It also examines and develops its own structure and procedures,
and when it does so is called met philosophy: the philosophy
The nineteenth century, which began with high
philosophical inspirations, has turned decidedly toward natural
science; the description of the universe by dissolving it into
atomistic elements, and the explanation of it by natural laws
without regard for the meaning and value of the world, has
been the scientific goal. But this movement toward naturalistic
dissolution has also gone through several phases. It started
with the rapid development of physics and chemistry, which
brought as a practical result the wonderful gifts of technique.
From the inorganic world scientific interest turned toward the
organic world. For a few decades, physiology, the science of the
living organism, enjoyed an almost unsurpassed development,
and brought as its practical outcome modem medicine.
If the physical and the chemical, the physiological and the
biological world, in short the whole world of outer experience,
is atomized and explained, there remains only the world of
inner experience, the world of the conscious personality, to be
brought under the views of natural science.
As the earlier stages of naturalistic interests, the rush
toward physics, physiology, biology, were each, as we have
seen, of characteristic influence on the practical questions of
real life, it is a matter of course that this highest and most
radical type of naturalistic thinking, the naturalistic dissolution
of mental life, must stir up and even revolutionize the whole
practical world. From the nursery to the university, from the
hospital to the court of justice, from the theatre to the church,
from the parlor to the parliament, the new influence of
psychology on the real daily life is felt in this country as in
Europe, producing new hopes and new fears, new schemes and
The major topics dealt in this book are : Introduction to
Philosophy; Psychology and Life; Thinking and Philosophy; The Law
of Habit; Relation between Feeling and the Idea; Nature of Wants,
Interests and Motives; Moral Control; Association of Ideas; Formal
Feeling; Emotions and Expression; Intellectual Feelings; Psychology
and History; The Change in Character; Psychological Law of fontanel;
Behavior of Imitation; Facilitation and Inhibition; Public Discussion on
Psychoanalysis; Will and Ideals; etc.
No doubt, these will serve the purpose of trainees and
trainers, professionals and policy planners in the field. Since
the sources of information are all secondary, we express our
gratitude to the scholars whose works are cited or substantially
made use of. We are thankful to all those who rendered ready
help and 'cooperation while working On this project.
It spans the nature of the universe, the mind, and the body;
the relationships between all three, and between people.
. Philosophy is a field of inquiry - the pursuit of wisdom; the
predecessor and complement of science, developing the issues
which underlie science and pondering those questions which
are beyond the scope of science.
The essence of philosophy is the study and development
of fundamental ideas and methods that are not adequately
addressed in specialized empirical disciplines, such as physics
or history. As such, philosophy provides the foundations
upon which all belief structures and fields of knowledge are
built. It is responsible for the definitions of, and the approaches
used to develop the theories of, such diverse fields as religion,
language, science, law, psychology, mathematics, and politics.
It also examines and develops its own structure and
procedures, and when it does so is called meta philosophy: the
philosophy of philosophy.
Philosophy has a rich literary heritage, including the
writings and teachings of profound thinkers from many
cultures throughout history. Philosophers seek to understand
the principles that underlie all knowledge and being. For this
purpose, they develop methods of thinking, including logic,
introspection, and meditation. Applying these methods, they
investigate the most fundamental questions, such as "What isthe nature of the universe?" (metaphysics), "What do we
know, and how do we know it?" (epistemology), "What is the
difference between good and evil?" (ethics), "What is beauty?"
(aesthetics), and "What is the meaning of life?" (teleology).
Philosophical Perspectives & Traditions
'Philosophy' translates literally from the original Greek
as 'love of wisdom'. 'What is philosophy', is Itself a
philosophical question. This is a clue to the nature of
philosophy. It is very general in scope; so general that it,
perhaps uniquely among the disciplines, includes itself in its
scope. What is clear is that philosophy is, in some sense,
thinking about thinking.
In the analytic tradition of Europe and its subsequent
transplanting to the Americas, philosophy has reinvented
itself with a new set of techniques that would be out of place
in the world of the ancient Greeks, where philosophy started.
It centers on logic and conceptua1.analysis. Topics at its centre
include the theory of knowledge, ethics, the nature of language,
and the nature of mind.
Earlier traditions of philosophy placed more emphasis
on the study of the arts and science of life: a general theory
and a commendation of way of life. In this sense, philosophy
is concerned with the practical bits of how to live rather than
a theoretical attempt to understand. This legacy was derived
from some of the earliest philosophers known to us: the
Sophists, who were the teachers of rhetoric, grammar and
science of the ancient world. Though somewhat akin to sages
these Sophists played an important role in the development of
In the subsequent analytic tradition that developed after
the Sophists, philosophy became a subject you could pursue
for purely abstract and metaphysical reasons.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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