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Doctrines of Diagnostic Pathology

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About the Book This book is a basic book indented as a course supplement of students of B.A.M.S., M.D., Medical officers and practitioners of Ayurveda. This text book describes all the vital topics related to practical part both Ayurveda and Modern, related to Vikruti Vigyan and Roga Nidan, Kayachikista-I, Shareer Kriya-2 practical part. This text book covers both Clinical and Laboratory diagnosis of the diseases. It is the book written in English which include chapters like Fundament...
About the Book

This book is a basic book indented as a course supplement of students of B.A.M.S., M.D., Medical officers and practitioners of Ayurveda. This text book describes all the vital topics related to practical part both Ayurveda and Modern, related to Vikruti Vigyan and Roga Nidan, Kayachikista-I, Shareer Kriya-2 practical part.

This text book covers both Clinical and Laboratory diagnosis of the diseases. It is the book written in English which include chapters like Fundamental Principles of Laboratory Test, Basic knowledge of Laboratory Investigations pertaining to Metabolic and Endocrine disorders, Hematology, Urine and Stool examination, Microbiology, ECG, EEG, CT-Scan, X- Ray, USG-MRI Scan. Which is according to new C.C.I.M. Syllabus RS4 for Vikruti Vigyan and Roga Nidan practical part both Ayurveda and Modern parts. All these aspects covered in this book. It is a classical book on Ayurvedic diagnostics.

About the Author

Dr. Vivekananda B. Mastamardi is teaching Vikruti Vigyan and Roga Vigyan since 1992. He is a renowned Ayurvedic diagnostician. He completed his B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science) from Karnataka University, B.S.A.M. (Bachelor in System of Ayurvedic Medicine) from K.L.E's Shri B.M.K. Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahpur, Belagavi, B.A.M.S. (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery) (Integrated) from Bangalore University and B.Sc., M.L.T. from K.L.E's Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi. The Author has published many articles, presented in state level conferences. Presently author is working as professor in the Dept. of Roga Vigyan and Vikruti Vigyan in Shri Gomatesh Education Society's Dr. N.A. Magadum Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital, Ankali Tq., Chikodi, Belgaum, Karnataka.

Foreword

I am very happy to know that Dr. V.B. Mastamaradi, Dept. of Roga Nidan & Vikriti Vijnana of our college, has written a text book of 'Doctrines of Diagnostic Pathology', as per the CCIM, New Delhi Syllabus. In this Emerging world of Ayurveda, there is a drastic need of such text book which will enhance the knowledge of VG & PG students with ready references. This book highlighted the theory and practical aspects of diagnosis along with the diagnostic aids with expert depth interpretations. The Language used in this book is very easy to understand with real meaning of Ayurvedic terminologies. I wish the success of this book. I personally recommend this book to all the students of Ayurveda. Hope all well wishers of Ayurveda will appreciate this book.

I congratulate Professor Dr. VB. Mastamaradi for publishing this book.

Preface

This book "Doctrine's of Diagnostic Pathology" addresses the practical aspect of how to diagnose the disease by using diagnostic aids and laboratory procedures, content of this text was weighed towards Laboratory procedures and diagnosis of diseases to analyse perfectness in both modern and Ayurvedic diagnosis. It is a suitable book for undergraduate and post graduate training in Vikruti Vijnana and Roga Nidan. The books are never finished, but that they are abandoned. Finally it may have seemed a mission for a single author to attempt to write a comprehensive text on Vikryti Vijnana and Roga Nidan with Ayurvedic practical and Modern Practical Part.

The component of this book provides complete knowledge towards understanding of the factors which are essential for diagnosis of diseases.

It is unique in providing information related to laboratory diagnosis according to Ayurveda and Modern Medicine. The primary focus is to generate interest among Ayurveda graduates to adopt according to Ayurvedic diagnostics with comparison to Modem diagnostics in the routine practice. The material has been organized meticulously in such a way that the student can easily understand, retain and reproduce it.

A lot of development is taking place in the Clinical Laboratory methods. Information collected in this book is so comprehensive and each item is de It clearly and concisely. I am sure that it will meet the demand for update reference among the Laboratory Technologist and Students of Ayurveda. An ordinary Technician or a Doctor, who is in the remote place has no simple reference book with well accepted and simple procedures, with this in view "Doctrines of Diagnostic Pathology" has been compiled, hoping that it will prove useful to those in the field of laboratory investigations and Ayurved graduates Post graduates and practitioners.

Introduction

When a person is ill, diagnosis begins with a physical examination by a doctor. It may not be possible to diagnosis a disease only, on the basis of physical examination there are various diagnostic tests to conform a suspected diagnosis. The pathology laboratory tests are extremely useful to find out the causes of a disease. Many life threatening diseases are curable if diagnosed at early stage and it is possible on the basis of reliable pathology, laboratory test results.

Pathology

Is a branch of biological science which deals with the nature of disease through a study of its causes, its processes and it effects, with associated structural and functional alteration when a person becomes ill his symptoms are due to disturbances in the normal functions of the affected cells of his body. Pathology deals with the study of these disturbed functions how they arise, how they progress and how they affected other cell systems. Pathology also considers the factors which returns the functions of the affected cells to normalcy.

Clinical Pathology

Is the application of laboratory techniques to find out the causes of disease. Clinical laboratory testing is regarded as one of the several important sources of clinical data essential for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease. Clinical laboratory medicines involves all aspects of medicine ranging from the fields of biochemistry, microbiology, haematology, immunology, clinical microscopy, biophysics, cytogenetics to istopology etc.

The physician orders laboratory testes in order to arrive at a diagnosis when a patient approaches the laboratory with a registration form requesting pathological testes, the pathologist with the help of other laboratory staff carries out of the following duties:

1. Instructing the patient
2. Collecting the specimen
3. Preserving the specimen
4. Analyzing the specimen
5. Preparing the reports and
6. Dispatching of the typed and signed reports
The test reports are useful to the physician to:

1. Establish a diagnosis
2. Confirm a clinical interpretation
3. Monitor therapy
4. Establish prognosis
5. Screen or detect disease
The functional components of the clinical laboratory are:

1. Clinical pathology
2. Hematology
3. Clinical biochemistry
4. Clinical microbiology and Serology
5. Blood bank
6. Histology and Cytology
Clinical Pathology laboratory definition

According to clinical laboratory improvement act CCLlA, 88 USA, Pathology laboratory means a faculty for the biological, biophysical, cytological, pathological immunohematological, Serological or other examination of materials derived from the human body for the purpose of providing information for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of disease (or impairment of) or the assessment of the heath of human beings. These examinations also include procedures to determine or otherwise describe the presence of absence of various substances or organisms in the body.

Facilities only collecting or preparing specimens or both or only serving as mailing service and not performing testing are not considered laboratories.

Functions

The functions of clinical pathology laboratory is to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis on body fluids, such as blood (Serum, plasma) urine, sputum, feces, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) other body fluids, tissues and calculi.

Test reports

Test reports are useful to the physician in the diagnosis and treatment of disease use of sound analytical methods and good instrumentations help to get accurate test results.

Various types of Laboratories

Following categories of clinical Pathological laboratories are based on clinical laboratory improvement Act (CLlA) of 1988 USA.

Pathology Laboratories that perform low complexity test

These laboratories can perform waived tests based on the determination that, they are simple and have an insignificant risk of erroneous results. These tests can also be performed at home. The methods employed are simple and accurate as to make the risk of erroneous results negligible and those that pose no reasonable risk of patient harm. If performed incorrectly the waived tests are:

1. Hemoglobin determination
2. Determination of Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
3. Determination of packed cell volume (PCV)
4. Physical examination of urine
5. Chemical examination of urine
6. Dip stick urinalysis for: Glucose, bilirubin, ketones, hemoglobin, leukocytes, nitrites, PH, protein, urobilinozen and specific gravity, urine pregnancy test.

CONTENTS

  Fundamental principles of Laboratory test 3-16
1 Introduction 3
2 Code of Ethics for Lab technicians 6
3 Instruments 6
  Microscope 6
  Incubator 13
  Centrifuge Machine 13
  Balance 13
  Sterilization 14
  Basic knowledge of Laboratory investigations pertaining to Metabolic and Endocrine disorders 17-55
1 Renal profile tests 17
2 Thyroid profile 20
3 Blood sugar 23
4 Serum Electrolytes 24
5 Rheumatoid Arthritis test (RA) 27
6 Antistreptolysin O (ASO) Test 28
7 Uric Acid 28
8 Lipid profile 31
9 Cardiac profile tests 34
10 Liver Functions tests 37
11 C-Reactive Proteins 42
12 Detection of Hepatitis-B Surface Antigen (HBSAg) 43
13 Widal test 44
14 Detection of dengue fever IgM and IgG by Elisa 47
15 Immunologic Pregnancy test 47
16 VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) 50
17 HIV TRI-DOT 50
  Haematology 56-147
1 Collection of Blood 56
2 Haemoglobin Estimation 58
3 Total White Blood Cell (WBC) count 66
4 The Red Blood Cell Count 77
5 Peripheral Blood Semar (PBF) 85
  Thin blood film 85
  Thick blood film 86
6 Differential WBC (Leucocyte) count 92
7 Platelet count 104
8 Reticulocyte count 108
9 Determination of Absolute Eosinophil count 110
10 Clotting time 113
11 Bleeding time 118
12 Packed cell volume and Red cell indices 122
13 Blood grouping 128
14 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) 140
  Westergren's method 142
  ESR by Wintrobe's method 144
  Micro ESR method 146
  Urine Examination 148-191
1 Ayurveda method of Mutra pareeksha 148
2 Physical and Chemical examination of Urine 153
3 Specific gravity of Urine 157
4 Test for Glucosuria 159
5 Test for Proteinuria 162
6 Test for Bile derivatives in Urine 166
7 Test for Bilirubin (Bile pigment) in Urine 167
8 Test of Ketonuria 170
9 Test for Blood in Urine (Occult blood test) 171
10 Microscope examination of Urine 174
  Semen analysis 192-213
1 Ayurvedic method 'of Semen analysis 206
  Microbiology 214-235
1 Introduction 214
2 Bacterial culture 215
3 Morphological study of the Bacteria 218
4 Classification of pathogenic bacteria and Common disease caused 221
5 Staining reactions 223
6 Acid fast bacilli 226
7 Acid fast staining 228
8 Sputum Interpretative report format 232
  Examination of Cerebrospinal fluid 236-240
1 Introduction 236
2 Routine examination of CSF 238
  Stool Examination 241-284
1 Ayurvedic Method of Stool Examination 241
2 Routine examination of feces 245
3 Normal Haematologic values 257
4 Clinical Chemistry of blood 260
5 Other body fluids 263
6 Weights and Measurements of Normal organs 265
7 Significance of the Abnormal values 267
  CT-Scan (Computed Tomography) 285-297
1 Contrast CT 286
  Stroke 287
  Head Injury 289
  Fits and Epilepsy 289
  Headaches 290
2 CT-Chest 292
3 CT of Abdomen and Pelvis 292
4 Role of CT Scan in Liver disorders 293
  Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) 298-301
  Echo-cardiography 302
  Electro-cardiography (ECG) 303-350
1 Atrial Repolarization Wave 315
2 Atrial Abnormalities and Ventricular Hypertrophy 320
3 Bundle branch blocks 323
4 Myocardial Ischaemia and Infraction 328
5 Arrhythmias 337
  X-Ray Examination 351-380
1 X-Ray or Radiography 351
2 X-Ray of the Chest 351
3 Tuberculosis 356
4 Calcification in the Abdomen 364
5 Acute Appendicitis 367
6 Bone X-Rays 372
  Sonography 381-396
  Bibliography 397
  Figure 401-408

 











Item Code: NAN272 Author: Dr. Vivekanand B. Mastamardi Cover: Paperback Edition: 2017 Publisher: Chaukhambha Visvabharati ISBN: 9789381301142 Language: English Size: 9.5 inch X 7.5 inch Pages: 416 (Throughout B/W and Color Illustrations) Other Details: Weight of the Book: 675 gms
Price: $35.00
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