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The Philosophy of the Vallabha School of Vedanta (Rare Book)

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From the Jacket: Suddhadvaita or the system of Pure Monism of Sri Vallabhacarya claims to be the most faithful an authentic exposition of the ral teachings of the upanisads as it purifies the Non-Dual Ultimate Reality of the extraneous concept of Maya introduced by Samkara under the influence of Buddhism. In this system we have the concept of Non-Dualism or Advaita in its pristine, Upanisadic sense unblemished by Samkara's Illusionism, the concept of a Concrete, Personal and determina...

From the Jacket:

Suddhadvaita or the system of Pure Monism of Sri Vallabhacarya claims to be the most faithful an authentic exposition of the ral teachings of the upanisads as it purifies the Non-Dual Ultimate Reality of the extraneous concept of Maya introduced by Samkara under the influence of Buddhism. In this system we have the concept of Non-Dualism or Advaita in its pristine, Upanisadic sense unblemished by Samkara's Illusionism, the concept of a Concrete, Personal and determinate Ultimate Reality. In recent years many important works expounding the philosophy of Sri Vallabhacarya have been published but none of them have endeavoured a problem-wise study of this system which is essential for its proper understanding vis-à-vis the claims of other Vaisnavite schools. This book attempts to supplement this want by undertaking a problem-wise exposition of the philosophy o Sri Vallabha and his followers incorporating the views and solutions of other schools as well.

Vallabhism as philosophico-religious creed of Vaisnavism has the distinction of putting forward a novel creed and theory of Bhakti known as Pusti-bhakti which acquires a central place in the Suddhadvaita system. The author has, therefore, discussed it, at length, to distinguish it from other forms of Bhakti propagated in other schools of Vaisnavism. The author has, in this study, based himself only on Samskrta sources providing the rader with an outline of the basic philosophical and religious theories and concepts of Sri Vallabhacarya and his followers.

About The Author:

K. Narain, born and brought up at Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh, obtained degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Allahabad University in 1959. He has contributed several articles in national and international journals of Philosophy and Indology. His An Outline of Madhva Philosphy, A Critique of Madhva Refutation of the Samkara School of Vedanta, Madhva Darsan (Hindi) and The Fundamentals of Advaita Vedanta are also pioneering works.

 

Preface

The misunderstanding that 'Vedanta Philosophy' is identical with Samkara Vedanta, which persisted for long with the scholars of Indian Philosophy, both Eastern and Western, has been cleared with the strenuous and vigorous efforts of a host of critical treatises written by contemporary eminent scholars. Among the philosophical schools that trace their lineage to the Vedanta or the Philosophy of the Upanisads the Suddhadvaita or the system of Pure Monism of Vallabhacarya is claimed to be the most faithful and authentic exposition of the real teachings of the Upanisads or the Vedanta since it purified the Non-Dual Ultimate Reality of the extraneous concept of Maya introduced by Samkara under the influence of Buddhism. The problem with the critics and opponents of Samkara, especially of the Vaisnavite sects, has always been the reclamation and the resuscitation of the 'reality of the world order' and the establishment of the Personal and Concrete character of Absolute Reality or Brahman in the light of the Upanisadic dictum that Truth is One and Non-Dual. Yet wile seeking a rational justification for both Ultimate Truth, these philosophers provided varied interpretations to the concept of the advaita characterizing it with qualifications. It is to the credit of Sri Vallabha's intellectual acumen and philosophical genius that in the Suddhavaita system we have the concept of 'non-dualism' or advaita in its pristine Upanisadic sense and as the ground of the real manifestation of universe. Of all adversaries of Samkara, Vallabha seems to be most successful in dispelling the darkness of Illusionism while maintaining the Concrete, Personal and Determinate nature of the Ultimate Truth. Realising the worth and importance of Sri Vallabha's philosophical contribution to Vedanta, many eminent scholars, in modern times, have endeavoured to explain his system in their writings and have been successful in explaining his philosophy to the students and scholars of Indian Philosophy, both in East and West, Though their works are lucid expositions of the fundamental philosophical concepts of Vallabhism, they are wanting in a problem-wise study of this system, which in not only essential for the proper understanding of each philosophical problem but is also necessary for locating its place and raison d'etre in the light of the solutions offered by other philosophical schools. I have, therefore, ventured to supplement this want by undertaking a problem-wise exposition of the philosophy of Sri Vallabha and his followers. As a problem-wise philosophical study always demands a comparative outlook, views and solutions of other schools have also been incorporated for a correct and proper appreciation of the validity of the Vallabhite standpoint and their contribution.

Apart from fundamental philosophical questions and metaphysical problems. Vallabhism as a philosophico-religious creed of Vaisnavism, devoted to the propagation of Bhakti as a Supreme Means to the realization of the Summum Bonum of human existence, has the distinction of putting forward a novel creed and theory of Bhakti which, while excelling its earlier accounts in other systems, justifies that it is not only a means but an end in itself. The importance of Sri Vallabha's Pusti-bhakti in his philosophical system is so immense that his Suddhavaita School is identified with Pusti-marga. I have, therefore, endeavoured to discuss, a little at length, his theory and practice of Bhakti and its contribution and place in Vaisnavism.

Vallabhacarya's philosophy and religion has a wide-spread popularity in the Central and Western India with the result that there is a good deal of important literature in Indian languages, especially in Gujrati. I have, however restricted myself and based this book only on Sanskrta sources. Vallabhite literature even in Sanskrta is so vast that it would be hypocritical to claim either exhaustiveness or profundity of treatment. This book aims only at providing the reader with an outline of the basic philosophical and religious theories and concepts of Vallabhacarya and his followers.

I express my thanks and gratitude to Sri Ghanshyamdas Mukhiya of Indore, Sri Kaladhar Bhatta of Bombay, Prof. Kedar Nath Misra of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Miss S. B. Lalge of Madhava College. Ujjain, for their help in providing me with valuable and rare books during the course of my study. I am grateful to Late Sri A.M. Sarkar alias Sadhu Baba of Asansol for his inspiration and guidance.

With all the joy that I feel while presenting this book to my learned readers the world-over, I conclude with a somber feeling of grief and helpless-ness at the sudden demise of my wife, Smt. Shail Srivastava, whose silent and sustained contribution to all my intellectual attainments and writings could be realized only after her death, the last year. In her absence, I have but to thank her posthumously in silence.

I am thankful to M/s Indological Research Centre, Varanasi, for having agreed to publish this work.

I am thankful to M/s. Ayushi Computers, Varanasi, for their hard labour in composing the book so gracefully. My thanks are also due to M/s. Kabra Offsets, Varanasi, for their elegant printing.

 

 

CONTENTS

 

I. INTRODUCTORY 1
II. THE CRITERION AND DEGREES OF REALITY 31
  (A) The Criterion 31
  (B) Vallabhite Criterion of Reality 35
  (C) Degrees of Reality 38
III. THE NATURE OF REALITY - THE BRAHMAN 41
  (A) Brahman as Determinate and Attributive 44
  (B) Brahman as the Substratum of Contradictory Attributes 54
  (C) Brahman as Saccidananda 58
  (D) Brahman as Personal, Individual and Concrete 67
  (E) Brahman, the Cause of World-Order 72
  (F) Brahman, the Karta (Agent) 73
  (G) Brahman as an Object 81
  (H) The Power of Brahman 83
IV. THE STATUS OF BRAHMAN 89
  (A) The Purusottama 90
  (B) The Aksara-Brahman 92
  (C) The Antaryamin 97
V. THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE 103
  (A) Forms of Knowledge 103
      (a) Eternal Forms 104
      (b) Non-Eternal Forms 106
  (B) Forms of Knowledge according to Gunas 108
      (a) Sattvika Knowledge 108
      (b) Rajasika Knowledge 110
      (c) Tamasika Knowledge 111
  (C) The Criterion 112
     (a) Doubt (samsaya) 112
     (b) Error (viparyasa) 114
     (c) Right-Knowledge (prama) 114
     (d) Memory (smriti) 115
     (e) Sleep (svapa) 115
  (D) The Nature of Knowledge 116
     (a) Relation between Knowledge and its Object 121
     (b) Relation between Knowledge and Knower 126
     (c) Self-evidence of Knowledge 131
  (E) Three States of Phenomenal Consciousness 133
     (a) Walking-State 133
     (b) Dream-State 134
     (c) Deep-Sleep-State 139
  (F) Means of Knowledge (Pramana) 142
  1. Perception (Pratyaksa) 144
     (a) Nature and Characteristics of Perception 144
     (b) The Process of Perception 153
     (c) Indeterminate and Determinate Perception 154
     (d) The Doctrine of Negation (Abhava) 160
  2. Inference (Anumana) 169
     (a) Nature and Characteristic of Inference 169
     (b) Nature of Vyapti 172
     (c) Kinds of Inference 175
     (d) The Fallacies 177
  3. Testimony (Sabda) 181
     (a) Nature of Sabda-pramana 181
     (b) Vedas- the Supreme Authority 184
     (c) Linguistic Philosophy of the Vedic Word 188
     (d) The Smrtis 199
     (e) Denunciation of Upmana and Arthapati 202
  (G) The Validity of Knowledge 206
  (H) Scriptural Testimony and Reason 212
VI. CAUSALTY 231
  (A) Meaning and Nature of Causality 231
  (B) Kinds of Causes and Effects 236
     (a) Kinds of Causes 236
          (1) Samavayi-Karana 236
         (2) Nimitta-Karana 238
     (b) Types of Effects (Karya) 238
  (C) Metaphysical Status of Causality 239
  (D) The Theory of Avirbhava and Triobhava 241
  (E) The Theory of Immutable Transformation 247
  (F) Brahman, the World-Cause 250
VII. IDENTITY AND DIFFERENCE 257
VIII. THE CONCEPTION OF MAYA 265
IX THE PHILOSOPHY OF INDIVIDUAL SOUL 275
  (A) The Nature of Jivatman 275
  (B) The Amsatva of Jiva 279
  (C) The Dimension of Jivatman 285
  (D) Jiva, the Doer and Enjoyer 292
  (E) Kinds of Jivas 299
  (F) Doctrine of Avidya and Vidya 303
  (G) The Theory of Samsara 307
  (H) The Nature of the Ego 309
  (I) Refutation of the Identity of Jiva and Brahman 311
  (J) Refutation of the Reflection Theory 316
X. World and Creation 321
  (A) Metaphysical Status of Word 321
  (B) Refutation of the Unreality of World 325
  (C) Kinds of Creation 332
      (a) Purpose of Creation 333
      (b) The Process of Creation 336
      (c) Kinds of Creation 340
  (D) Brahman's Cosmic Deployment 341
      (a) Svarup-koti 341
      (b) Karana-koti 346
      (c) Karya-koti 360
  (E) Dissolution 362
      (a) Nature and Form of Dissolution 362
      (b) The Process of Dissolution 363
      (b) The Process of Dissolution 363
XI. THE SUMMUM BONUM AND THE MENAS 364
  (A) The Nature of Mukti 365
  (B) Eschatology 381
  (C) The Means of Attainment 382
      (a) The Path of Works (Karma-marga) 383
  (b) The Path of Knowledge(Jnana-marga) 390
  (c) The Path of Devotion (Bhakti-marga) 394
          1. Maryada-bhakti 397
          2. Pusti-marga 400
XII. THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF BHAKTI 406
  (A) The Nature and Meaning of Bhakti 406
  (B) The Doctrine of Pusti-bhakti 412
  (C) The Psychological Genesis of Bhakti 414
  (D) The Doctrine of Nirodha (Constraint) 417
  (E) The Theory of Sarvatmabhava 422
  (F) Bhakti as Means 432
XIII. CONCLUDING REMARKS 436
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 445
  INDEX 453

 

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Item Code: IDE343 Author: K. Narain Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2004 Publisher: Indological Research Centre, Varanasi ISBN: 8188260010 Language: English Size: 8.8" X 6.0" Pages: 476 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 720 gms
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