STORIA DO MOGOR OR MOGUL INDIA- 1653-1708, Four Volumes (An Old and Rare Book)

Item Code: IDG235
Author: Niccolao Manucci, Translated By William Irvine
Publisher: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation
Language: English
Edition: 1981
Pages: 2010 (B & W Illus: 51)
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.5"X5.5"
Book Description

About the Book:

A well-known traveller's account of Mughal India, Manucci the Venetian's work, which has been typically out of print for a long time ever since its appearance in 1907-9, is now offered in its full and unexpurgated form. It is a faithful and vivid picture of Mediaeval India from 1656-1680. Like Tavernier and Brucer, two equality famous travellers' works, Hedges' Diary of Mughal Provincial Administration, Gemeli Careri's visit to Aurangzeb's camp in the Deccan in 1695 and Catrou's Histoire Generale de I' Empire du Mogol (1715), founded on the memoirs printed in these pages, this voluminous four-volume work is of both subjective and objective value which can hardly be overestimated.

Written in a charming style, the book is truly a Magnum opus of the celebrated author who visited India in 1656 and was associated with the Mughal Court for over half a century.

He offers herein, besides other intimate details, an account of Hindu religion, manners, customs, and description of Muhammadan weddings and funerals.

The book is a veritable mine of otherwise inaccessible data about a period of Indian history which everyone should know. Comprehensive in its groundwork and masterly and lucid in its details, Manucci's book, as presented in its English garb by Irvine, ranks among the most authoritative sources at the disposal of the historian of the future.

A painstaking exploration of life as lived in an important period of Mughal history, the book is crowded with facts carefully and ably translated and edited with historical footnotes which help in understanding them and their relation to the administrative, political and social condition of the time.

Few MSS. Were more worth translating and few have had a better translator.

Niccolao Manucci's History of the Mughals about one-third of which was originally written in Italian and which was subsequently almost wholly re-written in Portuguese mixed with French, is organised into five parts: (i) Manucci's travel from Venice to Delhi together with a chronicle of the Mughal Emperors down to the accession of Aurangzeb, (ii) the reign of Aurangzeb with the author's personal history, (iii) the Mughal Court, its system of government and revenue with digressions on European companies the Hindu religion, Indian animals, the Catholics in India, etc., (iv) current events in the Mughal camp in the Deccan from 1701 with accounts of Jesuit and Catholic activities and (v) events in 1705 and 1706 interspersed with stories of earlier years.

Besides, Irvine's edition contains 56 portraits of contemporary Princes and other celebrities of the Mughal Empire drawn at Manucci's instance by Mir Muhammad, an artist in the employ of Shah Alam, before 1686. Another distinguishing feature of the work is Irvine's notes and appendices, incorporated in this work, which, according to Sir J. N. Sarkar, "are often of more value than Manucci's text, as they contain the most accurate information available in any European tongue, about the details of the reigns of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb and Shah Alam, with exact dates and references to authorities."

Of the distinguished European travellers in India who sparkled in the firmament of seventeenth-century India, none was more meteoric than Manucci who had been a journalist, army captain, physician, plenipotentiary, traveller, adventurer and, above all, a front-row man of letters.

It was Manucci who helped to initiate the western world into the mysteries of India and undertook the laudable task of making this country better known to Europe. His narrative therefore, forms not only the most delightful and entertaining reading, but also is absolutely unique among the documentary sources for the history of India.

About the Author:

William Irvine, (1840-1911), the sun of a Scotch advocate, was born on 5th July, 1840. He joined the Indian Civil Services in 1862 and arrived in India on 12th December, 1863. He served for 25 years in various capacities in N. W. Province, Muzaffarnagar, Ghazipur, Shahranpur, etc., and retired from I.C.S. in 1888 at the age of 48. A man of exceptional literary talent and ability, his first article on Canal Rates versus Land Revenue appeared in the 'Calcutta Review' in 1869 and his first full-length book. The Rent Digest or the Law of Procedure relating to Landlord and Tenant, Bengal Presidency, saw the light of day in the same year. He was regarded as an authority on land revenue system. As an officer he brought out his first blue-book, The Settlement Report of Ghazipur District, which was published in 1886.

As a historian his Later Mughals, originally to cover the century from the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 to the capture of Delhi by the English in 1803, appeared serially in the 'Asiatic Quarterly Review' and the 'Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.' This work which was left unfinished has since been published under the editorship of Sir Jadunath Sarkar.

But what has immortalised Irvine is his monumental work Niccolao Manucci's Travels in the Mughal Empire, the Storia do Mogor on which he worked for seven long years. His monograph The Army of the Indian Moghuls (1903) is a valuable dictionary of persian. Turki and Hindi military technical terms.

Irvine died on 3rd November, 1911.




  General Introduction to Series v
  Introduction xvii
  List of Illustrations lxxxviii
  Part I  
  Notices to the Reader 3
1 Of my departure from Venice 5
2 Of the Town of Smyrna 7
3 Of the Town of Burca 10
4 Our departure from Tocat 13
5 Our arrival at Erzerum, and our journey to Erivan 16
6 My Lord Bellomont declares Himself to be an Ambassador 18
7 Our Arrival at the Town of Tauris 19
8 Arrival in the City of Casbin and how we were sent of Twice to the Royal Palace 21
9 We quit Qazwin and Arrive at Isfahan 25
10 How we went a Third Time to Court 27
11 Of the Present that the King sent to the Ambassador, and of the Fourth Time of our being at Court 29
12 Reply of Azamat-ud-daulah to the Ambassador on the Part of the King 31
13 How the king of Persia made over to the Ambassador on the part of the king 34
14 Of the city of Isfahan and of certain Events which happened there 36
15 Of the Government of the Persian kingdom, and of some strange Events 40
16 Of our departure form Isfahan and Arrival at the port of Bandarabassi 53
17 Of our Arrival in the Port of Sindy and Departure for Surrati 58
18 Of the Town of Brampur and of our Arrival in Agra and Death of the Ambassador 65
19 Of the Town of Brampur and of our Arrival in the King's Presence and the Englishmen are made Prisoners 84
20 Of the Way I was sent for to the Court of Prince Dara 93
  Taimur-i-lang the Great 97
  Miran Shah 103
  Abu Sa'id 104
  Shekh Umar 106
  Mahmud 107
  Babar 108
  The Pathan Kings 109
1 Humayun 112-118
2 Akbar 118-153
3 Jahangir 153-172
4 Sultan Bulaqi eldest son of Jahangir 172-175
5 Shahjahan 175-365
  Additional Notes and Emendations 366-387

Part II

  Aurangzeb 1-304

Part III

  Introductory remarks 307
  Note on the Dutch embassy of 1688 359
  List of the 24 provinces with the land revenue 387
  Table showing land revenue in 1707 390
  Export of diamonds and Saltpetre 393
  Additional Notes and Emendations 443

The Hindu religion

  Preliminary remarks 1
I Hindu ideas about God 3; the Hindu cosmogony, 5; ;agastya, 5; plan of a temple5; the Hindu gods Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra6; life of Brahma 7; of vishnu9; his incarnations, 10-16; lie of Rudra16 3-21
II The Hindu paradise and hell 21; Gautama and Ahalya 22; kailasam 23; yama 24; story of Maharshi Mrikanda 25 21-27
III Hindu ideas of the Soul 27
IV The Hindu ideas of this world 28; the fourteen worlds 28 28-30
V Hindu belief about the planets 31; the four ages of the World 32 31-33
VI Hindu views about Man 33; Sudras 34; acharyas 35; 33-35
VII Manners, customs and government among the Hindus 35; salutations 36; dress 37; women's dress 38; furniture, food 39; sect marks 40; veneration for the cow 42; Brahmans as cooks 43; mode of eating 44; 35-51
VIII Marriage customs of Hindus, 51; the tails 52 51-53
IX Brahman wedding 53; the wedding contract 54; the feast 55; widow marriage prohibited 56; widow burning 57; rajah weddings 58; omens 59; bathing 60; the feast 61; sati 62; 53-63
  Sudra marriage ceremonies 65; the thief caste 65; divorce 67; low castes 67 65-68
  Funeral ceremonies 68; cremation 68 68-69
  Hindu opinions about Europeans and Mahomedans 69; farangis despised 69; reasons 70; Indian view of women 71 69-71
  Concluding words 71
  About elephants 72-80
  Deer, the dogs of Hindustani 80-85
  Governor W. Gyfford of Madras, result, note on Governors Gyfford and Yale's negotiations with the Great Mogul, origin of Madras 91-103
  Story of Shipwercked sailor in the China seas 103-107
  Story of a Portuguese and his wife, story of A. Pinto and his wife 107-117
  Events in San Thome 118-126
  Wonderful crystal at Patnah, Poruguese character changed since early days, bad treatment by Goa doctors 126-129
  Manucci's deputation from Goa to Shah Alam 129-142
  Hindustan Mahomedan birth and marriage customs 142-149
  Goa anecdote of A. de Azveda, Goa a murder, Macao, a timid bridegroom, present poverty of Protuguese 149-168
  Negapatam, story of a Portuguese 168; Kashmir, Mr. Bernier's book 169; underground ruins 169 168-169
  Fruits of India, mango, kinds of , at Goa, anecdote of a wonderful mango there, jack fruit, pineapple acid collected from leaves 170-174
  Letter from priests in China 174
  Palm trees. Story of J. da Cunha and a young lady 175-181
  Borneo, a stone there an antidote to poison , treasure at shiyali, Aurangzeb's action; could give many more details 181-189
  Magic and sorcery 189; story of a fairer under a spell 190; the diviner, at Agrah 191; slaves, character of 197; another at Madras 198; San thome a similar story 199; madras, a blind sorceress 200; quarrel of old woman and youth 201 189-201
  Sorcerers employed to trace stolen property 201 stories of Lunna 210; cochin crocodile story 212; story of Antonio Gonsalves 213; N.M and a witch 214 201-215
  Conclusion 215
  Appendix 217-233
  Part IV  
  Preface 237
  Condition of the empire in 1700 237; Mahrattahs 238; outbreak in Shah Alam's army in Kabul 239; death of prince's wife 242 237-242
  Accident to Aurangzeb 243; his love of life and rule 243; his precepts of government 244; Aurangzeb and the woman's vow 245; his placid manners 246; he objects to ostentation in mosques 247; boasts of his good government 243-249
  False witnesses plentiful in the empire, an instance, wrong decision against an Englishman, an unjust judge at agrah, mahomedan praying, use of a stone 249-256
  Intercession by Mullas for victory, Zulfiqar Khan and Ali Mardan Khan, anecdote of Kab Kalish, Sambha Ji's minister 256-260
  Hindu price admitted to Brahman caste by passing through a golden cow 261
  San Thome taken by Gulkandah, its present condition, unhealthiness of Goa , bad management of their hospital, wealth and power of Jesuits in India, their management of Goa hospital 262-269
  The French at San Thome, Bishop Gaspar of San Thome, the poll-tax; story of Rajah Birbal, virtues of elephant skin and fat, destructive sea wave at Masulipatam, San Thome and Muhammad Sa'id 270-281
  Aurangzeb compaign against Khelnah, madras, storm at December, sir Willian Norris, Norris reaches the Mogul court 282-294
  Tanjor persecution what caused them contempt for Farangis, the persecutions there, contrast between capuchins and Jesuits, inconstancy of native Christians 294-319
  Discussion of the Jesuit Contentions, marriage ceremonies among Jesuit converts, signification of sect marks, account of Vishnu 320-348
  Tranquebar, the Danes attacked by Tanjor , the English at Cuddalore, interference of Mogul governor, Governor Hattsell and Sulaiman Khan 349-375
  Jafar Khan' s lavishness, his greengrocer's bill, 396; essence of roses, Jafar khan, his wife, and the beggar 396-398
  The inquisition at Goa, father Ephraim of Nevers, Capuchin at Madras, reasons for his being denounced, notes from English records, Commencement of proceeding s, the process-Articles 1-16 and the answers thereto, discussion on articles, sentence and its execution, Father Ephraim released, he return to Madras 407-457
  A pilgrim ship taken near Surat, note on piracy troubles at Surat, mahrattahs attack Surat 463-467
  Shah Alam at Kabul, story of Prudil Khan, story of Asad and his son, they attack a village near Masulipatam, Dutch occupy Masulijpatam,mahrattahs in Hindustan, a brave rathor princess Taimur and the bundle of sticks, change in nature of Maharattah war fare 468-484

Prefatory Note1; bequest of Thomas, Dominican 1703 4; attempt to expel Capuchins from Madras and Cuddalore 6; the Dominican bequest again referred to 9; he is summoned to Pondicherry10; father Laurent recalled to Pondicherry 15; attempt to oust Father de Saa from Cuddalore 21; his excommunication, june 29 28; Madras Capuchin fail to soften the Bishop's heart 33

  Dispute over the Confraternity of the Rosary, 1704, petition to the April 28 1704, excommunication of Rosary members, absolution given them, September 24, 1704, Goa Archbishop's letter 35-51
  Returns to doings of Aurangzeb, daud khan and the Mahrattahs, N.M. Remedy, troubles a Dutch factory at Gulkandah 54-59
  Aggressive acts to new Portuguese chief captain at San Thome, September 1704 59
  Dispute between the Bishop and the French Capuchins as to the custody of Madras Churches, 67-74
  Just and unjust judges, remarks on Portuguese, the Dutch in Ceylon, cochin, Goa blockaded by the Dutch 74-83
  Story of the Sebastiani Chie. Captain of San Thome, story of a merchants's wife in Bengal, virulence of Jesuits against N.M. 84-90
  Aurangzeb and the Maharattahs, drought in the Dakhin, 25 years of war, conquests in Konkan, difficulties, and sufferings, how the king is deceivedad disobeyed, and instance of this relating to Bengal 90-98
  Poll tax on Hindus, qazi Mir: his treatise founded on the Bible, 1690, story of a man with the four sons 110-121
  Daud khan's visit to Madras, November, 1706 122
  Death of john pitt's widow, 1706 126
  Jajau, table showing Shah Alam's order of battle at June 1707 126a
  Table showing Azam Shah's order of battle, June 1707 126b
  Part V  
  Letter from Secretary to Venetian Senate 129
  Aurangzeb and Wakinkerah, rise of chin Qilich Khan, Dutch fleet attacks Mogul ships 131-134
  Tanjor Christians and the Jesuits, Bengal a Jesuits oppresses a French man' s widow, bandore: Jesuits interfere with Giorgio Gonzalves 134-141
  Kandy intelligent conduct on an elephant, an elephant resentment 142-145
  Note on B. Phoosen and the capture of the Goude Vogel Phenix 151
  The Dutch Commissary's boasting humbled 156
  Aurangzeb's letter to Prince Akbar; prince Akbar reply 160-162
  Arab plundering near Daman 1705 171
  Dispute at Madras about bequest of Friar Domingos, an Armenian Domincan 184
  Death of Jani Begam, wife of Azam Shah 1706 185
  Abu,l Hassan, qutb-Shahi, the shepherdess and his queen, Taj Mahal 186
  The French diamond merchant and the French doctor 187; the said doctor's troubles about his family 186-188
  Indians and spirit drinking 196; freaks of a tipsy chulia, Pegu remarks on 198 196-198
  Jesuits plays acted in Pondicherry, Bengal reports from about jessuits ; manila: Father Mansilha Jesuit- his odd conduct in church 198-202
  Jesuits: their spying and interfering ways 214
  Mahrattahs near Surat; execution of disloyal Mahrattah General 214-215
  Bengal Monsieur Bouynot appointed to the prize ship, the phenix 217
  Present kings of Persia 1708 222
  Fate of B. Phoosen, the released Dutch Comissary 223
  Surat, Dutch ships at March, 1706 235; mahratths Plunder Salsette near Goa, 235 234-236
  Manila, Cardinal de Tournon at 239
  Pegu ambassadors 242
  Shah Abbas II and his embassy to the Grand Turk 244
  Bengal: Father Quenin, Jesuit 245
  Daud khan and his dogs; note on Daud khan, Pani; Pegu embassy 247-250
  Persian physicians jealous of European; Antonio Legrenzi, a Venetian physician 250
  Prince Akbar's death; prince Akbar's will, anecdotes of Shah Sultan Husain 251-254
  Qandahar and Gurgin Khan, Geogian 256
  Pegu embassy {account continued} 257
  Aurangzeb unable to leave Dakhin 258; falls ill in November, 1706 259; surat Affairs 260 258-260
  Persecution of capuchins 261
  First complaint to the pondicherry Council by the Capuchin Fathers, the pondicherry mission taken from then, the bishop the San Thome and the Jesuits refuse to restore the Pondicherry mission; appeal to Rome, decree obtained, notification to Father Tachard, Jesuit Superior. Duty of superiors to punish discreetly; incident of the letter brought to Father Esprit, supposed motives of the Jesuits, concluding paragraph 262-696
  Second Capuchin complaint to the pondicherry Council early in 1707, exultation of Jesuits , Father Esprit comes to Madras to see the Bishop excommunicating Father Esprit, the Bishop's verbal answer, Father Michel Ange replies to the Pastoral, appeal to French patriotis,, demand for sanction to appeal, December 24, Bishop's letter to Father Michel Ange remonstrates, comments on the dispute, bull of clement X decet Romanum Pontificem arguments founded thereon, a second quotation from the Bull, Comments thereon, conduct of Jesuits denounced letter from the French Chancellor, hearthen practices allowed 296-396
  Note on events connected with Father Esprit after 1707 396
  Note on Father Norbert, Capuchin, and his writings 370
  Aurangzeb's last illness and death373; azam Shah crowned 375; second account of Aurngzeb's death 376; battle of jajau 378; compaign against Kam Bakhs, 380; defeat and death of KamBakhsa 381; account of pay and recruiting 383 372-383
  Additional Notes 385
  List of authorities quoted or referred to 389
  Note to Index 409
  Index 431


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