven Basic Elements 51
35 Anatomy 52
36 Dissection 55
37 Philosophy and Cosmology 56
38 Pathology 57
  Chapter 4 Theory of Development And Gynaecology 61
39 Menstruation and Conception 61
40 Pregnancy 63
41 Obstetrics and Care of the Confined Woman 66
42 Embryology 68
43 Care of the New-born 71
44 The Wet-nurse 73
45 Abortion 75
46 Treatment of Abortion 77
47 Obstructed Delivery 78
48 Treatment of Obstructed Delivery 80
49 Women's Diseases and their Treatment 81
  Chapter 5: Internal Diseases And Their Treatment 84
50 Children's Diseases 84
51 Fever 86
52 Diarrhoea, Dysentary and Cholera 90
53 Additional Diseases of Digestion 93
54 Swelling of Abdomen 96
55 Worm-diseases 99
56 Diabetes 100
57 Urinary Stone 102
58 Strangury and Retention of Urine 103
59 Chlorosis and Jaundice 104
60 Haemorrhage 105
61 Consumption and Tuberculosis 106
62 Cough, Asthma and Hiccup 107
63 Heart-diseases 109
64 Diseases of Larynx 110
65 Thirst and Burning, Fatness and Thinness 110
  Chapter 6: External Diseases 113
66 Small-pox 113
67 Minor Diseases [ksudra roga] 116
68 Leprosy and allied Skin-diseases 117
69 Inflammations and Tumours 120
70 St. Anthony's Fire, Boils, Nettle-rash, Measles 122
71 External and.Internal Abscesses 123
72 Growths, Tumours, Scrofulous Tuinours, Goitre 124
73 Elephantiasis 125
74 Swollen Testicles, Hernia, Hydrocele 126
75 Other Diseases of the Male Organ 128
76 Haemorrhoids 129
77 Fistula 131
78 Ulcers 132
79 Traumas 133
80 Bone-fractures and Dislocations 134
81 Foreign Bodies 134
  Chapter 7: Diseases of The Head 136
82 Eye-diseases 136
83 Treatment of Eye-diseases 138
84 Ear-diseases 139
85 Otoplasty, Rhinoplasty, Cheiloplasty 139
86 Nasal Diseases 140
87 Mouth-diseases 141
88 Head-diseases 142
  Chapter 8: Nervous And Mental Diseases, Toxicology 144
89 Diseases of Vata (vatavyadi) 144
90 Rheumatism 145
91 Faint, Giddiness and Apoplexy 145
92 Intoxication ana Delirium tremens 146
93 Epilepsy 146
94 Madness and Possession 147
95 Poisons and Antidotes 148
  Addenda 151
  Supplementary notes by the translator 152
  Sanskrit Index 171
  General Index 189

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