has been understood from diverse perspectives, not only by people, but by
social scientists, its practitioners and planners. The practical development
has also undergone changes over the centuries as several dimensions have been
added while several old ones continue to influence form and direction. In the
introductory Block of the third core course, Socio of Development (MSO-Q03), we have provided a clarification
of va' perspectives on development and related concepts. While studying this (
you will have to come across several concepts repeatedly viz., develop; change,
transformation, progress, growth, evolution, modernisation industrialisation
and so on. Block 1, Concepts of Development contexts the use of these concepts
both in general and specific terms. There are interrelated units in this Block.
Development and Progress: Economic and Social Dimension Development deals with
notions of development, progress and evaluation from anthropological and
sociological perspectives. The evolutionary persp on change and progress as
propagated by Morgan, Comte, Spencer, Hobhouse Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Parsons
and many others are discussed here. Then and social aspects of development as
elucidated by the United Nation Development Programmes are also elaborated
here. Amartya Sen's id development as freedom is also presented here briefly.
The last section unit deals with the emerging strategy of development with
Unit 2 is
on Change, Modernisation and Development. In this Unit, best conceptualising
change, various perspectives on change as elaborated by Evolutionary
Theorists, Functionalists, Socio-Psychological Theorists, Marx and
others are discussed. Similarly there are several important perspective
modernisation viz, ideal-typical, diffusionist, psychological, Marxists and
Besides discussing these perspectives their strengths and weaknesses are also
discussed here. The concept of development, conditions and barriers development
and a few developmental experiences are discussed in the section of this unit.
deals with Social, Human and Gender Development. Development, longer be defined
in economic terms. It has a social and human face. Any attempt to ignore these
facets has severe social consequence. This aspect of development is examined with reference to the gender question.
Besides outlining objectives of development, this unit also delineates the
adverse impacts development on women. The last section of this unit deals with
the emerging perspectives on women's development.
Unit 4 is
on Sustainable Development. A development process is futile until and unless
this is sustained. This unit deals with the historical context of the emergence
of the notion of sustainable development. The idea of sustainable development
has a specific definition, meaning, policy objectives and strategies. All these
are discussed in this unit. Of late, however there have been several criticisms
of the concept of sustainable development. These highlight the logical
contradiction and vagueness in-built in this concept. Here you will get
enormous scope to re-examine this concept from your own understanding. The
future of sustainable development in the context of globalisation is also
discussed in this unit.
of Block II is Perspectives on Development. Having acquired a basic
understanding of the concept of development from the previous block, we explore different
perspectives from which development may be studied. More specifically, this
block centres on Modernisation, Liberal, Marxian" and Gandhian
explains how Modernisation, which is inextricably linked with rationality,
serves as a heuristic paradigm. The chief concern here is with Giddens's
analysis of modernity and its bearing on development. Giddens shares many of
his theoretical bearings with contemporary sociological thinkers. We bring them
together in this unit with the purpose of encouraging you to think critically.
Unit 6 describes
the Liberal perspective on development. Liberalism was born out of
Enlightenment- the glorious revolution in England, and the, French Revolution.
In very simple terms, liberalism upholds the rationality of individuals. In
this unit we will study liberalism as an ideology and the many converging
streams it enfolds. We will look into the role of the state in a liberal
economy and the play of market forces.
Unit 7 focuses
on the Marxian perspective on development. The end of the 16th century witnessed a well-established factory system.
This had far-reaching impact on society in terms of exploitation of workers by
capitalists, rise of two major classes, and class struggles. Against this
backdrop, unit 7 brings to you Marx's ideas of development, capitalism,
class relations, and course of action. From here, we move on to the neo-marxian
approach to development.
Unit 8 delves
into the Gandhian perspective on development. Gandhi accorded importance to
labour in the production process. He focused on indigenous technology, local
self-governance and self-reliance for social and economic development. For him,
decentralising power, empowering local people, and strengthening the village
economy were crucial to meaningful development. In the present unit we throw
light on these aspects.
III, which is on the Critics of Development, you will familiarise yourself with
different critics and debates that have emerged in the development discourse.
While units of block III presents critics of development as our main critiques,
we must mention that these are not the only critiques of development. There
have been some serious debates on the sustainability of development' and
people's participations, to mention just a few, which form a corpus of debates
that are ongoing in development studies. You will gather this as you continue
to explore and understand the Course on development.
deals with Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment, which is a critique of Western
oriented development theories. In this unit we will be discussing the main
features of a set of arguments called dependency theories. We will also be
examining the policy implications of the dependency theory. There are some who
argue that dependency theories have become outdated as economic practices have
changed since the time scholars have come up with these theories. There are
others who see a relevance to these theories, especially in the wake of an
interconnected global world.
deals with Social and Human Development. In this unit we will be discussing the
main features of some of the growth-oriented models of development and its
criticisms, as a backdrop to understand how the more holistic, and social
conception of human development has emerged. We start by understanding human
development, by understanding its main features and the measures of human
development and the problems associated with measuring indicators, especially
complex indicators and elements such as freedom, political participation,
multiculturalism, etc. Though human development approach has found many takers,
it is not without its criticisms. We tried to cortically evaluate this approach
deals with Gender Perspective on Development. The gender perspective has
somehow or other been always a part of debates on development but it took a
while for it to be acknowledged. The decade of women prompted a lot of thinking
and valuable inputs into the development' discourse. We tried to capture these
debates in our unit. We also presented in detail the development situation in
India with reference to women.
several approaches and concerns to development. Community level participation
and sustainability of development, environmental sustainability, etc. are some
of them which have been seriously debated in the present day development
discourse. In this block we have discussed some of these approaches and
concerns specially from the point of view of a developing country like India.
There are four interrelated units in this block.
is on Micro-Planning. Of late there have been several criticisms of centerlised
planning as it was unable to address the needs and requirements of people with
diverse geographical, cultural and economic backgrounds. The planning process
in India has encouraged micro-planning at the grassroots. In this unit we have
discussed some of these practices as initiated in several parts of the country.
This unit will enlighten you with the concepts, objectives, backgrounds, approaches
and strategies of micro-planning in India. The process of advancement of
primary education through micro-planning has also been discussed here.
deals with Ecology, Environment and Development. Sustainable development has
been one of the greatest concern of contemporary era. Ecological balance plays
a crucial role to sustainable development. In this unit we have discussed the
relationship between ecology and sustainable development, consequences of
development on ecology and environment, ecology movement, global concern on
ecological and environment issues and strategies of management of natural
discusses the issue of Ethno development. Conventional development theories
have ignored the significance ethnological issues on development. In recent
years however, it has got wide recognition locally and globally. In this unit
we have discussed this emerging concern in the' development theories, emergence
of alternative approaches and methodology of ethno development.
Unit 15 is
on the relationship between Population and Development. Since the late 1980s it
has been widely recognised that population is at the center of development. In
this unit we
have discussed various perspective on population and
development, politics of population control and India's experience on these
know, Book II of the third core course, MSO-003: Sociology of Development of M.A. Sociology Programme is a
continuation of Book I of the same course. Whereas Book I focuses on the concepts
and different approaches to development, Book 1I examines the features of
current process of development around the world, contextualising it in the
development experiences of India and other countries around the globe. The
theme of Book 11 has been organised into four Blocks, each having three to four
units, which are coherently related to each other. Now let us have a look at
the themes and sub-themes of each Block in a little more detail.
Block V, Comparative Experience of Development, looks
into the development experiences of four countries, which are India, Canada,
Zimbabwe and Brazil. Developing and developed countries from different continents were
deliberately selected for the learners to get familiarised. with all-round
development experience. The countries differ from each other not only in terms
of economic development and geographical location but also in social and
cultural aspects. One thing common to all these countries is their colonial
past. The development experience of these countries has been examined in
relation to their development approaches and also against the backdrop of the
current phase of globalisation that engulfs almost all parts of the world. It
is very often reflected that the development experience of each of these
countries somewhat representative of the development experience of most of the
other countries of the respective continents that they belong to. However, our
aim is not to make explicit the uniformity but to delineate the diverse
examines the development experience of India.
Like many other countries India also opted for planned development after
getting independence form British rule. Indian government believed that
government intervention is required for a balanced development of the country
especially after a stagnated growth in the decades before independence. The
policy of mixed economy stressing both agricultural and industrial development
proved to be apt in the initial decades after Independence. But in the late
1980s and early 1990s there was a drastic change in the development policies
when India adopted the policies of economic liberalisation and privatisation.
The focus of planned economic development and the impact of globalisation,
liberalisation and privatisation policies. on the economy and social and
cultural life of the people of India are elaborated in this unit.
deals with Canada, a country
that ranks fourth in the world in standard of living and also in terms of GDP
growth and achievement in human development indicators. The present unit
exposes you to a brief background of Canada and the major economic activities
of different regions of Canada. It looks into the economic history of Canada,
which shows a clear shift in the economic approaches of Canada and her
commitment for regional unity in trade affairs. Presently Canada has an open
economy integrated to the world economy with a heavy orientation towards free
market economies. Even while Canada showed trade openness there had been attempts
in the country from certain quarters for an economic nationalism. These points
are also discussed in the unit. Along with the discussion on economic
development of the country the unit also focuses on the social indicators of
the development of the country.
on Zimbabwe discusses the
socio-economic background of the country of Zimbabwe, which though a developing
country in terms of world standards, is one of the most economically developed
in the African continent. Zimbabwe's economic system is one indicative of a
transitional country making the transition from dependency and underdevelopment
to self-reliant industrialisation. In this unit a comparison of various
Southern African regions has been made to understand Zimbabwe within the region's
perspective. It also discusses the social, political and economic scenario of
examines the development experience of Brazil. The historical appraisal of the Brazilian economy and its
progress to the present state has been done in this unit. The economic crisis
that Brazil went through and its recovery from the crisis are dealt with in the
unit. This unit also discusses the politics and the government of Brazil. The
environmental issues and the social challenges that the country faces are also
of Block VI is Globalisation, an ongoing
process that has been experienced, though in varying degrees, by almost every
country in the world since the end of the 20th century with
increased interconnectedness with the rest of the global countries in economic,
social, political, environmental and cultural terms. Globalisation as a process
of interaction and interconnectedness between different societies may not be a
new phenomena, but what is new about the current process of globalisation is
its accelerated pace and the contraction of time and space in
interconnectedness. It is essential to know more about the process of
globalisation to gain an understanding of the development experiences of all
societies around the world. All units in this Block deal with the concept and
various dimensions of the process of globalisation, and also its implications
for the economic, social and cultural arena of human progress in general, as
well as in the specific context of Indian society.
deals with the Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation. The process of. globalisation got an accelerated
momentum sometime around 1970s and early 1980s. Much of the literature on
globalisation started appearing around this period. This unit acquaints you
with the definition, meaning and the features of globalisation in different
contexts. The unit also provides you an exhaustive account of the economic,
social and cultural dimensions of the current process of globalisation.
is on the economic policies of Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme.
Liberalisation of national economies and the related
structural changes in the economy is a significant aspect of the current pace
of globalisation, since this is the process which increased the
interconnectedness 1 among the countries and thereby enhanced the process
of economic globalisation. This unit examines the liberalisation and structural
adjustment programme adopted by the Indian government. It explains to you what
is understood by the liberalisation of economy and structural adjustment
programme as well as the internal and the external compulsions under which
India adopted these policies. The implications of this policy for various
spheres t of Indian economy are dealt with in detail in the unit.
Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous
Knowledge is the theme of Unit 22.
This unit makes an attempt to analyse the issue of patents and indigenous a
knowledge within the backdrop of globalisation and the economic dimensions c
and implications of globalisation. The unit reviews some of the basic features
t of globalisation in terms of its free trade and liberalisation. It examines
the patents regime and its implications for indigenous people and their
exclusive B knowledge. It also investigates available strategies as well as
responses of the D poorer third
world countries and the indigenous communities to the various V aspects of
patent laws and philosophy.
of Unit 23 is WTO, GATT, GATS: Capital
and Human Flows. Global trade has increased manifold during the globalisation
period and countries world around felt the need of a trade regulatory body,
which culminated in the formation of World Trade Organisation in the year 1995. Although
there existed a multilateral agreement called General Agreement on Trade and
Tariff to control international trade even before the formation of WTO, it
never had an organisational form. WTO is the first world organisation in this
matter. WTO deals with trade in goods (GATT), services (GATS), intellectual
property rights (TRIPs) and terms for trade related investments (TRIMs). The
present unit elaborates on the circumstances of the origin of the world body,
WTO, the basic principles under which the organisation functions, the various
aspects it deals with and its implications for the developing countries,
specifically in relation to social sector development.
Information and Communication Technologies Form the theme of Block VII. The exponential
proliferation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is an
important factor that contributed to a large extent, in the expansion of the
globalisation process to the current level at a great speed. The invention of
microprocessor and the other corollary technological inventions and their
expansion and convergence resulted in the penetration of ICTs in all spheres of
human activities. To understand the current level of human progress it. is
essential to know more about the emergence of ICTs and their implications for
different aspects of human life.
which is on Dimensions of Knowledge Society: Access and Equity Issues deals
with meaning, features and basis of the emerging knowledge society. One of the
basic features of the current pace of globalisation is its primary importance
of ICTs and the emergence of ICT led knowledge society. Here knowledge becomes
a commodity and it become essential to possess knowledge to achieve success in
life and to accumulate wealth. The first half of the unit deals with the
meaning and features of knowledge society and its various aspects. Then it goes
on analysing the three basics of knowledge society, i.e. generation,
dissemination and deployment of knowledge, in terms of skill required for
knowledge generation; infrastructure for knowledge dissemination and employment
structure that relates to knowledge deployment.
Unit 25, Critique of Knowledge Society looks into the sociological criticisms in empirical
and theoretical terms of the concept of knowledge society. The knowledge
society is a concept that had been criticised conceptually, theoretically and
empirically. Although the unit deals with each of these criticisms, certain
theoretical and empirical criticisms are focused on.
is on Changing Role of Media, ICT on Employment.
The communication possibilities of the media gained
importance in the globalisation era. One of the focuses of this unit is on the
shift in the approaches and the functioning of mass media in present times and
its impact on the socio-cultural aspects of life. The emergence of new
communication technology, the Internet, and its interface with media are
analysed here. The convergence of information and communication technologies
and their impact on employment and the challenges for ICTs for ensuring better
economic growth is also investigated in this unit.
Development, Displacement and Social Movements is the theme of Block VIII. The mode of development followed
around the globe in the past few decades invited some popular actions due to
its negative impacts. Learning this is important to understand the current mode
of development in a balanced way.
Unit 27, Dam and Displacement deals with the
history of water management and the role of state and community. in water
management in general and in the Indian context. Although large dams are termed
as temples of human progress they often being untold miseries to very large
numbers of people. The modern dam displaces millions of people from their
habitats and submerge large tracts of forest. This unit looks into the Indian
experience with large dams and the issues of dam and displacement including
human, ecological economic, political and cultural aspects.
Unit 28 is
on Green peace Movement, which
emerged in early 1970s challenging the conventional development model prevalent in the
capitalist and consumerist world. It is an independent international
campaigning organisation, which uses non-violent, creative confrontation to
expose global environmental problems and force solutions for a green and
peaceful future. It takes different emphases m different places. This unit
deals with the emergence and growth of the movement, objectives of the
movement, major avenues of action of the movement. It also looks at the issues of
sustainable environment and environment-friendly job opportunities.
of Unit 29 is People's Science
Movement. This is a science-based social activism aimed at alleviating
mass poverty and unemployment and concomitant degradation of the human
condition. They urge for a more active role of the intellectual community in disseminating
knowledge for public good The unit elaborates the background for the emergence
of people's science movement, its main objectives and the diverse activities
carried out by the movement.
Unit 30, Civil Society Movements and Grass root
Initiatives largely discus the role of civil society organisation in the
upliftment of common people. The interface between civil society and social movements
has been widely discusser among the sociologists. Besides looking into the
meaning and dimensions civil society, the unit makes an attempt to analyse the
parameters of the interface between civil society and social movement. It also
examines the role of non-governmental organisations as civil society actors and
the role of civil society in empowering the marginalised.
Concepts of Development
Development and Progress: Economic and Social Dimensions
Change, Modernisation and Development
Social, Human and Gender Development
Perspectives of Development
Liberal Perspective on Development
Marxian Perspective on Development
Gandhian Perspective on Development
Critics of Development
Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment
Social and Human Development
Gender Perspective on Development
Approaches To Sustainable Development
Ecology, Environment and Development
Population and Development
Comparative Experience of Development
Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of
Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme
Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous Knowledge
WTO, GAD, GATS: Capital and, Human Flows
Information And Communication Technologies
Dimensions of Knowledge Society: Issue of Access and
Critique of Knowledge Society
Changing Roles of Media and ICTs on Employment
Development, Displacement And Social Movements
Dam and Displacement
Green Peace Movement
People's Science Movement
Civil Society Movements and Grassroots Initiatives
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