India has a huge depository of literature on interstate relations from the Vedic period. The Vedas, Mahabharata, Kautilya's Arthasastra, Manusmrti, Kamandaka Nitisära, Mänasollasa, a few Puranas, commentaries of Medhätithi, Govindaraja, Narayana and Kallaka on the Manusmrti, all deal extensively with the concept of interstate relations. In deciphering the nuances of rajanīti, the concept of mandala and its constituents played a pivotal role. Though concepts, contexts, methods of warfare and the constitution of mandala have changed drastically during the period under discussion from those of the ancient period, there is still a lot of similarity in the framework of the functioning of interstate relations.
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